Biology

Professors Minkoff, Thomas, Baker, and Ambrose (chair); Associate Professors Pelliccia, Kinsman, Abrahamsen, and Kleckner; Assistant Professors Sommer and Bavis; Visiting Assistant Professor Richards; Lecturer Palin

Biology is the study of living systems and how they interact with the nonliving world and with one another. It is a discipline that bridges the physical and social sciences. Students who major in biology become familiar with all levels of biological organization from molecules to ecosystems, and gain practical experience in both laboratory and field studies. More information on the biology department is available on the Web site (www.bates.edu/BIO.xml).

Cross-listed Courses. Note that unless otherwise specified, when a department/program references a course or unit in the department/program, it includes courses and units cross-listed with the department/program.

Major Requirements. 1) Chemistry 107A or Chemistry/Environmental Studies 107B; and Chemistry 108A or Chemistry/Environmental Studies 108B; and either Chemistry 218 or Biology 244. The organic chemistry option (Chemistry 217-218) is strongly recommended for students interested in attending graduate school, and required for those planning to apply to medical school programs. Prospective majors are strongly encouraged to complete Chemistry 107A or Chemistry/Environmental Studies 107B and Chemistry 108A or Chemistry/Environmental Studies 108B in the first year.

2) At least ten courses in biology, of which a minimum of eight must be taken from the Bates faculty. Eight of the ten courses must be advanced courses (200-level and above, or the equivalent). Two introductory (100-level) courses may be applied toward the major, as long as at least one has a full laboratory component (Biology 103, 111, 116, 121, 123, 124, 125, or 131). Chemistry 125 and designated First-Year Seminars may be used in place of a 100-level biology course.

The ten biology courses must include:

a) The three biology core courses, which must be completed prior to beginning the senior year and may not count toward the major if taken pass/fail: Biology 201, 270, and s42. Beginning with the class of 2009, the three required courses are Biology 101, 242, and 270. Completion of the core courses by the end of the sophomore year is strongly recommended. Core courses have prerequisites.

b) Biology 460, Junior-Senior Seminar, which may not count toward the major if taken pass/fail and must be taken during the fall or winter semester of the junior or senior year.

c) Additional electives to complete the ten courses required. The advanced courses may not include Biology 244 if Biology 244 is used to complete requirement (1) above, and may include no more than two research or thesis credits from among the following biology courses: 360, 457, 458, 470 through 478, and s50, and no more than one Short Term unit (s30-level and above) in addition to s42. Short Term internships (s26 and s46) do not count toward the major.

d) For students in classes prior to 2009: at least one elective must be a laboratory course that focuses on form and function of plants or animals. Courses that currently satisfy the form and function requirement include 111 (Freshwater Invertebrates), 116 (Freshwater Biology), 121 (Plant Diversity), 124 (Plants and Human Affairs), 211 (Marine Invertebrates), 268 (Entomology), 311 (Comparative Anatomy of the Chordates), 335 (Avian Biology), 337 (Animal Physiology), 380 (Plant Physiology).

e) Beginning with the class of 2008, all majors must complete a capstone experience course that includes one of the following: Biology 457, 458, 470, 471, 472, 473, 474, 475, 476, or, with prior departmental approval, a service-learning project or a semester-long research experience at certain approved programs, such as The Jackson Laboratory or Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center.

Chemistry 321, Chemistry 322, Psychology 355, or Psychology 363 may be substituted for one advanced course in satisfying the requirements of the major.

Excluding one 100-level biology course, and the three biology core courses (Biology 201, 270, and s42), students wishing to double-major in biology and biological chemistry, environmental studies, and/or neuroscience may apply only one biology course (or substitute course such as Chemistry 321 or 322, or Psychology 355 or 363) used for the biological chemistry requirements, the environmental studies requirements, and/or the neuroscience requirements toward the requirements for a major in biology.

3) Completion of a thesis (457, 458) or the comprehensive examination requirement. The comprehensive examination requirement must be fulfilled by a satisfactory performance on the departmental comprehensive exam given once during the winter semester of the senior year, or by achieving a score corresponding to the twenty-sixth percentile on the Graduate Record Exam Subject Test in Biology. The GRE option must be fulfilled by the December test date of the senior year; students are encouraged to take the test early.

Planning for the Major. Prospective majors are urged to discuss course selection and scheduling with a member of the department in the first year, particularly if use of Advanced Placement credits or participation in an off-campus study program is anticipated. The department strongly encourages students to complete the required core courses before the end of their sophomore year to allow scheduling flexibility later. Completion of the core courses prior to the beginning of the senior year is required. The department also strongly advises that electives be chosen in close consultation with faculty to ensure breadth of knowledge within biology (from molecules and cells to organisms and ecosystems). Students may apply to include in the major a one-semester biology research internship at The Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine, or Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York. Alternatively, students who study abroad may apply up to two courses towards the major as electives if the courses are appropriate and pre-approved by the chair.

