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Romance Languages and Literatures

Professors Williamson and Rice-DeFosse; Associate Professors Fra-Molinero, Read (chair), López, and Aburto Guzmán; Assistant Professor Fahey; Lecturers George and Balladur



The Department of Romance Languages and Literatures offers courses in French and Spanish.

Courses in French and Spanish help students to learn basic communication skills, to understand another culture through its language, and to go beyond the study of language to achieve a deeper understanding of diverse peoples by way of their literature. All courses are taught in French or Spanish except in rare cases where courses cross-listed with other departments or programs are taught in English. Texts are read closely from a contemporary critical perspective with attention to their cultural context. Some courses cross-listed with other programs or departments may be taught in English. More information on the Romance languages and literatures department is available on the Web site (www.bates.edu/RLL.xml).

Secondary Concentrations. In addition to a major in French or Spanish, a secondary concentration can be pursued in these areas of study. Application for a secondary concentration must be made prior to Short Term of the senior year, after consultation with a permanent member of faculty in the language area of concentration (French or Spanish). A secondary concentration requires a minimum of seven courses in the given language (or six courses and a designated Short Term unit). All courses taken at Bates must be from the curriculum of the department. At least one of the seven courses must have as its focus literature or culture as opposed to language (taught either in the language or in translation), but only one course in translation may be counted toward the concentration. Students who have studied off-campus where the language of concentration was the language of instruction may include two of these courses in their concentration; a third course may possibly be accepted after consultation with the chair. Advanced Placement courses may not be applied toward the secondary concentration.

Study Abroad. All students, and especially majors, are strongly encouraged to spend an extended period of time in a Spanish- or French-speaking country prior to graduation. Opportunities to do so include participation in a Bates Fall Semester Abroad Program, in junior year or junior semester abroad programs, and in the various off-campus Short Term units sponsored by the department. The department supports programs of study it has approved for a junior year or semester abroad as significant means of increasing one's comprehension of the culture and as the most effective method of developing advanced proficiency in the language.

Placement in French and Spanish Courses. Students entering courses in the department are advised of the following general policies and procedures. The beginning (101-102) sequence is reserved for true beginners in the language. Those with more than two years of secondary-school study are not admitted at this level and are encouraged to enter at the 200 level, or, in some cases, 102 in the spring semester; students who have followed a conventional sequence of language study in high school (generally three to four years, sometimes more, sometimes involving Advanced Placement courses) are advised to enroll at the early to mid-200 level: 201 for general review or other intermediate courses that concentrate variously on introductions to culture, spoken language, and/or literature. The department allows for self-placement in 201 and 205 (French) and 201 and 207 (Spanish); students are advised to be in touch directly with the instructor for permission or prerequisite waiver for entry into more advanced courses.

General Education. Any one Short Term unit from the Department of Romance Languages and Literatures and FYS 318 may serve as an option for the fifth humanities course. Advanced Placement, International Baccalaureate, or A-Level credit awarded by the department/program may not be used towards fulfillment of any general education requirements.

French and Francophone Studies

The major in French aims at flexibility within a structure that affords a diversity of experience in Francophone culture and literature and continuous training in the use of the language. It provides effective preparation for graduate work, but is not conceived as strictly pre-professional. The usefulness of French is highlighted by the College's proximity to Québec and by the significant number of Franco-Americans who live and work in Northern New England. In addition to the ten centuries of a rich and varied literature in France, the writers of such Francophone areas as North Africa, black West Africa, the Caribbean, and Québec have impressed the literary world with their dynamism and insights.

Cross-listed Courses. Note that unless otherwise specified, when a department/program references a course or unit in the department/program, it includes courses and units cross-listed with the department/program.

Major Requirements. Students may select a major in French language and culture or a major in Francophone cultural studies.

I. French Language and Culture. A major in French language and culture consists of a minimum of ten courses that should include: a) French 250 or 251; b) three courses from French 205, 235, 270, 271, or 305; c) three courses from French 351, 352, 353, 354, 355, and 365; d) French 240 and 261.

A student may request the department to substitute a Short Term unit for one of the courses above.

Fluent and correct use of the language is essential to the completion of the major. All senior majors in French language and culture are required to complete a two-part capstone experience that serves to synthesize and reflect upon their work in the major as described below:

1) All majors in French language and culture must assemble a portfolio of their work in the major and discuss it in French before the faculty at the end of the second semester of their senior year. This exercise is known as the "soutenance du portfolio." The portfolio contains a personal statement on the student's experience in French and other components such as papers from courses taken at Bates or abroad, a journal of a study-abroad program or travel experience, audio and or video recordings to show progress in oral proficiency, Web sites that may have been created for courses or other Francophone endeavors, or other personal reflections.

2) All majors in French language and culture must complete a senior thesis or a senior essay. Majors not writing a senior thesis must complete a senior essay designed to reflect the student's critical aptitude in the discipline. The topics for this essay must be approved by the end of the first semester of the senior year by the advisor and department chair. Parts of this essay may be included in the portfolio. If a student elects to write a thesis in the major, an excerpt may be used in place of the senior essay.

Honors candidates register for French 457-458.

II. Francophone Cultural Studies. In addition to seeking to enhance the proficiency level in French language, this major serves to develop deeper understanding of one or more of the significant French-speaking areas of the world outside of France: a) French-speaking Europe (Belgium, Switzerland, Luxembourg); b) sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean; c) North America, particularly Québec and Northern New England; d) North Africa, the Maghreb. This major encourages interdisciplinarity and examines cultural diversity and identity in these Francophone areas.

A major in Francophone cultural studies consists of a minimum of ten courses, which should include: a) French 203; b) French 250 or 251; c) two courses from French 205, 235, 270, 271, or 305; d) French 240 or 261; e) one course from French 352, 353, 354, or 355; f) three courses in related subjects from such departments and programs as African American studies, anthropology, art and visual culture, economics, history, music, philosophy and religion, political science, theater and rhetoric, and women and gender studies. These courses should be selected in close consultation with the major advisor and must receive approval from the department chair; and g) senior thesis, French 457 or 458.

