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Sociology

Professors Sylvester and Kane (chair); Assistant Professors Duina and Chirayath; Lecturer Pallone

The curriculum in sociology is designed to introduce students to a sociological perspective, which explores social structures and their intersections with individual lives. Courses address a wide range of social phenomena, from patterns of everyday interaction to social and political revolutions. Sociology as a discipline focuses on recognizing and analyzing social determinants that shape our lives. That focus offers a unique potential not only for understanding society, but also for social action and social change.

The courses offered in sociology include a variety of 100- and 200-level courses introducing sociology and many of the specific topics and issues addressed by sociologists. Most 200-level courses are open to first-year students and have no prerequisites. The core courses for the major and secondary concentration also begin at the 200 level. These core courses focus on developing the skills and tools necessary for a more advanced application of a sociological perspective, preparing students for junior/senior research seminars at the 300-level.

The methods and substantive areas of sociology provide an excellent background for a wide range of careers in fields such as government, public policy, law, social research, community work, social activism, human services, social work, counseling, education, business, personnel, advertising, and market research, as well as a strong foundation for graduate study in sociology and a variety of applied or related areas (including law, criminal justice, social work, business, public policy and public administration, urban and community planning, health care administration, education, survey research administration, and journalism).

A handbook describing the major and secondary concentration in greater detail, including additional career information, is available from the department chair. More information on the department is also available on the Web site (www.bates.edu/SOC.xml).

Cross-listed Courses. Note that unless otherwise specified, when a department/program references a course or unit in the department/program, it includes courses and units cross-listed with the department/program.

Major Requirements. Students majoring in sociology must complete eleven courses: Sociology 204, 205, two junior-senior research seminars (Sociology 395), a senior thesis (Sociology 457 or 458), and any six additional courses in the Department of Sociology (up to two Short Term units in the Department of Sociology may be substituted for up to two of these courses; one independent study course can normally be applied to the major).

Pass/Fail Grading Option. Pass/fail grading may not be elected for courses applied toward the major.

Secondary Concentration. The requirements for the secondary concentration are: Sociology 204, 205, one junior-senior research seminar (Sociology 395), and any three additional courses in the Department of Sociology (a Short Term unit in the department may be substituted for one of these courses).

Pass/Fail Grading Option. Pass/fail grading may not be elected for courses applied toward the secondary concentration.

General Education. Any two courses or Short Term units listed below and First-Year Seminar 249 and 290count toward the social science set or third course requirement. The quantitative requirement may be satisfied through Sociology 205.