Pass/Fail Grading Option. Pass/fail grading may be elected for courses applied toward the major except for four required courses: Biology 201, 270, 460, and s42 (beginning with the class of 2009, Biology 101, 242, 270, 460).

General Education. Any two courses listed below may serve as a department-designated set, provided that at least one has a full laboratory component. Courses currently designated as having full laboratory components include 101, 103, 111, 116, 121, 123, 124, 125, 131, 201, 211, 242, 260, 265, 268,270, 308, 311, 313, 315, 323,335, 337, 341, 351, 362, and 380. First-Year Seminar 243,311, and the following units listed below may serve as partial fulfillment of the natural science requirement as a third course option: s23, s24, s27, s32, s33, s35, s37, s42, and s45. The quantitative requirement can be satisfied by completing Biology 155, 201, 244, 270, or s45. Advanced Placement, International Baccalaureate, or A-Level credit awarded by the department may not be used towards fulfillment of any general education requirements.

Courses
BIO 101. Organismal Biology.An introduction to the biology of plants and animals with an emphasis on the evolution of structure, function, and diversity within these groups. The inquiry-based, collaborative laboratory studies introduce students to fundamental principles of form and function in the organismal world, the quantitative analysis of data, scientific writing, and utilizing the primary literature. This course is intended to serve as the entry point for all life science majors including biology, biological chemistry, neuroscience, and environmental studies (science concentration). Normally offered every year. Staff.
BIO 103. Sensory Biology.This course examines the biology of sensation in humans and other organisms. It focuses on the chemical (taste, smell) and mechanical (touch, hearing) senses, and includes other topics such as electroreception in fish, magnetoreception in migrating animals, and vision in vertebrates and invertebrates. Laboratory exercises examine our own senses (why, for example, do peppers seem hotter to some humans than others?), as well as those of other organisms, such as aversive behaviors to chemical or tactile stimuli in invertebrates, and reaction to touch in carnivorous plants. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every other year. N. Kleckner.
BIO 106. Animal Development.Development is a process by which a single fertilized egg grows and changes into a complex organism with trillions of cells. How do the cells of an embryo grow and become different within the constraint that the genes are the same in each type of cell? This course focuses on the mechanisms by which genes control development in animals. The course includes discussions of current political and ethical issues in reproductive technology, but focuses on the science underlying these technologies. Not open to students who have received credit for Biology 316. Enrollment limited to 40. Offered with varying frequency. J. Pelliccia.
BIO 107. Microbes in the Biosphere.Microorganisms are ubiquitous, exhibiting remarkable diversity in habitat and metabolic activity. This course explores the activities and interactions of microbial populations within their biotic and abiotic environments. Discussions and readings focus on current topics including, but not limited to, biogeochemical cycling, bioremediation, the industrial uses of microbes, and the role of microorganisms in health and disease. Not open to students who have received credit for Biology 125 or 315. Enrollment limited to 40. Offered with varying frequency. K. Palin.
BIO 108. Cancer.In this course, students examine the biological basis of cancer, including the role of oncogenes and tumor suppressors in regulating how the cell divides, how environmental agents and viruses can induce DNA mutations leading to cancerous growth, and the genetic basis of certain predispositions of inherited cancers. Students also examine how cancer treatments (radiation, chemotherapy drugs) work to kill cancerous cells. Finally, they explore emerging technologies that are developing new targeted cancer therapies, based on understanding the basic biological processes of cell division and blood vessel growth. Enrollment limited to 40. Offered with varying frequency. S. Richards.
BIO 109. Conserving Biodiversity.Biologists have been increasingly alarmed by the accelerating loss of animal and plant species from nature. This introductory course in biological conservation explores what we mean by biodiversity, how it is being lost, and what is being done to preserve it. Students examine historical and current patterns of extinction of earth's fauna and flora, and learn about the types of human activities and natural phenomena that threaten species' survival. Through lecture, discussion, and classroom exercises, the human issues that are integrally involved in conservation are considered in conjunction with the ecology of declining species. New course beginning Winter 2005. Enrollment limited to 40. Staff.
BI/GE 112. Oceanography.An integrated, interdisciplinary overview of the chemistry, physics, geology, and biology of the world's oceans. Topics include chemical and physical properties of sea water, ocean circulation, evolution of ocean basins, coastal geomorphology, the distribution and abundance of organisms in the major marine communities, the status of the world's most important fisheries, and the role of the ocean in the global carbon cycle. Not open to students who have received credit for Biology 110. Enrollment limited to 40. Offered with varying frequency. W. Ambrose.