A student may request the department to substitute a Short Term unit for one of the courses above.

Honors candidates register for French 457-458.

Study Abroad. Students majoring in French language and culture or Francophone cultural studies are strongly encouraged to study abroad in a country appropriate for their area of interest. A maximum of three credits is normally recognized for one semester of study and five credits for two semesters of study in a recognized program. Students need to obtain approval from a French faculty member in order for their courses to count toward the major or secondary concentration; otherwise, credit is not guaranteed.

Pass/Fail Grading Option. There are no restrictions on the use of the pass/fail option within the major or secondary concentration.

Courses
FRE 101. Elementary French I.In the first semester, emphasis is placed on oral proficiency with conversational practice in various aspects of contemporary French culture, and on the acquisition of vocabulary, basic grammar, and reading and writing skills. In the second semester, students concentrate on further development of these skills with short readings and films. French 101 is not open to students with two or more years of French in secondary school. Enrollment limited to 22 per section. Normally offered every year. L. Balladur, M. Rice-DeFosse.
FRE 101-102. Elementary French I and II.In the first semester, emphasis is placed on oral proficiency with conversational practice in various aspects of contemporary French culture, and on the acquisition of vocabulary, basic grammar, and reading and writing skills. In the second semester, students concentrate on further development of these skills with short readings and films. French 101 is not open to students with two or more years of French in secondary school. Enrollment limited to 22 per section. Normally offered every year. L. Balladur, M. Rice-DeFosse.
FRE 102. Elementary French II.In the first semester, emphasis is placed on oral proficiency with conversational practice in various aspects of contemporary French culture. Acquisition of vocabulary, basic grammar, and reading and writing skills. In the second semester, concentration on further development of these skills with short readings and films. French 101 is not open to students with two or more years of French in secondary school. Enrollment limited to 22. Normally offered every year. M. Rice-DeFosse, L. Balladur.
FRE 201. Intermediate French I.The course focuses on proficiency in speaking, with intensive review of grammar. Students read and analyze selected texts. Class discussions in French explore both literary and cultural topics. Prerequisite(s): French 102. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 22 per section. Normally offered every semester. M. Rice-DeFosse.
FRE 202. Intermediate French II: Language and Culture of Modern France.This course aims to develop facility in speaking, reading, and writing French as well as familiarity with current French thought and cultural institutions. Class discussions, conducted entirely in French, are based on such cultural material as magazine and newspaper articles, published interviews, videos, and appropriate works of current literature. Students prepare oral and written reports. Prerequisite(s): French 201. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. Normally offered every year. L. Balladur, M. Rice-DeFosse.
FRE 203. Introduction au Monde Francophone.This course aims to develop familiarity with the Francophone world as well as greater facility in speaking, reading, and writing French. The course presents the diversity of Francophone voices, such as those of Mariama Bâ (Sénégal), Bernard Dadié (Côte d'Ivoire), Aimé Césaire (Martinique), René Depestre (Haïti), Assia Djebar (Algérie), Roch Carrier (Québec), and Antonine Maillet (Acadie). Class discussions, conducted entirely in French, are based on a variety of cultural materials including newspaper and magazine articles, interviews, videos, and appropriate works of literature. Prerequisite(s): French 201. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. Normally offered every year. R. Williamson.
FRE 205. Oral French.Designed to develop oral fluency and aural acuity, the course introduces French phonetics, diction, intonation, and elocution. Students discuss topics of contemporary interest. In individual conferences, attention is given to the particular difficulties of the student. Not open to those who have taken French s31. Prerequisite(s): French 201. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 15. Normally offered every semester. K. Read.
FRE 235. Advanced French Language.The course is designed to develop facility in conversing in idiomatic French with ease and fluency. Students review linguistic structures with attention to correct written expression. Prerequisite(s): French 205. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 15. Normally offered every semester. K. Read, L. Balladur.
FRE 238. Paris: Myths and Stereotypes.In this course, students confront the reality behind representations and myths of Paris generated in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Students explore and analyze the perpetuation of both positive and negative stereotypes of France and the French that have accompanied these representations through literature, painting, music, cinema, architecture, fashion, cuisine, and poster art. Political, economic, cultural, and social transformations of the city and its inhabitants are studied in an effort to understand the role this capital city has played. Authors may include Zola, Balzac, Baudelaire, Rochefort, Ernaux, and Charef. Prerequisite(s): French 202 or 203. Open to first-year students. Offered with varying frequency. Staff.
FRE 240. Introduction to French Studies.In these courses, students examine literature in its social, political, and historical context with emphasis on the cultural interrelationship of text and society through short critical papers and class discussion in French. Open to first-year students.
FRE 240B. "Mon pays, c'est l'hiver": Québec Culture and Literature.A study of the unique North American society of Québec with focus on its continual search for identity and independence. Some attention is given to the emigration of French Canadians to Maine and to their influence. Reading and analysis of texts by such authors as Hémond, Godbout, Blais, Roy, Miron, Tremblay, and Lessard. Prerequisite(s): French 202 or 203. Open to first-year students. Offered with varying frequency. R. Williamson.
FRE 240E. Le Maghreb: Vue de l'Enfance.An appreciation and analysis of the amply recorded experience of childhood in North Africa. Students examine the rich body of memoirs, historical accounts, novels, films, and short stories that reveal the often tumultuous conditions of children caught in the calamity of colonization and its aftermath. Particular attention is paid to issues of gender, Orientalism, and religious and cultural diversity within the Maghreb. Authors include Sebbar, Ben Jelloun, Mernissi, Amrouche and filmmakers Ferroukhi and Boughedir. Recommended background: French 202 or 203. Open to first-year students. Offered with varying frequency. K. Read.
