background

Education

Associate Professor Smith; Assistant Professor Buck; Visiting Assistant Professor Makris (chair); Senior Lecturer Dodd; Lecturers Gurney and Charles

Schools possess the potential both to create opportunity and to perpetuate the social inequalities that stratify our larger society. This paradox plays out across the most far-reaching education policy and within the routines of everyday classroom interactions. The Bates Department of Education seeks to foster the democratic possibilities of schooling through reflective engagement, research, and critical action. The aim of the department is to create an environment in which students and faculty analyze together the complex dynamics between the purposes and products of schooling and the social structures and cultural processes that characterize our nation.

Because education itself is an interdisciplinary area of study, the education department offers courses that attract students with a variety of interests. Some pursue educational studies as part of their exploration of liberal arts at Bates. Some want to teach immediately after they graduate from Bates or following graduate study. Others link their interest in social institutions, public policy, community, or families and children to a direct and deeper understanding of American schools. Many students simply want to know more about education so that they can be better prepared to fulfill their future roles as citizens and parents. To encourage the integration of theory and practice, education courses require a field placement in a local school or community setting. Students are expected to reflect systematically on the larger questions surrounding educational structures and practices raised through field experiences. More information on the education department is available on the Web site (www.bates.edu/EDUC.xml).

Cross-listed Courses. Note that unless otherwise specified, when a department/program references a course or unit in the department/program, it includes courses and units cross-listed with the department/program.

Secondary Concentrations. The Bates Department of Education offers a secondary concentration in education with two strands available—teacher education and educational studies—for students interested in connecting their academic interests in a major discipline with the field of education. In both strands, students are required to take Education 231, Perspectives on Education. This course introduces students to the field through foundational perspectives that stimulate further interest in the field; it is open to first-year students. Students interested in designing a secondary concentration in education are encouraged to come to information sessions offered twice during the academic year and to make appointments with education faculty for early planning and advisement.

Teacher education offers graduates the ability to complete certification as public school teachers (7-12) in several disciplines including English, social studies, science, mathematics, and modern languages (K-12). The program is approved by the Maine State Board of Education, and students who receive Maine certification gain opportunities to teach through reciprocity with approximately forty other states. Some students may choose to enroll in the teacher education program even if they are interested in teaching in an independent school where certification is not required, because they gain significant experience in the classroom and thus are better prepared for the challenges they will face when they enter a classroom on their own for the first time.

Educational studies offer students the opportunity to pursue a set of courses that are designed around students' emerging interests in a major and their developing goals for future work and study in educational fields. Many students interested in eventual certification at the elementary-school level gain significant background and experience in the electives offered by the department and prepare for certification through summer programs or graduate school.

Students who wish to pursue a secondary concentration in education in either teacher education or educational studies should begin planning their course schedules no later than the sophomore year. With early planning they will be able to meet all of the requirements for a major and secondary concentration and to spend some time in off-campus study as well. Those students interested in certification need to think about how to manage the demands of student teaching in their senior year with their course work and thesis.

Secondary Concentration in Education (Teacher Education Strand). Requirements for the College's recommendation for certification in Maine as secondary-school teacher include: 1) Education 231; 362; a department elective; and all of the following: 447, 448, 460, and 461, including field experience in conjunction with each of these courses; 2) a major in an appropriate teaching field, although some fields may require additional courses; 3) fulfillment of the College's General Education and other degree requirements; and 4) fulfillment of state requirements, which include passing a standardized test and fingerprinting. Note that licensing of teachers is a state function; requirements differ from state to state, and these rules change frequently. Courses and experiences other than those offered at Bates may be required. Students interested in certification should consult with a faculty member as early as possible to plan for required course work. Applications must be submitted by 30 September of the junior year.

Secondary Concentration in Education (Educational Studies Strand). Students choosing this option must complete seven courses. This secondary concentration requires that six of the seven courses be Department of Education courses. Education 231 is required for all students. Each education course requires at least thirty hours of field experience (such as tutoring or action research) in educational settings or fieldwork related to education more generally, such as research on policy. In addition, at least one field experience must be extended to the equivalent of a semester-long experience of at least seventy hours. Students may also meet this requirement in other ways, such as a faculty-approved and -supervised placement in a semester when they are not currently enrolled in an education course, a field-based thesis study, or an off-campus program with prior departmental approval and appropriate documentation. Students may apply to have an off-campus program or course count as one of the six required education courses. These requests require the prior approval of education faculty. The student has the responsibility of demonstrating that the planned program has a clear focus of study and is not just a collection of seven courses. Students are strongly advised to begin preliminary planning and application as soon as possible and no later than the beginning of the junior year at which time they will be assigned an education faculty advisor. A formal application must be submitted by 30 September of the senior year.