Courses
SOC 101. Principles of Sociology.The course is concerned with social behavior, social institutions, and with the characteristics of sociology as a discipline that studies such behavior and institutions. Students become familiar with the use of such basic concepts in sociology as norms, values, roles, socialization, stratification, power and authority, deviance and control, social conflict, and social change. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every year. H. Chirayath.
SOC 116. Criminology.The course considers the nature of the criminal act and how some wrongs are defined and prosecuted as crimes by the legal system. It is concerned with the variety of criminal behaviors as products of individual differences and social circumstances, with the techniques available for the description and measurement of crime, and with the nature and validity of the explanations of crime provided by criminological theories. Not open to students who have received credit for Sociology 216. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every year. S. Sylvester.
SOC 120. Race, Gender, Class, and Society.An introduction to the sociological perspective, this course explores the basic concepts of sociology and some of its major subfields through an examination of social inequalities. Among the topics considered are culture, socialization, social control, social movements, power and authority, the family and education as social institutions, and demography/population studies. All of these are introduced through application to issues related to inequalities of race, class, gender, and sexuality, primarily in the United States. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every other year. E. Kane.
SOC 160. Globalization: Sociological Perspectives.Globalization occurs in a series of distinct—though related—arenas, including the economy, politics, culture, the environment, the law, and others. Sociology can offer a unique perspective on the driving causes, means, and consequences of this process. Salient current events and topics, such as the recent World Trade Organization meetings, the role of the United Nations, global warming, the unpredictable flow of international investment capital, the Free Trade Area of the Americas, the formation of new nation-states, consumerism, and the Internet, inform this course's exploration of sociological perspectives on globalization. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every year. F. Duina.
SOC 204. Theoretical Foundations of Sociology.Theories of society are used in a variety of ways to make sense of the world in which we live. This course examines the evolution of sociological theory, and the history of sociology as a discipline. Major schools of social theory are compared and analyzed, with emphasis on their role as foundations of sociology. Prerequisite(s): one prior course in sociology. Enrollment limited to 30. Normally offered every semester. F. Duina, S. Sylvester.
SOC 205. Research Methods for Sociology.This course is a practical introduction to the research methods used by sociologists, including survey research, content analysis, participant observation and field research, qualitative interviewing, and comparative historical research. The assumptions of various approaches to social science research are considered, along with application of methods of collection and analysis for both qualitative and quantitative data. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): Sociology 204. Enrollment limited to 30. Normally offered every year. E. Kane, H. Chirayath.
PY/SO 210. Social Psychology.A study of people in social settings. Topics covered include group composition and structure, conformity, self-identity, interpersonal attraction, and attitude formation and change. Theoretical principles are applied to such social phenomena as social conflict, stereotyping, competition, and altruism. Prerequisite(s): Psychology 101. Not open to students who have received credit for Psychology 210 or Sociology 210. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 50. Normally offered every year. M. Sargent.
SOC 220. Family and Society.This course offers an introduction to family sociology, exploring the history and structure of the family as a social institution, primarily in the United States. Attention is given to contemporary patterns of family life (e.g., patterns of marriage, divorce, cohabitation, parenting, and household labor); how the family has changed in response to social and economic change; how race, ethnicity, class, gender, and sexuality shape family structure and ideologies of family; patterns of family violence; and trends in family-related public policy. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. Normally offered every other year. E. Kane.
SOC 224. Sociology of Law.The course examines the law as a system of social behavior within cultural and historical context and as a body of knowledge within the sciences of human behavior. The course considers the relationship between the law and other institutions of contemporary society such as politics, the economy, education, and science. Enrollment limited to 30. Normally offered every other year. S. Sylvester.
SOC 225. Science and Law.The course considers the relationship between law and science, especially the use of scientific evidence in civil and criminal litigation. Legal admissibility and scientific validity are discussed in light of the U.S. Supreme Court case of Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc., and the influence of that case and its aftermath in the development and use of the forensic sciences. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. Normally offered every other year. S. Sylvester.