FRE 240F. Borders and Disorders.A study of the various experiences of immigration that the Francophone world has made possible and, in certain cases, forced upon people for political and economic reasons. In an era of increasing globalization, students examine how more and more migrants must negotiate their sense of self through multiple heritages and places, and how Francophone novels and films imagine new forms of belonging that embrace the complex and fluid status of the migrant experience. The central question of the course is, how does one define "home" within one's host country without denying one's past and cultural origins? The course envisions the Francophone world as a theater of multiple encounters that lead to the creation of new hybrid identities that transform both the immigrant and the host country. Authors and filmmakers include Allouache, Benguigui, Bouchareb, Bouraoui, Condé, Kane, Mabanckou, Ngangura, Dardenne, Gomis, Sebbar, and Sembène. Prerequisite(s): French 201. Recommended background: French 202 or 203. New course beginning Fall 2005. Normally offered every other year. A. Dauge-Róth.
FRE 250. Introduction to French Literature I.An introduction to major French authors and forms of French literature through close readings, short papers, and discussion of texts selected from various periods of French literature. The purpose is to introduce the student to a critical approach to French literature. Although this is not a survey course, the first semester does concentrate on texts written before the French Revolution, and the second semester, on texts written after 1800. Some attention is paid to the socioeconomic context of the works studied and to questions of gender. Prerequisite(s): French 202 or 203. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every year. L. Balladur.
FRE 250, 251. Introduction to French Literature I and II.An introduction to major French authors and forms of French literature through close readings, short papers, and discussion of texts selected from various periods of French literature. The purpose is to introduce the student to a critical approach to French literature. Although this is not a survey course, the first semester does concentrate on texts written before the French Revolution, and the second semester, on texts written after 1800. Some attention is paid to the socioeconomic context of the works studied and to questions of gender. Prerequisite(s): French 202 or 203. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every year. L. Balladur.
FRE 251. Introduction to French Literature II.An introduction to major French authors and forms of French literature through close readings, short papers, and discussion of texts selected from various periods of French literature. The purpose is to introduce the student to a critical approach to French literature. Although this is not a survey course, the first semester does concentrate on texts written before the French Revolution, and the second semester on texts written after 1800. Some attention is paid to the socioeconomic context of the works studied and to questions of gender. Prerequisite(s): French 202 or 203. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every year. R. Williamson.
FRE 261. French Civilization: The Changing Face of French Identity.This course traces the ways in which events have shaped French society and identity. Through various media (literature, art, film, television, popular culture, and the Internet), students explore the enduring importance of historical moments such as the conquest of Gaul, the Renaissance, the Edict of Nantes, the slave trade, the Revolution, the Dreyfus affair, and the two world wars. Students consider the effects of immigration, European unity, relations within the postcolonial Francophone world, and new constructions of the self. Prerequisite(s): French 202 or 203. Open to first-year students. Offered with varying frequency. Staff.
FRE 270. Advanced French Grammar and Composition.An intensive review of French grammar with emphasis on developing facility in writing idiomatic French, through weekly compositions, written exercises, oral drills, and grammatical analysis of literary texts. Prerequisite(s): French 202 and 203. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every other year. R. Williamson.
FRE 271. Translation: Theory and Practice.A study of the problems of translation. Passages from newspapers and journals and from literary, technical, and scientific works are translated and analyzed. Prerequisite(s): French 202 or 203. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every other year. M. Rice-DeFosse.
FRE 305. Cours Supérieur de Langue Française.An advanced course on the subtleties of oral French with particular attention to vocabulary acquisition and accent. Discussions of recent events in France and in Francophonic areas are based on selected newspaper or journal articles. Recommended for senior majors and others who have studied in a French-speaking country. Prerequisite(s): French 235. Enrollment limited to 15. Offered with varying frequency. R. Williamson.
FRE 351. Early French Literature.Literary identity in early French literature. Students read and discuss aspects of literary identity in medieval and Renaissance literature, devoting particular attention to considerations of religion, gender, family and domestic concerns, and nationality. Prerequisite(s): French 250 or 251. Normally offered every other year. K. Read.
FRE 352. French Literature of the Seventeenth Century: "Woman Writer/Women Written".Reading and discussion of women writers of the seventeenth century with a focus on their important role in the formation of the novel. Attention is given to women as heroines or titular characters in the works of male authors of the period. Prerequisite(s): French 250 or 251. Normally offered every other year. K. Read.
FRE 353. French Literature of the Eighteenth Century.A study of major works by authors such as Marivaux, Diderot, Rousseau, Condorcet, Sade, Beaumarchais, and Montesquieu. This course is similar to History 223, which may be taken in its place upon approval of the department chair. Prerequisite(s): French 250 or 251. Not open to students who have received credit for History 223. Offered with varying frequency. M. Rice-DeFosse.
FRE 354. French Literature of the Nineteenth Century.This course explores a century of enormous political, socioeconomic, and cultural change through its literature. Students consider such authors as Balzac, Sand, Flaubert, Nerval, Baudelaire, Rimbaud, Zola, Rachilde, and Huysmans. Prerequisite(s): French 250 or 251. Normally offered every other year. M. Rice-DeFosse.
FRE 355. French Literature of the Twentieth Century.From Proust's "new novel" at the beginning of the century to Duras's haunting fictions, from Apollinaire's lyrical ideograms to Bonnefoy's poetry of place, from Ubu roi of Jarry to Les Nègres of Genet, from Le deuxième sexe of Simone de Beauvoir to Irigaray's Ce sexe qui n'en est pas un, the twentieth century in French literature has been marked by a spirit of adventure. This course attempts to capture that spirit and to understand it in its social and political context. Serious attention is given to questions of gender. Prerequisite(s): French 250 or 251. Normally offered every other year. R. Williamson.
FRE 360. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study per semester. Normally offered every semester. Staff.