BIO 114. Extreme Physiology.Physiology, the study of how organisms function, has benefited tremendously from studies of amazing animals doing amazing things. How do bar-headed geese fly over the top of Mount Everest when humans struggle to reach the summit? How do fish withstand body temperatures below the freezing point of water? This course explores how animals work under extreme environmental conditions and what this reveals about human physiology in health and disease. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every year. R. Bavis.
BIO 115. Discover Neuroscience.Neuroscience as a discipline is relatively new, but the process of scientific investigation into brain and nervous system function has taken place for centuries. In this course students explore the major discoveries and ideas that have contributed to our current understanding of the nervous system. Topics may include, but are not limited to, Galen's philosophy of brain function, the contributions of women to discovery in neuroscience, comparisons of early techniques for visualizing brain tissue with modern noninvasive imaging techniques (such as PET scans), and the future of discovery in neuroscience. Enrollment limited to 40. Offered with varying frequency. N. Kleckner.
BIO 118. Bugs in the System.Insects—numerous, ubiquitous, diverse, and uniquely equipped—strongly influence ecosystem processes and human health, culture, and history. This course introduces insects' biology and diversity and explores insects' ecological roles and consequent impacts on human affairs. Selected topics—colonial and postcolonial medical entomology, typhus and war, the historical silk and contemporary cotton industries, discourses on sociobiology and biodiversity, twentieth-century popular culture, and the politics of pesticides—illustrate how insect-human interactions contribute to social history in ways both obvious and obscure. Enrollment limited to 40. Offered with varying frequency. S. Kinsman.
BIO 120. Toxins.Issues and potential problems related to toxic materials are reported almost daily by the mass media. Misunderstandings raised by the reports are often due to a lack of basic knowledge about toxicology. This course introduces basic principles of toxicology by discussing topics such as the Woburn, Massachusetts, leukemia cluster and trichloroethylene groundwater contamination that was publicized by A Civil Action. The majority of the course emphasizes principles essential to assessing risks chemicals pose to humans but also discusses the impacts of chemicals on organisms at the population, community, and ecosystem levels. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every other year. R. Sommer.
BIO 121. Plant Diversity.A survey of marine and freshwater algae, the fungi, mosses, ferns, fern allies, and seed plants. Lecture and laboratory studies emphasize comparative structures, functions, habitats, and evolutionary relationships. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every year. R. Thomas.
BIO 124. Plants and Human Affairs.A survey of economically and historically important plants, with emphasis on aspects of agronomy, forestry, plant biochemistry, and ethnobotany. Plant products studied include perfumes, spices, medicinals, fermentation products, oils, rubber, textiles, wood, sugar, cereals, and legumes. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every year. R. Thomas.
BIO 125. Environmental Microbiology.Microorganisms live in a variety of habitats and exhibit great metabolic diversity. This course explores the relationships between microorganisms, particularly the bacteria, fungi, and algae, and their biotic and physical environments. Among the topics for discussion are soil microbiology and biogeochemical cycles, bioremediation, and aquatic microbiology. Consideration is given to human health and disease. Laboratory investigations focus on microbial habitats and metabolic diversity. Not open to students who have received credit for Biology 107 or 315. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every year. K. Palin.
BIO 127. Emerging Infections across the Globe.Emerging infections are those that are newly described, appear in different geographic regions, or move into new host populations. In this course students examine the biology of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other organisms that cause these infections as well as the mechanisms by which they produce disease. Consideration is given to transmission patterns, treatments, and preventions. Topics may include infections of global concern such as malaria, tapeworms, dengue fever, HIV-AIDS, polio and other childhood diseases, cholera, and tuberculosis. Not open to students who have received credit for First-Year Seminar 236. Enrollment limited to 40. Offered with varying frequency. K. Palin.
BIO 131. Human Genetics and Biotechnology.How does DNA function to produce the traits seen in animals? How are these traits passed on from generation to generation? How can the study of human genetic disease give us insight into answering these questions? This laboratory and lecture course in genetics begins with a review of Mendelian inheritance and ends with a discussion of modern molecular research and its enormous impact on humankind. DNA fingerprinting, in vitro manipulation of embryos, and the production of transgenic animals are discussed. Special attention is given to the ecological and ethical impacts of genetic technology. This course presumes that students have a background in genetics from high school biology. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every year. J. Pelliccia.
BI/MA 155. Mathematical Models in Biology.Mathematical models are increasingly important throughout the life sciences. This course provides an introduction to deterministic and statistical models in biology. Examples are chosen from a variety of biological and medical fields such as ecology, molecular evolution, and infectious disease. Computers are used extensively for modeling and for analyzing data. Recommended background: a course in biology. Not open to students who have received credit for Biology 155 or Mathematics 155. Enrollment limited to 30. Normally offered every other year. J. Rhodes.