Pass/Fail Grading Option. Pass/fail grading may be elected for courses applied toward the secondary concentrations.

General Education. Education 231 and any other course or Short Term unit listed below may serve as a department-designated set. The department has incorporated a field experience into First-Year Seminar 300; this course meets the requirements for an elective in the education department and may count as a third social science.

Title II "Report Card." An amendment to Title II, Higher Education Act (HEA), passed by Congress in 1998, requires that states and institutions with teacher-preparation programs annually report to the public the pass rates of program completers on assessments required by the state for teacher certification and other program information. Maine requires Praxis I tests in reading, writing, and mathematics. One hundred percent of Bates program completers in 2004 who took the examination earned passing scores required for Maine certification. Seven students were enrolled in the program as seniors in 2003-2004 (a student-faculty ratio of approximately 2 to 1). The current requirement for clinical experience in the program is 450 hours. Further information about the program's annual report is available from the chair of the department.

Courses
EDUC 231. Perspectives on Education.This course introduces students to foundational perspectives (anthropological, historical, philosophical, psychological, and sociological) about education and their relationships to the realities present in contemporary schools and classrooms. Students consider several large questions: What should be the purpose of education in a democratic society? What should be the role of the school? What should be the ideal of an educated person? Should this be the same for all students or differentiated in some way for particular individuals or groups of students? Who should participate in making decisions about schools? Students must complete at least thirty hours of fieldwork. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 28. Normally offered every semester. Staff.
EDUC 240. Gender Issues in Education.This course considers education, especially classroom teaching, in relation to recent theory and research on gender. In addition to providing a feminist philosophical perspective on education, the course explores the implications of gender, race, class, and sexual orientation on ways of knowing, developing, and interacting for K-12 curriculum and classroom practice for both males and females. A thirty-hour field experience is required. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 25. Normally offered every year. A. Dodd.
ED/SO 242. Race, Cultural Pluralism, and Equality in American Education.Through historical, political, and philosophical lenses this course explores the question: What would equal educational opportunity look like in a multicultural society? The course compares divergent approaches to the education of distinct racial/ethnic groups within the United States—African Americans, Asian Americans, European Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans. In light of contextual perspectives in educational thought, the course confronts contemporary debates surrounding how the race/ethnicity of students should affect the composition, curriculum, and teaching methods of schools, colleges, and universities. Specific issues explored include bilingual education, college admissions, curriculum inclusion, desegregation, ethnic studies, and hiring practices. A thirty-hour field experience is required. Recommended background: Education 231. Not open to students who have received credit for Education 242 or Sociology 242. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 25. Normally offered every other year. S. Smith.
EDUC 245. Literacy in Preschool and Elementary Years.This course examines how literacy is defined and developed through a child's early and elementary years from a variety of perspectives: social, educational, political, and linguistic. Students connect these theories with practice by exploring various methods and materials that foster literacy development in elementary students and by doing fieldwork in local schools. Working collaboratively with classroom teachers, students design and implement literacy development strategies and projects with elementary students. A thirty-hour field experience is required. Recommended background: Education 231 and Education/Psychology 262. Enrollment limited to 25. Offered with varying frequency. H. Gurney.
EDUC 250. Critical Perspective on Pedagogy and Curriculum.This course examines and critiques shifting historical and contemporary notions of good pedagogy and curriculum. Particular emphasis is given to the ways teaching can contribute to social justice. Possible models of critical teaching include: teachers who are professional researchers, saviors, caregivers, performers, "unteachers," and third parties; and teaching that critiques and transforms, that is culturally relevant, and that engages in activism. Students spend thirty hours in a local classroom and create a curriculum unit and statement of pedagogical philosophy that draws on the different models. Recommended background: Education 231. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 25. Normally offered every year. Staff.