FRE 365. Special Topics.These courses are designed for the small seminar group of students who may have particular interests in areas of study that go beyond the regular course offerings. Periodic conferences and papers are required.
FRE 365A. Femmes, Écrivaines.This course explores gender and voice in selected literary, political, and theoretical texts by French women from 1789 to the present. Through a study of writers such as Gouges, Sand, Tristan, Colette, Beauvoir, Duras, Condé, Cixous, and Irigaray, students explore the contributions of French women writers to women's writing, feminist theory, and questions of gender in social context. Open to first-year students. Offered with varying frequency. M. Rice-DeFosse.
FRE 365D. Colon/Colonisé: Récits de l'Expérience Nord-Africaine.This course studies the colonial, postcolonial, and immigrant experience of North Africans as portrayed in Francophone literature. Readings include narratives and journals from the beginning of the colonial period in Algeria (1830), as well as the contemporary novels and discourse of feminists such as Assia Djebar, Malika Mokkadem, and Leila Sebbar. Gender is often highlighted as a category of analysis. Instructor permission is required. Offered with varying frequency. K. Read.
FRE 365E. Rêve ou l'intérieur de l'être?This course explores works ranging from medieval texts to contemporary cinema in which dreams play an important role in the narrative and the articulation of a subject's identity. How are these various historically contingent identities transformed by the dream? Authors include Chrétien de Troyes, Louise Labé, Ronsard, Racine, Diderot, Rousseau, Nerval, Baudelaire, and Vigo. Prerequisite(s): French 250 and 251. Enrollment limited to 15. L. Balladur.
FRE 365F. Close-up on the Enlightenment: Film, Text, Context.This course explores twentieth-century film perceptions of France from the Enlightenment through the Revolution, either through adaptations of literary texts or representations of the ancient régime's historical, social, and political atmosphere. Readings of literary texts as well as contemporary criticism reveal the ways Enlightenment ideology is reshaped by twentieth-century film. Recommended background: French 250, S36a. Prerequisite(s): French 201. New Course beginning Winter 2006 Enrollment limited to 15. L. Balladur.
FRE 457. Senior Thesis.Open only to senior majors, with departmental permission. Before registering for 457 or 458 a student must present to the department chair an acceptable plan, including an outline and a tentative bibliography, after discussion with a member of the department. Students register for French 457 in the fall semester and for French 458 in the winter semester. Senior majors register for 457 or 458 only, unless the department gives permission for a second semester's credit because the nature of the project warrants it. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both French 457 and 458. Normally offered every year. Staff.
FRE 457, 458. Senior Thesis.Open only to senior majors, with departmental permission. Before registering for 457 or 458 a student must present to the department chair an acceptable plan, including an outline and a tentative bibliography, after discussion with a member of the department. Students register for French 457 in the fall semester and for French 458 in the winter semester. Senior majors register for 457 or 458 only, unless the department gives permission for a second semester's credit because the nature of the project warrants it. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both French 457 and 458. Normally offered every year. Staff.
FRE 458. Senior Thesis.Open only to senior majors, with departmental permission. Before registering for 457 a student must present to the department chair an acceptable plan, including an outline and a tentative bibliography, after discussion with a member of the department. Students register for French 458 in the winter semester. Senior majors register for 457 or 458 only, unless the department gives permission for a second semester's credit because the nature of the project warrants it. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both French 457 and 458. Normally offered every year. Staff.
Short Term Courses
FR/SP s32. Morocco: Sites of Cultural Encounters.The cultural history of Morocco has been deeply affected by its relationship with Spain and France. Although Arabs crossed the Straits of Gibraltar in 711, the Almoravides from the land now known as Morocco conquered much of western Spain in the eleventh century. Chased from Spain during the Reconquista, many of their descendants returned to Morocco to live. In the nineteenth century, the French invaded Morocco and set up a thriving colony that led to a French protectorate from 1912 to 1956. Through the reading of significant novels and memoirs by such Moroccan writers as Ben Jalloun, Majid, Chraibi, Oussaid, and Mernissi, and through direct observation of postcolonial society in Morocco, students in this unit attempt to analyze these cultural encounters and their legacy. Prerequisite(s): French 201, Spanish 201, or any French or Spanish course beyond the intermediate level. Conducted in English. New course beginning Short Term 2005. Enrollment limited to 20. Instructor permission is required. F. López, R. Williamson.
FRE s34. French Drama in Performance.A study and performance of scenes from French dramatic works from a variety of literary styles, movements, and eras. Students read, discuss, and perform dramatic works (or portions thereof) throughout the unit and then conceive and create a coherent production of portions of these plays to be presented in public to area high schools and colleges. Readings may include the works of Molière, Racine, Beaumarchais, De Musset, Ionesco, and Duras, which, though drawn from a wide range of time periods and approaches, are assimilated and reconciled under a common theme to be determined by the class. Prerequisite(s): French 201. Recommended background: adequate oral fluency in French, good reading comprehension. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 25. Offered with varying frequency. K. Read.
FRE s35. French in Maine.A bilingual study of what it means to speak French and to be French in Maine. The unit explores the Franco-American heritage as well as contemporary expressions of Franco-American culture. It focuses on questions of language and identity through oral and written histories, interviews, newspaper articles, documentaries, literature, and music. Students visit local cultural sites and participate in an excursion to the St. John Valley and Québec. Prerequisite(s): French 201. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 20. Offered with varying frequency. M. Rice-DeFosse.
FRE s36. The Evolution of French Cinema.A study of the development of theme, structure, and technique in French film through the works of directors such as Vigo, Clair, Renoir, Resnais, Godard, Truffaut, Kurys, and Beneix. Prerequisite(s): French 201. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 25. Instructor permission is required. Offered with varying frequency. M. Rice-DeFosse.
FRE s50. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study during a Short Term. Normally offered every year. Staff.
Spanish