BI/GE 181. Introduction to Paleontology.The evolution of the vertebrates above the species level is treated in both biological and geological contexts. Not open to students who have received credit for Biology 181. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every year. E. Minkoff.
BIO 201. Biological Principles.The methods and principles of biology are introduced in the context of an issues-oriented approach that emphasizes coherent understanding of the origin and cellular basis of life, mechanisms of evolution, genetics, and biological diversity. Other selected issues, which may vary from year to year, may include cancer, AIDS, drugs, sociobiology, plant adaptations, and conservation biology. Laboratories involve design and execution of experiments in cooperative groups and a collaborative project on organismal diversity. Quantitative analysis of data and peer-reviewed scientific writing are emphasized. Students experience the connections among the fields of biology, the interdisciplinary nature of today's biology, and the connections between biological and social issues. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): any 100-level course in biology, or designated First-Year Seminar (215, 226, 243), or Neuroscience 200, or Chemistry 125 or s32, or Advanced Placement credit. Enrollment limited to 21 per section. Normally offered every year. R. Sommer.
BIO 211. Marine Invertebrates.A survey of the varieties, morphology, development, evolution, and behavior of invertebrates with an emphasis on marine animals. Laboratory work includes the study, through dissection and experiment, of representative organisms. The course includes field trips to local marine habitats. Prerequisite(s): Biology 201. Enrollment limited to 14 per section. Normally offered every other year. W. Ambrose.
BIO 231. Genetics.A discussion of the principles of inheritance gained from a study of the function of DNA, RNA, and protein. Topics include bacterial and viral genetics, population genetics, ecological genetics, and the genetics of model organisms. Prerequisite(s): Biology 242 or s42. This course has been reinstated beginning Fall 2005. Enrollment limited to 40. J. Pelliccia.
BIO 242. Cellular and Molecular Biology.A view of life at the cellular and molecular levels. Topics include cellular energetics, membrane phenomena, genetics, and molecular biology. Laboratory studies include enzymology, bacterial transformation, the light reactions of photosynthesis, microbial genetics, and polymerase chain reaction analysis of DNA. This course is required for the biology, biological chemistry, and neuroscience majors. Prerequisite(s): Chemistry 108A or Environmental Studies/Chemistry 108B. Recommended background: Biology 101. Offered every year beginning in fall 2006. Not open to students who have received credit for Biology s42. Enrollment limited to 60. Normally offered every year. Staff.
BIO 244. Biostatistics.A course in the use of both descriptive and inferential statistics in the biological sciences, including such topics as types of data, population structure, probability distributions, common types of statistical inference (t-, F-, and chi-square tests), correlation and regression, analysis of variance, and an introduction to nonparametric statistics. Prerequisite(s): one college biology course. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 50. Normally offered every year. E. Minkoff.
BIO 258. Evolutionary Biology.Evolution is the great unifying theory in biology. It is the context into which all other biological subjects fit. The course examines various aspects of evolution, including the origin of life, the major events in the evolution of life on Earth, the processes that result in evolutionary change, the nature of the fossil record, the history of evolutionary theories, and creationist objections to these theories. Not open to students who have received credit for Biology 158. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. Offered with varying frequency. E. Minkoff.
BIO 260. Environmental Toxicology.Environmental toxicology is the study of the impacts of pollutants upon organisms and the structure and function of ecological systems. It draws from a variety of disciplines, including ecology, chemistry, organismal and developmental biology, genetics, epidemiology, and mathematics. This course provides an overview of the field by discussing toxicant introduction, movement, distribution, and fate in the environment; toxicant sites and mechanisms of action in organisms and ecosystems; and toxicant impact upon organisms and ecosystems. Basics of toxicity testing design and analysis are an important part of the laboratory. Prerequisite(s): Chemistry 108A and Biology 201; or Chemistry/Environmental Studies 108B and Biology 201; or Environmental Studies 203. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 24. Normally offered every other year. R. Sommer.
BIO 265. Invasive Plant Ecology.Species transported and established beyond their original range may become invasive, changing the distribution and abundance of local species, and altering the composition, structure, and dynamics of local communities. This course uses knowledge of the ecology of plants—including individual adaptations and abilities; population dynamics; community patterns and dynamics; life history and reproduction; and interactions with mutualists, competitors and herbivores—to recognize and evaluate the patterns and causes of invasive plant species' effects on communities and ecosystems. Discussions of research literature emphasize the mechanisms of effects; field laboratories emphasize identification, assessment in common and rare local community types, and management planning. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: Biology 101, 121, 124, 201, or Environmental Studies 203. Some Saturday field trip laboratories are required. New course beginning Fall 2005. Enrollment limited to 12. Normally offered every other year. S. Kinsman.