SOC 230. Sociology of Health and Illness.This course examines how social and structural forces shape health, illness, and the health care system. Through critical analysis of health and illness in the United States, the course traces the history of medical sociology. Topics include social factors associated with health and disease, disability, the organization of health care, medical ethics, and the relationship between health care and human rights. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. Normally offered every other year. H. Chirayath.
SOC 235. Global Health: Sociological Perspectives.This course introduces students to the health care systems of nations in the developed and developing world. Health care takes place within culturally unique social, historical, and political contexts, which shape factors such as disease, nutrition, violence, reproductive health, and environmental and occupational hazards. The course explores how these diverse forces shape illness experience, health care utilization, organization and training of health care providers, and systems of health care delivery. Drawing on a critical perspective, this course utilizes sociological methods and theories to explore health and illness around the globe. Recommended background: one 100-level course in sociology. Not open to students who have received credit for Sociology s23. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. Normally offered every other year. H. Chirayath.
ED/SO 242. Race, Cultural Pluralism, and Equality in American Education.Through historical, political, and philosophical lenses this course explores the question: What would equal educational opportunity look like in a multicultural society? The course compares divergent approaches to the education of distinct racial/ethnic groups within the United States—African Americans, Asian Americans, European Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans. In light of contextual perspectives in educational thought, the course confronts contemporary debates surrounding how the race/ethnicity of students should affect the composition, curriculum, and teaching methods of schools, colleges, and universities. Specific issues explored include bilingual education, college admissions, curriculum inclusion, desegregation, ethnic studies, and hiring practices. A thirty-hour field experience is required. Recommended background: Education 231. Not open to students who have received credit for Education 242 or Sociology 242. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 25. Normally offered every other year. S. Smith.
SOC 245. Self and Society.An introduction to the everyday details of how people create, maintain, and respond to social structures and social relationships. Topics considered include the social construction of the self, socialization, social structure and personality, emotions, social interaction, intergroup relations, and the role of social locations in structuring individual consciousness. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. Normally offered every other year. E. Kane.
SOC 260. Economic Sociology.Most, if not all, economic activity—whether it takes place at the level of individuals, organizations, or markets—requires rules, norms, and institutions. Efficiency alone cannot account for the existence and nature of those rules, norms, and institutions. Beliefs, values, power structures, perceptions of self-interest, political structures, history, and numerous additional factors hold explanatory potential as well. This course investigates these factors. In the process, students explore some of the most important theoretical frameworks in sociology and political science, such as rational choice theory, historical institutionalism and statist theory, and some key topics in sociology, such as international development. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. Normally offered every other year. F. Duina.
SOC 265. Sociology of Competition.The course examines the nature of competition in the social world: its rules, structure, varieties, functions, assumptions, and consequences. Special attention is paid to competition in specific realms of social life such as economics, politics, the labor market, and sports. Whenever possible, students are asked to think about competition in comparative terms. Readings thus draw from American, European, and Asian traditions. New course beginning Fall 2005. Enrollment limited to 30. Normally offered every other year. F. Duina.
SOC 270. Sociology of Gender.This course focuses on the social construction of gender through a consideration of a series of interrelated social institutions and practices central to gender stratification: family, employment, sexuality, reproduction, and beauty. Emphasis is placed on the intersections between gender inequality and inequalities of race/ethnicity, class, and sexual orientation. Recommended background: one or more courses in the social sciences and/or women and gender studies. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. Normally offered every other year. E. Kane.
SOC 290. Political Sociology.The course examines power relationships among states, elites, and popular groups through a study of the ways that states maintain legitimacy, are challenged, and are transformed. Theories of the state, political control, and mass media and political behavior are discussed. Students explore the conditions under which societies are vulnerable to popular protest and revolution, as well as the social, political, and economic processes that maintain state legitimacy. Recommended background: one or more courses in the social sciences. Not open to students who have received credit for Sociology 340. Enrollment limited to 30. F. Duina.