Spanish is the most widely spoken language in the Americas, without even including ten percent of the United States population. It is also spoken in Spain, Equatorial Guinea, Israel, and the Philippines. The established cultural, political, and economic ties among all nations of the American continents underscore the importance of this discipline. The major in Spanish develops not only students' language skills, it exercises critical thinking around subjects related to the culture, literatures, art, and history of the Spanish-speaking peoples of all continents. Reading, discussing, and writing in Spanish are the principal activities of the major. Spanish majors are strongly encouraged to spend a year or a semester living and studying in a Spanish-speaking country. Students interested in graduate studies in Spanish or Latin American studies, or in business, medicine, law, or international relations, are encouraged to develop advanced proficiency in Spanish.

Cross-listed Courses. Note that unless otherwise specified, when a department/program references a course or unit in the department/program, it includes courses and units cross-listed with the department/program.

Major Requirements. Spanish majors acquire a broad knowledge of the different literatures and cultural histories of the Spanish-speaking peoples. In consultation with the faculty in Spanish, the student elects courses in a variety of areas. The requirements for the major consist of ten courses beyond the intermediate level, which must include:

1) At least two of the following: Spanish 211, 215, and 216.

2) One course to be taken outside of the Spanish program previously approved by the faculty in Spanish. This course may be chosen from a number of options from literary theory to history or politics of Latin America (e.g., Anthropology 234, English 295, History 181, Political Science 249, or a research methods course in areas such as women and gender studies, African American studies, or American cultural studies).

3) At least two seminars on the literatures or cultural histories of Spain or Latin America (300-level) taught by Bates faculty—usually taken during senior year.

In addition, majors must complete a senior thesis (Spanish 457 or 458) written in Spanish. This may be a literary or cultural analysis of any topic related to the Hispanic world or a translation accompanied by a theoretical introduction. An analytical component must always be included, even in the case of projects with a strong creative emphasis. Honors candidates register for Spanish 457 and 458.

Study Abroad. Spanish majors are encouraged to gain proficiency in the language through the experience of studying in a Spanish-speaking country. A maximum of three credits is normally recognized for one semester and five for two semesters of study in a recognized program. Students need to obtain approval from a Spanish faculty member in order for their courses to count toward the major or secondary concentration; otherwise, credit is not guaranteed.

Pass/Fail Grading Option. The use of the pass/fail option is restricted to one course within the major. There are no restrictions on the use of the pass/fail option within the secondary concentration in Spanish.