BIO 268. Entomology.A study of insects, the largest group of animals. Lectures and laboratories emphasize insect morphology and physiology, evolution and classification, as well as behavior, ecology, and field study. Selected topics may include flight, development and hormones, variations in life cycles and reproductive modes, courtship and parental care, and evolution of mutualisms, defense, and social behavior. Certain laboratories are scheduled as weekend afternoon field trips. In addition, one overnight museum field trip may be scheduled. Prerequisite(s): Biology 201. Enrollment limited to 14 per section. Offered with varying frequency. S. Kinsman.
BIO 270. Ecology.An introduction to ecological and evolutionary patterns, principles, and processes. Topics include life history and adaptation, speciation, population dynamics and interactions, community structure, and ecosystem processes. Laboratories include experimental investigations of several levels of biological organization using cooperative lab groups. Prerequisite(s): Biology 201. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every year. S. Kinsman.
BIO 285. Primates and Human Origins.A course in primatology and physical anthropology for students of biology, psychology, anthropology, and other fields. Topics include primate evolution, paleoanthropology, primate sociobiology, primate behavior, human diversity, and the physical prerequisites for culture. Conflicting views on phylogeny, race, intelligence, and behavior are also discussed. Prerequisite(s): Biology 201. Offered with varying frequency. E. Minkoff.
BI/NS 308. Neurobiology.The course is an introduction to the molecular and cellular principles of neurobiology, and the organization of neurons into networks. Also included are the topics of developmental and synaptic plasticity, and the role invertebrate systems have played in our understanding of these processes. Laboratories include electrical recordings of nerve cells, computer simulation and modeling, and the use of molecular techniques in neurobiology. Recommended background: Neuroscience/Psychology 200. Prerequisite(s): Biology s42. Not open to students who have received credit for Biology 308 or Neuroscience 308. Enrollment limited to 12 per section. Normally offered every year. N. Kleckner.
BIO 311. Comparative Anatomy of the Chordates.An introduction to the comparative anatomy of the vertebrates and their kin, with laboratory study of both sharks and mammals. Prerequisite(s): Biology 201. Enrollment limited to 18. Offered with varying frequency. E. Minkoff.
BIO 313. Marine Ecology.An examination of the complex ecological interactions that structure marine systems. Habitats studied include intertidal, estuary, coral reef, deep sea, salt marsh, and pelagic. Laboratories include work in local marine communities and require occasional weekend trips. Prerequisite(s): Biology 270. Enrollment limited to 12 per laboratory section. Normally offered every other year. W. Ambrose.
BIO 314. Virology.A lecture and seminar examination of the molecular biology of viruses, including viroids and bacteriophages. Topics include viral infection and replication cycles, morphology, oncogenesis, and virus-host interactions. Viruses of epidemiologic and biotechnologic importance are emphasized. Prerequisite(s): Biology s42. Enrollment limited to 30. Normally offered every other year. L. Abrahamsen.
BIO 315. Bacteriology.A survey of the structure and physiology of bacteria, emphasizing adaptations of these organisms to specific environmental niches. Particular attention is given to organisms of medical, ecological, or industrial interest. Prerequisite(s): Biology s42. Enrollment limited to 25. Normally offered every year. L. Abrahamsen.
BIO 316. Molecular Aspects of Development.An investigation of developmental processes in complex plants and animals. The course focuses on embryonic development and includes the roles of genetic and environmental determinants. There is an emphasis on cell communication processes mediating such processes as cell fate specification, differentiation, pattern formation, and sex determination. The similarities and differences among these processes in organisms are highlighted. Prerequisite(s): Biology s42. Offered with varying frequency. J. Pelliccia.
BIO 320. Pharmacology.Pharmacology is the study of the actions and effects of drugs within a living organism. It studies all drugs, whether they are illegal, legal, prescription, or over-the-counter. This course places an emphasis on treatment of illness and disease in mammals and presents mechanisms of action, and therapeutic uses and toxicities of important drugs, including medications that affect the peripheral nervous system, cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal tract, endocrine system, reproductive system, and agents used to treat cancer. Prerequisite(s): Biology s42. Recommended background: Biology 337. Offered with varying frequency. R. Sommer.
BIO 323. Forest Ecology.Study of terrestrial plants' population dynamics, community patterns, and adaptations to physical and biological environments, with an emphasis on the North Woods. Field trip learning is central. Topics include alpine and subalpine vegetation of Mount Washington, adaptations to selected wetland conditions, plant-animal interactions, reproduction and demography, forest disturbance dynamics, and plant communities of the historically forested landscapes of northern New England. Some Saturday field trip laboratories are required. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: First-Year Seminar 226, Biology 124, 201, Environmental Studies 203, 302. Enrollment limited to 12. Offered with varying frequency. S. Kinsman.