PY/SO 310. Advanced Topics in Social Psychology.This seminar allows students to explore particular areas of social psychology in depth. The primary goal is to help students deepen their understanding of human social behavior, through extensive study of social psychological theory and research, class discussion, and student projects. Topics vary with each offering of the course, but may include the following: the self, stigma, and persuasion. Prerequisite(s): Psychology 210 and either Psychology 261 or Education/Psychology 262. Not open to students who have received credit for Psychology 310 or Sociology 310. Enrollment limited to 20. Normally offered every other year. M. Sargent.
AN/SO 325. Ethnicity, Nation, and World Community.The course explores the means by which social identities are constructed as ethnicity and nations. It focuses on how representations taken from categories of everyday life—such as "race," religion, gender, and sexuality—are deployed to give these group loyalties the aura of a natural, timeless authority. This inquiry into ethnicity and nation as cultural fabrications allows for exploration of the possibility of global community not simply in its institutional dimensions, but as a condition of consciousness. Not open to students who have received credit for Anthropology 325 or Sociology 325. Enrollment limited to 15. Normally offered every other year. C. Carnegie.
SOC 360. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study per semester. Normally offered every semester. Staff.
SOC 365. Special Topics.A course or seminar offered from time to time to small groups of students working on special topics. Instructor permission is required. Offered with varying frequency. Staff.
PY/SO 371. Prejudice and Stereotyping.Two issues that have long held the interest of social psychologists and that are of great social importance are prejudice and stereotyping. This course explores traditional and contemporary social psychological research on unconscious and covert forms of prejudice, as well as cognitive and emotional functions served by stereotyping. The course concludes with an examination of prejudice reduction and stereotype change. Prerequisite(s): Psychology 261 or Education/Psychology 262. Not open to students who have received credit for Psychology 371 or Sociology 371. Enrollment limited to 50. Normally offered every year. M. Sargent.
ED/SO 380. Education, Reform, and Politics.The United States has experienced more than three centuries of growth and change in the organization of public and private education. The goals of this course are to examine 1) contemporary reform issues and political processes in relation to the constituencies of school, research, legal, and policy-making communities and 2) how educational policy is formulated, implemented, and evaluated. The study of these areas emphasizes public K-12 education but includes postsecondary education. Examples of specific educational policy arenas include governance, school choice (e.g., charter schools, magnet schools, and vouchers), school funding, standards and accountability, and parental and community involvement. A research-based field component of at least thirty hours is required. Recommended background: one or more courses in education and sociology. Not open to students who have received credit for Education 380 or Sociology 380. Enrollment limited to 15. Instructor permission is required. Normally offered every year. S. Smith.
SOC 395. Junior-Senior Research Seminar.These seminars provide advanced coverage of specific topics in sociology. Special attention is paid to the theories and methods adopted by sociologists to investigate these topics. Each seminar requires a substantial research project, related to the seminar theme. Prerequisite(s): Sociology 204 and 205.
SOC 395A. European Integration: Politics, Society, and Geography.The European Union (E.U.) represents one of the most remarkable achievements of the contemporary world. This seminar first reviews the history and structure of the E.U. It then examines a series of topics related to the political, social, and geographical dimensions of European integration. These topics include the drivers of integration, the transformation of domestic policies and institutions, the demands of E.U. law, the rise of a European identity, the consequences of expansion in Eastern and Central Europe, the salience of regions, and the E.U. on the international scene. Comparisons with South America's Mercosur conclude the seminar. Students are exposed to numerous theoretical tools and methodologies, including institutionalism, rational choice theory, intergovernmentalism, and comparative methods. Prerequisite(s): Sociology 204 and 205. Enrollment limited to 15. Normally offered every other year. F. Duina.
SOC 395B. Beliefs about Social Inequality.This seminar focuses on the belief systems surrounding social inequality, particularly race, class, and gender inequality, and inequality based on sexual orientation. Topics include the role of beliefs in structuring social inequality, the nature of beliefs as a social psychological construct, and an examination of the research literature on beliefs about social inequality in the United States. Emphasis is on quantitative public opinion literature, though consideration is given to qualitative studies as well. Theories and methods addressed include theories of ideology, approaches to understanding the sources of social inequality, survey research methods, qualitative interviewing, and content analysis. Prerequisite(s): Sociology 204 and 205. Enrollment limited to 15. Normally offered every other year. E. Kane.