Courses
SPAN 101. Elementary Spanish I.Emphasis is placed on oral proficiency with pronunciation exercises and conversational practice and the development of reading and writing skills. The course includes drill in the essential constructions and basic vocabulary of Spanish, complemented by short films, and cultural presentations. Spanish 101 is not open to students with two or more years of Spanish in secondary school. Enrollment limited to 22 per section. Normally offered every year. D. George, B. Fra-Molinero.
SPAN 101-102. Elementary Spanish I and II.Emphasis is placed on oral proficiency with pronunciation exercises and conversational practice and the development of reading and writing skills. The course includes drill in the essential constructions and basic vocabulary of Spanish, complemented by short films, and cultural presentations. Spanish 101 is not open to students with two or more years of Spanish in secondary school. Enrollment limited to 22 per section. Normally offered every year. D. George, B. Fra-Molinero.
SPAN 102. Elementary Spanish II.Emphasis is placed on oral proficiency with pronunciation exercises and conversational practice. Development of reading and writing skills. Drill in the essential constructions and basic vocabulary of Spanish, complemented by short films and cultural presentations. Spanish 102 is not open to students with two or more years of Spanish in secondary school. Enrollment limited to 22 per section. Normally offered every year. B. Fra-Molinero.
SPAN 201. Intermediate Spanish I.Designed to increase students' vocabulary and to improve mastery of language skills: speaking, listening, reading, and writing. The course provides a thorough review of grammar as well as an emphasis on conversational proficiency, expository writing, and Hispanic culture. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 102. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 22 per section. Normally offered every year. D. George, C. Aburto Guzmán.
SPAN 202. Intermediate Spanish II.Intensive practice in reading, composition, and conversation, as well as attention to selected grammar problems. The course focuses on discussion through visual presentations and selections of Hispanic literature, art, and culture. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 201. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 22 per section. Normally offered every year. F. Fahey, C. Aburto Guzmán.
SPAN 207. Advanced Spanish: Culture and Language.This course develops oral fluency and aural acuity as well as reading and writing skills by means of directed and spontaneous classroom activities and regular written assignments. Conversations and compositions are based primarily on readings and films. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 202. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 20 per section. Normally offered every year. F. López.
SPAN 208. Advanced Spanish: Texts and Contexts.This course is a continuation of Spanish 207 with particular emphasis upon analyzing a variety of texts and developing more sophistication in writing. Conversations and compositions are based on both literary and cultural readings. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 202. Recommended background: Spanish 207. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 20 per section. Normally offered every year. D. George.
SPAN 211. Introducción a los estudios literarios.This course acquaints students of Spanish and Latin American literatures with fundamental concepts in literary genres, historical periods, and rhetorical figures, both traditional and contemporary. The course also maps a basic view of recent critical approaches to the study of literature, film, and television in the Spanish-speaking world. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 207 or 208. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every year. B. Fra-Molinero.
SPAN 215. Readings in Spanish American Literature.A survey of representative Spanish American literary texts. Major emphasis is on reading and discussing texts that relate to specific problems of literary form (such as poetry, theater, and novel), literary movements, and literary periodization. The topics are also discussed in their sociocultural contexts. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 208. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every year. F. Fahey.
SPAN 216. Readings in Peninsular Spanish Literature.A survey of representative peninsular Spanish texts. Major emphasis is on reading and discussing texts that relate to specific problems of literary form (such as poetry, theater, and novel), literary movements, and literary periodization. The topics are also discussed in their sociocultural contexts. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 208. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every year. F. López.
SPAN 217. Literaturea en el cine.This course explores the complex relationship between literature and cinema in light of narrative techniques and the mechanical, social, cultural, political, and economic limitations that determine the representative possibilities of both media. Through the study of literary works and their cinematic adaptations from Latin America, Spain, and the United States, students consider the theoretical and practical debates—between writers and directors, publishers and producers, literary critics and film critics, and readers and viewers as consumers—that emerge in the process of transposition from the written word to film. Prerequsite(s): Spanish 211, 215, or 216. New course beginning Fall 2005. Offered with varying frequency. C. Aburto Guzmán, D. George.
INDS 218. Afroambiente: Writing A Black Environment.This course studies the response of Black writers and intellectuals of the Spanish-speaking world to issues related to the natural environment. In three countries, Ecuador, Puerto Rico, and Equatorial Guinea, modernity has brought serious challenges to notions of economic progress, human rights, national sovereignty, as well as individual and communal identity. Course materials include written texts from local newspapers, magazines, as well as other sources of information, such as internet sites that discuss issues related to the environment and the arts. Recommended background: Spanish 207 or 208. Cross-listed in African American studies, environmental studies, and Spanish. Conducted in Spanish. New course beginning Fall 2005. Not open to students who have received credit for Interdisciplinary Studies s21. Open to first-year students. Offered with varying frequency. B. Fra-Molinero.
SPAN 225. Diaspora: Identity and Culture.Until recently the term "diaspora" has been used to identify the expulsion and displacement of particular ethnic, political, and religious groups from their homeland. Today the term "diaspora" has been amplified to explore mass migrations of various groups throughout the world caused by global economic changes. In this course students examine how Latin American literary texts reflect on the various experiences caused by the conditions of diaspora. Students analyze how literary texts articulate feelings of being "at home," a sense of national affiliation, the initial trauma of exile, ongoing displacement, nostalgia, and the reconstruction of identity in a new setting. At the same time, they examine how the new identities formulated in these texts expand beyond and so complicate national identities. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 211, 215, or 216. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every other year. F. Fahey.
SPAN 240. Loco amor/buen amor.In this course students study different ways of representing the passion of love, from the love of God to loving someone of the same sex. Spanish cities in the Middle Ages and San Francisco, California, are some settings where idealized as well as forbidden forms of love take place in the texts of the Arcipreste de Hita, La Celestina, and gay Mexican American poets. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 211, 215, or 216. Normally offered every other year. B. Fra-Molinero.
SP/TH 241. Spanish Theater of the Golden Age.This course focuses on the study of Spanish classical drama of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Reading and critical analysis of selected dramatic works by Lope de Vega, Tirso de Molina, Calderón de la Barca, Miguel de Cervantes, Ana Caro, María de Zayas, and Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, among others, offer an insight into the totality of the dramatic spectacle of Spanish society during its imperial century. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): Spanish 211, 215, or 216. Not open to students who have received credit for Spanish 241 or Theater 241. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 20. Normally offered every other year. B. Fra-Molinero.
SPAN 242. Advanced Grammar and Stylistics.An intensive grammar review, with emphasis on written exercises, translation, oral drills, and grammatical analysis of literary texts. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 202. Open to first-year students. Offered with varying frequency. F. López.
SPAN 245. Social Justice in Hispanic Literature.At different times and in different countries, many Hispanic writers have felt compelled to create works (essays, novels, poetry, short stories, plays) that confront various types of social injustice. These range from the effects of imperialism to political repression, and often include issues of race, sexuality, gender, and class. In this course students analyze such texts within their respective social, political, and historical contexts. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 215 or 216. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 25. Offered with varying frequency. F. López.