ED/PY 262. Action Research.Action research often begins with a general idea that some kind of improvement or change is desirable. For example, a teacher who is experiencing discipline problems in a classroom may seek an understanding of this issue with the help of trusted observers. In this course, students collaborate with local teachers or service providers on research projects that originate in their work sites. Class meetings introduce design issues, methods of data collection and analysis, and ways of reporting research. Prerequisite(s): Psychology 218 or Education 231. Not open to students who have received credit for Education 262 or Psychology 262. Enrollment limited to 15 per section. Normally offered every year. G. Nigro.
EDUC 343. Learning and Teaching: Theories and Practice.Students explore learning and teaching with an emphasis on reflective practice. This seminar begins with an historical review of several theories about learners and the learning process as a basis of critically examining contemporary learning theory and practice. Students examine the ways in which various learning theories and the standards movement affect curriculum, classroom practice, and the roles of both children and teachers. They also consider how their teaching philosophies are bound by their views about human nature and the intellectual, behavioral, and ethical growth of children. A required thirty-hour field experience is individually defined by students' content-area and age-group interests. Recommended background: Education 231, Psychology 101. Enrollment limited to 15. Instructor permission is required. Offered with varying frequency. Staff.
EDUC 350. Anti-Oppressive Education.This seminar examines the multiple forms of oppression playing out in schools and society, especially those based on class, race, gender, sexual orientation, and other social markers. Drawing on writings from critical, feminist, multicultural, queer, and postmodernist educators, this seminar explores approaches to working against oppression in schools. Students spend a substantial amount of time observing and participating in a local classroom, and conclude the semester designing and teaching their own anti-oppressive lessons. A thirty-hour field experience is required. Recommended background: Education 231. Enrollment limited to 15. Instructor permission is required. Normally offered every year. Staff.
EDUC 355. Literacy Development and Assessment: Theory and Practice.This course examines literacy development and engages students in active literacy assessment and improvement in local schools. The course explores a variety of perspectives on literacy using the lenses of social, educational, political, and linguistic theory. Students collaborate with teachers in local schools to explore and use the Guided Reading Model of reading improvement and assessment. This provides, in turn, the knowledge base for a critical examination of the program as well as an understanding of its impact upon schools, teachers, and students as individuals and as communities. A thirty-hour field experience is required. Recommended background: Education 231, or Education/Psychology 262. Enrollment limited to 12. H. Gurney.
EDUC 360. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study per semester. Normally offered every semester. Staff.
EDUC 362. Basic Concepts in Special Education.This course examines the characteristics of children who require special consideration in order to learn. It considers the ethical bases and the legal requirements for educating students with special needs. It explores ways all children can be helped to succeed in the mainstream classroom despite their different learning styles and abilities, physical impairments, and emotional/behavioral disorders. Attention is given to the influences of cultural, social, racial, and ethnic backgrounds, and gender. A thirty-hour field experience is required. This course meets the requirement of a course about teaching exceptional students in the mainstream classroom established by the State of Maine for certification. Recommended background: Education 231. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 25. Normally offered every year. A. Dodd.
EDUC 365. Special Topics.A course or seminar offered from time to time and reserved for a special topic selected by the department. Staff.
AN/ED 378. Ethnographic Approaches to Education.Ethnography focuses on the daily lives and meaning-making processes of people who associate regularly in local networks, institutions, or communities. Ethnographers observe, interview, and participate in the routine activities of the people they study. They also explore the connections between locally situated activity and broader realms of symbolic meaning and social organization. This course introduces students to interpretive methods with which to examine the webs of meaning that give shape to educational spaces. Through active engagement in empirical research in educational settings across the Lewiston-Auburn community, students grapple with theoretical assumptions, procedures, and standards of quality in ethnographic research. A thirty-hour field experience is required. Enrollment limited to 15. P. Buck.
ED/SO 380. Education, Reform, and Politics.The United States has experienced more than three centuries of growth and change in the organization of public and private education. The goals of this course are to examine 1) contemporary reform issues and political processes in relation to the constituencies of school, research, legal, and policy-making communities and 2) how educational policy is formulated, implemented, and evaluated. The study of these areas emphasizes public K-12 education but includes postsecondary education. Examples of specific educational policy arenas include governance, school choice (e.g., charter schools, magnet schools, and vouchers), school funding, standards and accountability, and parental and community involvement. A research-based field component of at least thirty hours is required. Recommended background: one or more courses in education and sociology. Not open to students who have received credit for Education 380 or Sociology 380. Enrollment limited to 15. Instructor permission is required. Normally offered every year. S. Smith.