BIO 331. Molecular Biology.A laboratory and lecture introduction to the molecular biology of genes and chromosomes. The course emphasizes current research about gene structure and function, experimental techniques, and eukaryotic genetics. Prerequisite(s): Biology s42. Normally offered every year. S. Richards.
BIO 335. Avian Biology.Birds are among the most conspicuous animals in the environment, occupying terrestrial and aquatic niches from the tropics to the poles. This course examines the origin and diversification of birds and explores avian morphology, physiology, and behavior in an ecological and evolutionary context. Topics include flight, communication, feeding, migration, and reproduction. The course includes a laboratory and requires three Saturday field trips. Prerequisite(s): Biology 270. Enrollment limited to 12. Normally offered every other year. R. Bavis.
BIO 337. Animal Physiology.The major physiological processes of animals, including digestion, circulation, respiration, excretion, locomotion, and both neural and hormonal regulation. Examples are drawn from several species and include a consideration of the cellular basis of organ-system function. Prerequisite(s): Biology s42. Enrollment limited to 12 per laboratory section. Normally offered every year. R. Bavis.
BIO 338. Drug Actions on the Nervous System.This course focuses on the biochemistry and physiology of neural tissues. An emphasis is placed on neurotransmitter systems, and on drugs thought to act on these systems. The relationships between the actions of drugs at molecular, cellular, and behavioral levels are also discussed. Prerequisite(s): Biology s42. Recommended background: Neuroscience/Psychology 200, 363, or Biology/Neuroscience 308. Offered with varying frequency. N. Kleckner.
BIO 340. Introduction to Epidemiology.Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of disease, injuries, and health within populations. This course examines the frequencies and types of illnesses and injuries within various groups and the multiple factors that influence their distribution. Students consider infectious, chronic, emerging, and reemerging diseases of historic and current importance. Models and preventions are discussed. Prerequisite(s): Biology s42. Not open to students who have received credit for Biology 240. Enrollment limited to 30. Offered with varying frequency. K. Palin.
BIO 341. Electron Microscopy.An introduction to the principles of electron optics, with emphasis on biological applications. Topics covered in lecture or laboratory include preparation of specimens for transmission and scanning electron microscopy; use of the scanning electron microscope; use of associated photographic, X-ray dispersive, cytochemical, immunological, and autoradiographic techniques; and interpretation of data. Special-interest topics are chosen by students for independent research projects. Prerequisite(s): Biology s42. Enrollment limited to 6. Offered with varying frequency. R. Thomas.
BIO 351. Immunology.The immune system is studied as an example of the body's chemical communication networks and as one mechanism for memory. Topics include production of an immune response, immune surveillance in the maintenance of health, the effects of psychological and environmental factors on the immune system and on health, and the effects of immune dysfunctions (autoimmune diseases and immune deficiencies including AIDS). The course emphasizes the human immune system but briefly covers comparative immunology. The course includes a laboratory. Prerequisite(s): Biology s42. Normally offered every year. S. Richards.
BIO 360. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study per semester. Normally offered every semester. Staff.
BIO 365. Special Topics.Offered at irregular intervals by a faculty member in an area of contemporary interest.
BIO 380. Plant Physiology.A study of organismal and cellular functions important in the life of green plants. Topics include mineral nutrition, water relations, metabolism, and regulatory processes. Prerequisite(s): Biology s42. Enrollment limited to 20. Offered with varying frequency. R. Thomas.
BIO 457. Senior Thesis.Permission of the department and the thesis advisor are required. Students register for Biology 457 in the fall semester and for Biology 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both Biology 457 and 458. Instructor permission is required. Normally offered every year. Staff.
BIO 457, 458. Senior Thesis.Permission of the department and the thesis advisor are required. Students register for Biology 457 in the fall semester and for Biology 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both Biology 457 and 458. Instructor permission is required. Normally offered every year. Staff.
BIO 458. Senior Thesis.Permission of the department and the thesis advisor are required. Students register for Biology 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both Biology 457 and 458. Instructor permission is required. Normally offered every year. Staff.
BIO 460. Junior-Senior Seminar.Reading original biological literature is an essential skill for biology majors. Focusing on the topics addressed by invited speakers for the semester's biology seminar program, students review articles, write analyses, and contribute oral presentations in a small group format. Students attend afternoon and/or evening seminars and discuss the content, context, and presentation of original investigations. This course is required of all biology majors. Prerequisite(s): Biology 201, 270, and s42. One of these courses may be taken concurrently, only by permission of the instructor. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every semester. Staff.
BIO 470. Seminar and Research in Ecology.Laboratory, field, or library study of a current research topic in experimental ecology. A topic is selected with reference to the research interests of the instructor. Prerequisite(s): Biology 270. Enrollment limited to 6. Instructor permission is required. Offered with varying frequency. Staff.