SPAN 247. Latin American Travel Fiction.For the past century, Latin American literature has been continuously enriched by fictions of travel. These fictions relate disparate stories of movement and encounter, yet time and again they have been used to make a place out of space, or in other words, to imagine community through fictionalized explorations of the nation or a broader region. This course examines how twentieth-century Latin American authors map individual and cultural identities in fictions of travel. Textual analyses center on questions of gender, ethnicity, race, and class, paying particular attention to the way the traveler defines place, self, and the Other. Offered with varying frequency. F. Fahey.
SPAN 248. Encuentros y confrontaciones: representaciones de otreadad.This course undertakes a panoramic study of Latin American literature from pre-Conquest indigenous works to contemporary literature. As a way of reading across five hundred years of literary production, this course studies how, since its origins, Latin American literature has narrated a struggle to come to terms with identity, difference, and cultural conflict. Drawing on philosophical, feminist, psychoanalytical, and postcolonial models of the Other, students interrogate the concept of otherness as a Western category for understanding broader geo-cultural forms of human experience. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 208 and 211. Open to first-year students. Offered with varying frequency. F. Fahey.
SPAN 250. The Latin American Short Story.A study of the short story as a genre in Latin America. Attention is given to the genre's definition and to the different trajectories and currents in its development. Students read major works as well as those by less-known writers. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 215 or 216. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every year. C. Aburto Guzmán.
SPAN 251. Spanish Short Story.The first manifestations of the short story as a genre in Spanish date back to the Middle Ages. In this course, students consider the evolution of the genre, from the cultural hybridity that shaped the earliest short stories to contemporary approaches to the literary form. Recommended background: Spanish 216. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 211 or 215 or 216. New course beginning Winter 2006. Offered with varying frequency. F. López.
INDS 260. United States Latina/Chicana Writings.This course rests on two conceptual underpinnings: Gloria Anzaldúa's Neueva Mestiza, and the more recent "U.S. Pan-latinidad" postulated by the Latina Feminist Group. The literary and theoretical production of Chicanas and Latinas is examined through these lenses. Particular attention is given to developing a working knowledge of the key historical and cultural discourses engaged by these writings and the various contemporary United States Latina and Chicana positionalities vis-à-vis popular ethnic representations. The course also examines the function given to marketable cultural productions depending on the different agents involved. Cross-listed in American cultural studies, Spanish, and women and gender studies. Open to first-year students. Offered with varying frequency. C. Aburto Guzmán.
SPAN 262. Contemporary Spain.A study of Spanish history and political ideas from 1936 to the present, starting with historical information about the civil war and an analysis of the rhetoric of both sides. The Franco period is examined through texts of "high culture" (poetry, drama, and the novel) and "popular culture" (films, songs, and newspaper clippings) that express supposedly opposing ideologies. Similar texts are used to explore the transition from dictatorship to democracy and the new and old problems that Spain has faced since the late 1970s. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 215 or 216. Open to first-year students. Offered with varying frequency. F. López.
SPAN 264. Mexican Women Writers.This course examines the literature of contemporary Mexican women. The texts are studied as cultural products, as well as subjective representations of difference. Special attention is given to the relation between literature and other cultural productions. Various literary genres are considered, including poetry, short stories, essays, and novels. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 215 or 216. Normally offered every other year. C. Aburto Guzmán.
SPAN 266. Fantastic Hispanic Cinema.This course explores the genres of horror and fantasy in recent Spanish-language films by directors from Mexico, Chile, Argentina, Spain, and the United States. It considers how these works represent the supernatural, the diabolical, evil violence, fear, paranoia, and magic; create, perpetuate, and subvert categories of gender, class, race, and sexuality; and adapt and participate in key literary and cinematic genres such as the Gothic, parody, adventure, family drama, magical realism, and science fiction. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 208, 215, or 216. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 20. Offered with varying frequency. D. George.
SPAN 268. Galdós and Spanish Society in the Nineteenth Century.This course introduces students to the writings of Benito Pérez Galdós (1843-1920) and his particular vision of late nineteenth-century Spain. Like Cervantes before him, Galdós was an acute observer of his times, and his novels, plays, and essays capture and respond to the social, political, and aesthetic concerns that defined Spanish society at the threshold of the twentieth century. Course readings take account of the variety of literary genres Galdós cultivated throughout his career and are engaged in light of such issues as gender, national identity, religion, history versus fiction, and the social versus aesthetic function of literary works of art. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 215 or 216. Enrollment limited to 20. Offered with varying frequency. D. George.
SPAN 341. Cervantes.A careful reading and a comprehensive formal and thematic study of Don Quijote. Careful consideration is given to various pieces of Cervantine scholarship. The effects of Don Quijote on the genre of the novel are examined. Prerequisite(s): a 200-level literature course. Normally offered every other year. B. Fra-Molinero.
SPAN 342. Hybrid Cultures: Latin American Intersections.Latin America is a space of intersections where cultures meet and/or crash. Concepts and experiences used to define, locate, and represent these cultures to each other are continuously modified at the crossings. This course aims to take literary products (novels, essays, short stories, and films) as a cross-section of this phenomenon. Each chosen text identifies multiple oppositions that converge violently, merely scar the individual, or craft a new prism by which we can read the dynamics taking place in these intersections. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 215, 216, or 200-level literature course. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 20. Normally offered every other year. C. Aburto Guzmán.
SPAN 343. Contemporary Latin American Literature.This course begins by examining the sudden emergence of a number of Latin American authors on the world literary scene in the 1960s, a phenomenon referred to as the "Boom." Students consider the diverse ways in which contemporary authors have responded to and departed from the Boom and the extent to which their literature has been complicated by market forces and the influence of U.S. academic productions. In particular they examine recent uses of realism (nuevo verismo, testimonio) and the fantastic in contemporary Latin American and U.S. Latino literature. Recommended background: Spanish 215 or a course in Latin American literature. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 15. Offered with varying frequency. F. Fahey.
SPAN 344. Contemporary Spanish Women Writers.In this course, students discuss the impact of "la Transicion" (from dictatorship to democracy) on the psychological and social dimensions of womanhood by focusing on the detailed textual analysis of novels and short stories. Authors may include Rosa Montero, Cristina Fernández Cubas, Esther Tusquets, Consuelo García, Carmen Gómez Ojea, and Soledad Puértolas. Recommended background: a course in Spanish literature. Instructor permission is required. Normally offered every other year. F. López.
SPAN 345. Twentieth-Century Spanish Drama.A study of the evolution of political ideas and social values in Spain in the twentieth century through an examination of several plays. Interconnected and parallel sociocultural realities are analyzed along with different dramatic tendencies: from "poetic" to social-realist to avant-garde theaters. Authors may include: Lorca, Mihura, Buero Vallejo, Sastre, Nieva, Martín Recuerda, and Arrabal. Prerequisite(s): a 200-level literature course in Spanish. Recommended background: Spanish 215 or 216. Offered with varying frequency. F. López.
SPAN 346. The Spanish American Essay: Nineteenth Century to the Present.The purpose of this course is to gain a working knowledge of Spanish American thought. The essay is one of the preferred methods used by intellectuals to expound upon the paradoxical characteristics of the Spanish American territory. The course is divided into three major periods: nineteenth-century foundational thought, the quest for identity, and cultural hybridity. Both canonical and noncanonical essays are examined to better understand how Spanish American intellectuals problematize their own reality, and how this reality intersects the world. The question "What is the role of the intellectual in society?" is both the underpinning and the driving force of this inquiry. Enrollment limited to 15. Normally offered every other year. C. Aburto Guzmán.
SPAN 353. Un curso de cine.Cinema in Latin America and Spain is more than ninety years old. Silent movies recorded the Mexican Revolution of 1910. Pornographic films were part of the private collection of King Alfonso XIII of Spain. Epic and intimate, cinema also has been a vehicle for women directors, creating challenges to dominant forms of seeing. This course introduces students to the art of cinema analysis and to some of its technical and critical vocabulary. Discussions focus on significant figures in Latin American and Spanish cinema: Dolores del Río, María Félix, Libertad Lamarque, Vicente Fernández, Mario Moreno, Fernando Rey, Luis Buñuel, Tomas Gutiérrez Alea, María Novaro, María Luisa Bemberg, Jiménez Leal, Pedro Almodóvar, and Francisco Lombardi. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 215 or 216. Open to first-year students. Offered with varying frequency. B. Fra-Molinero, C. Aburto Guzmán.