SOC 395C. Research Seminar in Criminal Policy.The seminar considers the broad range of contemporary theory that can be applied to patterns of criminal behavior. It also concentrates on the various methods currently available within criminology for producing and analyzing the data of crime. The seminar is intended to advance a student's ability to carry out individual research. Prerequisite(s): Sociology 204 and 205. Enrollment limited to 15. Normally offered every other year. S. Sylvester.
SOC 395E. Sociology of Health Professions.This seminar draws on theoretical perspectives and research methodologies employed by two major subfields of sociology, the sociology of work and medical sociology. Health professionals in the United States work in rapidly changing technological, political, economic, and demographic environments. Students explore these and other issues facing health professionals, such as job satisfaction, stress, and efforts to balance work and family. They examine a wide range of health occupations, including (but not limited to) physicians, nurses, dentists, allied health professionals, and practitioners of complementary medicine. Students draw on a diverse range of theoretical frameworks and both qualitative and quantitative research methods employed in the study of health professions. Prerequisite(s): Sociology 204 and 205. Enrollment limited to 15. Normally offered every other year. H. Chirayath.
SOC 395F. Research Seminar in Forensic Sociology.The seminar focuses on the forensic use of social and behavioral data in the courts and other agencies of the judicial system, and the role of the social scientist as expert witness. An important question considers the degree to which courts evaluate social and behavioral data by the same standards as other scientific data. Topics for individual research may include: profiling in law enforcement and corrections; unlawful discrimination; predicting violence; battered-woman, battered-child, and rape-trauma syndromes; and eyewitness identification. Prerequisite(s): Sociology 204 and 205. Not open to students who have received credit for Sociology 314. Enrollment limited to 15. Normally offered every other year. S. Sylvester.
SOC 395G. Comparative Sociology.Comparative sociology studies social institutions, economic systems, political systems, cultures and norms, legal systems, public policy, social change, and behavior in two or more settings. Comparisons can be qualitative or quantitative in nature and are usually driven by a desire to test theories or hypotheses. Topics of study might include the role of the state in stimulating economic development in advanced and developing countries, the rise of anti-globalization movements in North American and European countries, the spread of democracy in Central and Eastern European nations, and the role of women in business in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. This seminar introduces students to comparative sociology through an examination of recent exemplary works and the completion of individual projects related to each student's interests. Prerequisite(s): Sociology 204 and 205. Enrollment limited to 15. Normally offered every other year. F. Duina.
SOC 395H. Social Inequality and Public Policy.How are social inequalities in the United States both reduced and exacerbated by public programming, ranging from health care initiatives to work-family policies? This course explores public policies that affect diverse facets of social life, including marriage and family, education, health care, and work. Emphasis is placed on how such macro-level forces shape individual lives, and particularly how policy intersects with inequalities based on race/ethnicity, class, gender, age, and sexual orientation. Students conduct individual research drawing on a diverse range of theoretical frameworks and both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Prerequisite(s): Sociology 204 and 205. Enrollment limited to 15. Normally offered every other year. H. Chirayath.
SOC 395I. Gender and Family.This seminar focuses on current debates in the research and policy literatures on gender and family. Potential topics include family policy, domestic violence, the division of labor in households, reproduction, partnerships, parenting, children's gendered experiences within families, elder care, and the integration of work and family. All of these topics are addressed with attention to the role of gender in structuring family experiences, and to the intersections of gender with race, class, sexual orientation, and nation. Theories addressed include feminist theory. Research methods include both quantitative and qualitative approaches to studying gender and family. Prerequisite(s): Sociology 204 and 205. Enrollment limited to 15. Normally offered every other year. E. Kane.
SOC 395J. The Problem of Proof.In criminal prosecutions, the state carries to the courtroom the highest burden of proof—proof beyond a reasonable doubt. For some time, and in an increasing variety of cases, criminal litigation has relied on the forensic sciences to establish the elements of a crime and to identify and convict the offender. Recently, as some courts have become more aware of the nature of science itself, some of the forensic sciences have been challenged for not meeting basic scientific standards. This seminar, in addition to considering generally the law governing the admission of scientific evidence in criminal cases, assigns to small teams of students more intensive legal research in one of the areas of forensic science.The purpose of such research is to assess the field's current and future ability to produce admissible evidence. Prerequisite(s): Sociology 204 and 205. New course beginning Winter 2006. Enrollment limited to 15. Normally offered every other year. S. Sylvester.