BIO 471. Seminar and Research in Experimental Botany.Laboratory, field, or library study of a current research topic in experimental botany. A topic is selected with reference to the research interests of the instructor. Enrollment limited to 6. Instructor permission is required. Offered with varying frequency. R. Thomas.
BIO 472. Seminar and Research in Evolution and Physiology.Laboratory or library study of a current research topic in animal physiology. Students may select a topic with reference to the research interests of the instructor. Recommended background: Biology 337. Enrollment limited to 6. Instructor permission is required. Offered with varying frequency. Staff.
BIO 473. Seminar and Research in Cell Biology.Laboratory and library study of a current research topic in the experimental study of biology at the cellular level. A topic is selected with reference to the research interests of the instructor. Recommended background: Biology s42. Enrollment limited to 6. Instructor permission is required. Offered with varying frequency. Staff.
BIO 474. Seminar and Research in Marine Ecology.Laboratory, field, and library study of advanced topics in marine ecology. Topics are selected in relation to research interests of the instructor and students. Prerequisite(s): Biology 244 and 270. Recommended background: Biology 211. Enrollment limited to 6. Instructor permission is required. Offered with varying frequency. W. Ambrose.
BIO 475. Seminar and Research in Environmental Toxicology.Laboratory and library study of a current research topic in environmental toxicology. Topics are selected in relation to research interests of the instructor and students. Recommended background: Biology s42. Enrollment limited to 6. Instructor permission is required. Offered with varying frequency. R. Sommer.
BIO 476. Seminar and Research in Neurobiology.Laboratory or library study of a current research topic in molecular or cellular neurobiology. A topic is selected in reference to the research interests of the instructor. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: Biology/Neuroscience 308, Biology 337, 338, or Psychology/Neuroscience 363. Enrollment limited to 6. Offered with varying frequency. N. Kleckner.
Short Term Courses
BIO s22. The Insect World.Insects—the most numerous and diverse animals—critically influence ecosystems and history. What are the designs and adaptations of these tiny creatures? How do they live nearly everywhere, and how do their obscure lifestyles so strongly influence human lives? This unit introduces insects' design and function, explores their lifestyle diversity, identifies their roles in ecoystems, and traces their influences on human health and enterprises. Films, demonstrations, and field trips supplement classroom learning. At least one overnight field trip is scheduled. New course beginning Short Term 2006. Not open to students who have received credit for Biology 118 or 268. Enrollment limited to 20. Offered with varying frequency. S. Kinsman.
BIO s23. Understanding Cancer.As a cause of mortality in the Western world, cancer is second only to cardiovascular disease. What causes cancer? How is cancer diagnosed and classified? How do flaws in fundamental biological processes drive cancerous growth? What are current therapeutic options and potential new treatments in the fight against cancer? These questions and more are explored in the classroom and the laboratory. Enrollment limited to 30. Offered with varying frequency. R. Sommer.
BIO s26. Work-Study Internship in the Natural Sciences.Participation by qualified students 35-40 hours per week in the work of a local or distant institution or organization concerned with the application of scientific knowledge. Such institutions include, but are not limited to, hospitals, medical or veterinary offices, biotechnology firms, aquaria, environmental education centers, agricultural and aquaculture farms. Internships require departmental approval via application. Application to the department must be made by the end of January, prior to Short Term registration. More information is available on the department's Web page. Interns are supervised by a staff member. Not open to students who have received credit for Biology s36. Instructor permission is required. Normally offered every year. Staff.
BIO s29. Nature Photography.A study of photographic techniques used by biologists in the field and laboratory, with emphasis on close-up photography of plants and animals. Additional areas covered include landscape and aerial photography, photomicrography, and preparation of photographs for lectures or publication. Required: access to a 35mm single-lens reflex camera. Recommended background: one course in biology at the 100 level. There is a materials fee of $120.00 per student. Enrollment limited to 15. Instructor permission is required. Offered with varying frequency. R. Thomas.
BIO s31. Evolutionary Ecology Field Study.This field unit focuses on the ecology of freshwater invertebrates from an evolutionary perspective. Topics of study include: biotic and abiotic aspects of freshwater habitats, species interactions, life history evolution, behaviors and their evolutionary consequences, adaptation, reproductive modes, dispersal, and genetic diversity in populations. Students use a combination of field studies and simple molecular genetic techniques to address these topics. They participate in a class project and also carry out individual research projects. Prerequisite(s): Biology 270. Enrollment limited to 12. Offered with varying frequency. Staff.