EDUC 447. Curriculum and Methods.This course continues study of the concepts needed to understand curriculum design and program evaluation, and helps students develop the skills needed to design and teach curriculum units in their subject area. The course is part workshop: students plan, develop, teach, and evaluate their own curriculum units. At the same time, students read about and reflect on classic questions in curriculum and instruction, such as: To what extent are teachers responsible for developing their own curriculum? Should curriculum and instruction focus on transmitting established knowledge, developing individuals' talents, or preparing successful members of society? Can teachers assess students' knowledge in ways that allow them to learn from the assessments? What particular teaching methods are appropriate for the different disciplines? Students develop a repertoire of methods to use in student teaching and in future teaching. Prerequisite(s): Education 231 and 460. Corequisite(s): Education 448 and 461. Normally offered every year. P. Buck, A. Dodd.
EDUC 448. Senior Seminar: Reflection and Engagement.The seminar helps students reflect on and engage with their experiences as teachers. Students are encouraged to develop their own philosophies of education and to use these philosophies in planning and teaching their classes. The seminar also addresses three areas of practice—technology, environmental education, and interdisciplinary approaches—and helps students incorporate these into their teaching. Prerequisite(s): Education 231, 362, and 460. Corequisite(s): Education 447 and 461. Instructor permission is required. Normally offered every year. A. Dodd, P. Buck.
EDUC 460. Student Teaching I.This is an intensive field experience in secondary education. Students begin by observing a host teacher in their academic field, spending one or two class periods each day in the high school. Soon they begin teaching at least one class per day. In regular, informal meetings, they are guided and supported by their host teachers, a supervisor from the Bates Department of Education, and other members of a supervisory support team. Students also meet weekly at Bates to address conceptual matters and to discuss problems and successes in the classroom. These weekly seminars include workshops in content area methods and extensive informal reflective writing. Students begin to move toward proficiency in four areas of practice: curriculum, instruction, and evaluation; classroom management, interactions, and relationships; diversity; time management and organizational skills. Prerequisite(s): Education 231 and 362. Instructor permission is required. Normally offered every year. A. Dodd, P. Buck.
EDUC 461. Student Teaching II.This course continues and deepens the experiences and reflection begun in Education 460. Students spend four or five class periods each day in a local high school observing, teaching, and becoming fully involved in the life of the school. Students continue to meet regularly with their host teacher, Bates supervisor, and others on their supervisory support team. Although there are no weekly meetings for this course, students spend extensive time planning their classes and reflecting in writing on their experiences. Prerequisite(s): Education 231, 362, and 460. Corequisite(s): Education 447 and 448. Normally offered every year. A. Dodd, P. Buck.
Short Term Courses
EDUC s23. Educating for Democracy.Voter turnout and civic participation in the United States are at an all-time low. Youth, in particular, express a sense of alienation from government and formal political processes. What does this say about education for democracy? If education is vital to the success of democratic governance, what might be done in schools and other educational institutions to better engage young people in public life? This unit explores the relationship between education and democracy and various approaches to civic and citizenship education. Students participate in a service-learning field experience (at least thirty hours) in order to investigate and inform education for democracy in local communities. Recommended background: Education 231. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. Offered with varying frequency. S. Smith.
EDUC s27. Literacy in the Community.The field of "new literacy studies" calls into question the traditional emphasis upon discrete reading and writing skills. In an expanded definition scholars place literacy within anthropological and cross-cultural frameworks that attend to the embeddedness of reading and writing practices within families, communities, and cultures. This unit introduces students to the literature of new literacy studies and educational anthropology in conjunction with a thirty-hour service-learning placement in the Lewiston area. Students are asked to investigate the impact culturally informed knowledge and experience have upon the literacy practices of those community members with whom they work closely. Enrollment limited to 30. P. Buck.
EDUC s50. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study during a Short Term. Normally offered every year. Staff.