SPAN 360. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study per semester. Normally offered every semester. Staff.
SPAN 365. Special Topics.Designed for the small seminar group of students who may have particular interests in areas of study that go beyond the regular course offerings. Periodic conferences and papers are required. Instructor permission is required. Staff.
SPAN 457. Senior Thesis.Research leading to writing of the senior thesis. Students participate in a limited number of group meetings, plus individual conferences. Students register for Spanish 457 in the fall semester and for Spanish 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both Spanish 457 and 458. A detailed outline and bibliography must be approved by the department. Normally offered every year. Staff.
SPAN 457, 458. Senior Thesis.Research leading to writing of the senior thesis. Students participate in a limited number of group meetings, plus individual conferences. Students register for Spanish 457 in the fall semester and for Spanish 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both Spanish 457 and 458. A detailed outline and bibliography must be approved by the department. Normally offered every year. Staff.
SPAN 458. Senior Thesis.Research leading to writing of the senior thesis. Students participate in a limited number of group meetings, plus individual conferences. Students register for Spanish 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both Spanish 457 and 458. A detailed outline and bibliography must be approved by the department. Normally offered every year. Staff.
Short Term Courses
INDS s21. Writing a Black Environment.This unit studies the response of black writers and intellectuals of the Spanish-speaking world to issues related to the natural environment. In countries and regions of Afro-Hispanic majority the presence of the oil industry has brought serious challenges to notions of economic progress, human rights, and national sovereignty, as well as individual and communal identity. Writers from Esmeraldas, Ecuador, and Equatorial Guinea chronicle the contradictory discourses present in their societies between modernity, tradition, the idea of progress, and the degradation of the ecosystem. Recommended background: Spanish 202. Cross-listed in African American studies, environmental studies, and Spanish. Not open to students who have received credit for African American Studies s21, Environmental Studies s21, or Spanish s21. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 15. Offered with varying frequency. B. Fra-Molinero.
FR/SP s32. Morocco: Sites of Cultural Encounters.The cultural history of Morocco has been deeply affected by its relationship with Spain and France. Although Arabs crossed the Straits of Gibraltar in 711, the Almoravides from the land now known as Morocco conquered much of western Spain in the eleventh century. Chased from Spain during the Reconquista, many of their descendants returned to Morocco to live. In the nineteenth century, the French invaded Morocco and set up a thriving colony that led to a French protectorate from 1912 to 1956. Through the reading of significant novels and memoirs by such Moroccan writers as Ben Jalloun, Majid, Chraibi, Oussaid, and Mernissi, and through direct observation of postcolonial society in Morocco, students in this unit attempt to analyze these cultural encounters and their legacy. Prerequisite(s): French 201, Spanish 201, or any French or Spanish course beyond the intermediate level. Conducted in English. New course beginning Short Term 2005. Enrollment limited to 20. Instructor permission is required. F. López, R. Williamson.
SPAN s33. The Spanish Civil War.Few other conflicts in recent history have captured the imagination of so many artists as the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939). The clash that tore apart Spain's Second Republic has inspired writers, artists, and filmmakers over six decades to reflect on the horrors of war and the role of art in achieving peace and social change. This course explores the range and evolution of these artistic responses produced in Spain and abroad, from the years of conflict, through the Franco dictatorship, to recent processes of democratic transition and European integration. Discussions of texts by Neruda, Vallejo, Machado, Picasso, Arrabal, Buero Vallejo, Patino, Rivas, Saura, and Cercas, among others, are engaged in light of historical context and theoretical questions of fiction vs. history, memory, aesthetic vs. social functions of art, trauma, and exile. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 208. New unit beginning Short Term 2005. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. D. George.
SPAN s35. Muralsimos: Movimientos en practica.This unit provides an introductory study of the mural movement and the practice of mural art. Students explore the origins of muralism in Mexico; the historical, political, artistic and philosophical questions that shaped the movement; and the development of the mural art form as it has traveled throughout the Americas. They also paint a mural, under the direction of a mural artist. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 208. Conducted in Spanish. Enrollment limited to 12. Instructor permission is required. F. Fahey.
SPAN s50. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study during a Short Term. Normally offered every year. Staff.
Other Foreign Languages
Courses
FL 141. Self-Instructional Program in Less Commonly Taught Languages.In unusual circumstances, a student may petition the chair of German, Russian, and East Asian languages and literatures or the chair of Romance languages and literatures to pursue the study of a language not offered by the departments or programs of the College. The student must present compelling reasons why the language study is necessary to his or her academic program, and must provide a detailed description of the plan of study: the material to be covered, the qualifications of the instructor, the methods of evaluation, and the goals for the semester's study. One course credit is granted upon completion of two consecutive semesters of study. Department chair permission is required. Offered with varying frequency. Staff.
FL 141-142, 143-144. Less Commonly Taught Languages.In unusual circumstances, a student may petition the chair of German, Russian, and East Asian languages and literatures or the chair of Romance languages and literatures to pursue the study of a language not offered by the departments or programs of the College. The student must present compelling reasons why the language study is necessary to his or her academic program, and must provide a detailed description of the plan of study: the material to be covered, the qualifications of the instructor, the methods of evaluation, and the goals for the semester's study. One course credit is granted upon completion of two consecutive semesters of study. Department chair permission is required. Offered with varying frequency. Staff.
FL 142. Self-Instructional Program in Less Commonly Taught Languages.In unusual circumstances, a student may petition the chair of German, Russian, and East Asian languages and literatures or the chair of Romance languages and literatures to pursue the study of a language not offered by the departments or programs of the College. The student must present compelling reasons why the language study is necessary to his or her academic program, and must provide a detailed description of the plan of study: the material to be covered, the qualifications of the instructor, the methods of evaluation, and the goals for the semester's study. One course credit is granted upon completion of two consecutive semesters of study. Department chair permission is required. Offered with varying frequency. Staff.
FL 143. Self-Instructional Program in Less Commonly Taught Languages.In unusual circumstances, a student may petition the chair of German, Russian, and East Asian languages and literatures or the chair of Romance languages and literatures to pursue the study of a language not offered by the departments or programs of the College. The student must present compelling reasons why the language study is necessary to his or her academic program, and must provide a detailed description of the plan of study: the material to be covered, the qualifications of the instructor, the methods of evaluation, and the goals for the semester's study. One course credit is granted upon completion of two consecutive semesters of study. Department chair permission is required. Offered with varying frequency. Staff.
FL 144. Self-Instructional Program in Less Commonly Taught Languages.In unusual circumstances, a student may petition the chair of German, Russian, and East Asian languages and literatures or the chair of Romance languages and literatures to pursue the study of a language not offered by the departments or programs of the College. The student must present compelling reasons why the language study is necessary to his or her academic program, and must provide a detailed description of the plan of study: the material to be covered, the qualifications of the instructor, the methods of evaluation, and the goals for the semester's study. One course credit is granted upon completion of two consecutive semesters of study. Department chair permission is required. Offered with varying frequency. Staff.
FL 360. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study per semester. Normally offered every semester. Staff.
Short Term Courses
FL s50. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study during a Short Term. Normally offered every year. Staff.