BIO s32. Experimental Marine Ecology.A survey of marine animals and plants, and their relationships with each other and with their environment. Students learn to identify marine flora and fauna and carry out research projects. Recommended background: Biology 211 or 270. Enrollment limited to 8. Instructor permission is required. Offered with varying frequency. Staff.
BIO s33. Phenotypic Plasticity.The ability of organisms to express different morphological, physiological, and behavioral traits in different environments has emerged as a key principle in modern biology. This unit explores the proximate physiological basis of this phenotypic plasticity. Other topics include the genetic basis and evolution of phenotypic plasticity, as well as the roles of plasticity in health and disease. Examples are drawn from both animal and plant studies. The unit is organized around discussion of the primary scientific literature and research projects selected with reference to research interests of the instructor. Recommended background: Biology 270. Prerequisite(s): Biology 101 or 201. New course beginning Short Term 2006. Enrollment limited to 8. Instructor permission is required. Offered with varying frequency. R. Bavis.
BIO s34. Electron Microscopy.An introduction to the principles of electron optics with emphasis on biological applications. Topics covered in classroom and laboratory activities and on field trips include use of the scanning electron microscope, use of associated X-ray dispersive and cytochemical techniques, preparation of specimens for scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and interpretation of data. Special interest topics are chosen by students for independent research projects. Recommended background: Biology 101. Prerequisite(s): Biology S42. New Course beginning Short Term 2007. Enrollment limited to 8. Offered with varying frequency. R. Thomas.
BIO s35. Experimental Toxicogenomics.Students learn principles and techniques of toxicology, genomics, and developmental biology. Drawing on primary literature, students form hypotheses about organ systems and genes that are likely targets of developmental arsenic exposure. They test their hypotheses using a zebrafish model system. Laboratory techniques that monitor normal zebrafish development and assess gene expression are integral to the laboratory research component of the course. Students live and work for two weeks at the Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory. Prerequsite(s): any 100-level biology or chemistry course. New unit beginning Short Term 2005. Enrollment limited to 16. Offered with varying frequency. R. Sommer.
BIO s37. Forest and Landscape.An investigation of the patterns and history of New England's forests and associated plant communities, with an emphasis on field study and research. Students review the influences of geological patterns, climate, unusual soil and water conditions, natural disturbances, and human activities on community type, occurrence, and history. Central to the unit are visits to a variety of field sites, and field learning to describe the structure, composition, and history of several communities. Primary literature is emphasized. Prerequisite(s): Biology 270 or Environmental Studies 302. Enrollment limited to 8. Offered with varying frequency. S. Kinsman.
BI/GE s38. Geologic and Biologic Field Studies in the Canadian Arctic.This unit examines the biology and Quaternary geology of the eastern Canadian Arctic. Research focuses on glaciology, snow hydrology, and sedimentation in fjords and lakes, and the adaptations required of terrestrial and aquatic plants and animals to survive in the Arctic. Students prepare geologic and vegetation maps, examine animal distributions, study modern fjord and lacustrine environments, and collect and analyze water and sediment samples from lake and marine environments. Emphasis is placed on the relations between biological and geological patterns. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: Biology 201 or any introductory geology course. Recommended background: field experience in biology or geology. Not open to students who have received credit for Biology s38 or Geology s38. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 12. Instructor permission is required. Offered with varying frequency. W. Ambrose, M. Retelle.
BIO s42. Cellular and Molecular Biology.A view of life at the cellular and molecular levels. Topics include cellular energetics, membrane phenomena, and molecular biology. Laboratory techniques include enzymology, cell fractionation, microbial genetics, and electrophoresis. Prerequisite(s): Biology 201, and Chemistry 108A or Chemistry/Environmental Studies 108B. Open to first-year students by instructor permission only. Normally offered every year. S. Richards, L. Abrahamsen.
BIO s44. Experimental Neuro/Physiology.A study of contemporary research techniques in the fields of neurobiology, physiology, and pharmacology. Topics may include the pharmacology of recombinant neurotransmitter receptors or the physiology and pharmacology of invertebrate neurons. This unit requires extensive laboratory work in independent projects. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: Biology/Neuroscience 308, Biology 278, 337, 338, or Psychology/Neuroscience 363. Course reinstated beginning Short Term 2006. Enrollment limited to 12. Offered with varying frequency. N. Kleckner.
BIO s46. Internship in the Natural Sciences.Off-campus participation by qualified students as team members in an experimental research program 35-40 hours per week. Internships require departmental approval via application. Application to the department must be made by the end of January, prior to Short Term registration. More information is available on the department's Web page. Interns are supervised by a staff member. Enrollment limited to 15. Instructor permission is required. Normally offered every year. Staff.
BIO s50. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study during a Short Term. Normally offered every year. Staff.