SOC 401. Criminal Justice Internships.Part-time internships in local courts and other agencies of the criminal justice system. Enrollment is limited to available positions. Prerequisite(s): Sociology 116. New Course beginning Fall 2005. Instructor permission is required. Normally offered every year. S. Sylvester.
SOC 457. Senior Thesis.Individual and group conferences in connection with the writing of the senior thesis. Students register for Sociology 457 in the fall semester and for Sociology 458 in the winter semester. Normally offered every year. Staff.
SOC 457, 458. Senior Thesis.Individual and group conferences in connection with the writing of the senior thesis. Students register for Sociology 457 in the fall semester and for Sociology 458 in the winter semester. Normally offered every year. Staff.
SOC 458. Senior Thesis.Individual and group conferences in connection with the writing of the senior thesis. Students register for Sociology 457 in the fall semester and for Sociology 458 in the winter semester. Normally offered every year. Staff.
Short Term Courses
EC/SO s19. Issues for a United Europe in the Twenty-First Century.As European integration deepens, issues related to governance, economic life, and identity emerge. A united Europe requires common political, economic, and cultural systems. This unit examines the nature, limitations, potential, and legitimacy of those systems, by providing firsthand visits to key countries, institutions, and associations. Students visit Brussels, Paris, London, Copenhagen, and Barcelona. Different cities offer different opportunities to investigate political, economic, or cultural systems. Not open to students who have received credit for Economics s19 or Sociology s19. Enrollment limited to 15. Instructor permission is required. Offered with varying frequency. F. Duina.
SOC s22. Race, Gender, Class, and Popular Culture.This unit offers an exploration of popular culture through the lens of race, gender, sexuality, and class. Students are introduced to sociological approaches to these interlocking forms of social identity, as well as to popular culture. After this introduction, the unit focuses on how television—as one particular form of popular culture—represents, shapes, and is shaped by inequalities of race, gender, sexuality, and class. These issues are explored through readings as well as individual case studies completed by students. Recommended background: at least one course or unit in the social sciences addressing issues of race, class, gender, and/or sexuality. Prerequisite(s): Sociology 120 or 270. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 20. Offered with varying frequency. E. Kane.
SOC s26. Life Course and Aging.This unit explores the aging experience, including childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and late life. Students are introduced to the social forces shaping the aging experience, paying particular attention to how race and ethnicity, gender, and social class influence the life course. Topics include key transitions in the life course produced by the intersection of individual lives with institutions such as family, health care, and the workplace. The unit applies the theoretical perspectives and methodological techniques of life-course sociology to an exploration of life trajectories and the meanings of age. Enrollment limited to 20. Offered with varying frequency. H. Chirayath.
SOC s27. Studies in Crime Prevention.Current efforts to deal with crime consist principally of law enforcement and punishment. Punishable offenses increase and punishments become more severe with, some argue, little effect on the overall state of crime. An alternative effort is to prevent crimes. The unit explores the variety of crime prevention practices, from those that direct attention to offenders' behavior to those that—taking into account that most crimes involve not only an offender but also a victim and a situation surrounding both—seek to alter that critical situation. Major topics include community policing, crime analysis, and crime prevention through environmental design. Enrollment limited to 20. Normally offered every other year. S. Sylvester.
SOC s28. Capitalism and Happiness.Thinkers have long proposed that the rise of capitalism prior to the twentieth century and its continued expansion as the dominant form of economic activity thereafter has somehow influenced the happiness of members of society. Arguments have greatly varied in their nature, ranging from very pessimistic to optimistic. To date, few efforts have been made to examine, compare, and contrast the various existing strands in a systematic fashion. Students analyze works by writers such as Chuang-tzu, Aristotle, Adam Smith, Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Marx, Weber, Durkheim, Nietzsche, Freud, Ortega y Gassett, Sartre, Hitler, Habermas, Friedman, Bellah, and others. Recommended background: some familiarity with social theory and philosophy. Open to first-year students. Offered with varying frequency. F. Duina.
SOC s50. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study during a Short Term. Normally offered every year. Staff.