Classical and Medieval Studies

Professors Jones (History), Corrie (Art and Visual Culture), Allison (Religion), and O'Higgins (Classical and Medieval Studies); Associate Professors Imber (Classical and Medieval Studies; chair) and Maurizio (Classical and Medieval Studies); Lecturers Hayward (Classical and Medieval Studies) and Walker (Classical and Medieval Studies)

The Bates Program in Classical and Medieval Studies combines a uniquely interdisciplinary study of cultural history with an emphasis on empowering students themselves to read and assess texts in the relevant ancient languages. The program is distinctive in linking the study of classical antiquity with that of the medieval worlds and distinctive in its scope. It embraces as classical antiquity the ancient Mediterranean as a whole, including North Africa, Crete, and Sicily, as well as the many cultures that composed "Greece" and "Rome." The medieval world includes Islamic and Viking civilizations as well as the great cathedral builders of northern Europe and the full extent of the Byzantine Empire and its border states. Students are encouraged to study abroad in selected programs in order to appreciate the material aspects of these diverse cultures. The program aims to be truly interdisciplinary, integrating the perspectives of history, literature, philosophy, religion, the environmental sciences, art, architecture, and other material culture.

More information on the classical and medieval studies program is available on the Web site (www.bates.edu/CMS.xml).

Cross-listed Courses. Note that unless otherwise specified, when a department/program references a course or unit in the department/program, it includes courses and units cross-listed with the department/program.

Major Requirements. Within this interdisciplinary major students may elect to concentrate in either classical studies or medieval studies. The major requires twelve courses. This may include a Short Term unit.

1) Two of the following courses: Classical and Medieval Studies/History 100; 102; 106; 107; Classical and Medieval Studies/Religion 101, Art and Visual Culture/Classical and Medieval Studies 252.

2) Four courses in Latin or four courses in Greek to be taken at Bates or through other authorized College programs.
3) Five additional courses selected from classical and medieval studies and the list below.

4) A one-semester senior thesis, Classical and Medieval Studies 457 or 458. Thesis advisors are chosen by the chair of the program in consultation with the students, according to thesis subject.

Pass/Fail Grading Option. Pass/fail grading may not be elected for the ancient language courses required for the major.

General Education. Any one classical and medieval studies Short Term unit may serve as an option for the fifth humanities course. First-Year Seminar 320 may count toward the humanities requirement.

Courses

CM/HI 100. Introduction to the Ancient World.

This course introduces the Greco-Roman world, and serves as a useful basis for 200- and 300-level courses in classical civilization. Within a general chronological framework students consider the ancient world under a series of headings: religion, philosophy, art, education, literature, social life, politics, and law. The survey begins with Bronze Age Crete and Mycenae and ends with the first century B.C.E., as Rome makes its presence felt in the Mediterranean and moves toward empire. Not open to students who have received credit for Classical and Medieval Studies 100 or History 100. Enrollment limited to 60. (Premodern.) Normally offered every other year. D. O'Higgins.

CM/RE 101. Religion and Empire: Religious Conflict in Late Antiquity.

This introduction to the age we call late antiquity (the third through the eighth centuries) explores the emergence of many of today's religions from complex circumstances of the post-classical world. In addition to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, this course investigates Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism as well as the continuation of Greco-Roman polytheism and religious philosophies (Neoplatonism). Topics include state control of religion, the increasing importance of community and ethnicity associated with religious doctrines in this period, mysticism, and ways of thinking about the individual, the divine, and eternal life. Enrollment limited to 40. Offered with varying frequency. R. Allison.

CM/HI 102. Medieval Europe.

Far from being an "enormous hiccup" in human progress, the medieval centuries (circa 350-1350) marked the full emergence of Islamic, Byzantine, and West European civilizations. These powerful medieval cultures shape our present. The central theme of this introductory survey course is the genesis and development of a distinct Western European medieval civilization including its social, economic, political, and cultural aspects. Important topics include the devolution of the Roman Empire; the Christianization of the West; the origins of the Byzantine world; the rise of Islam; and the history of medieval women. Not open to students who have received credit for History 102. (Premodern.) Normally offered every year. M. Jones.

CM/HI 106. Greek Civilization.

This course considers: 1) the archaic civilization of Homer, a poet celebrating the heroes of an aristocratic and personal world; 2) the classical civilization of Aeschylus, Sophocles, Aristophanes, and Phidias, the dramatists and sculptor of a democratic and political Athens; 3) the synthesis of Plato, celebrating the hero Socrates and attempting to preserve and promote aristocratic values in a political world. Not open to students who have received credit for History 201. (Premodern.) Normally offered every year. J. Cole.

CM/HI 108. Roman Civilization: The Republic.

In this course students explore the civilization and history of ancient Rome from the foundation of the Republic in 510/509 B.C.E. until its collapse in civil war and its transformation into a monarchy under Julius Caesar and his nephew, Octvaian. Each week the class convenes for lectures devoted to the political, social, and cultural history of the Republic. In addition, students meet once a week to discuss in detail primary sources for the period. Recommended background: Classical and Medieval Studies/History 101. New course beginning Winter 2006. Enrollment limited to 60. (Premodern.) Normally offered every other year. M. Imber.

CM/HI 109. Roman Civilization: The Empire.

In this course students examine the civilization and history of ancient Rome from the Principate, the monarchy established by Octavian in 27 B.C.E., until the end of Justinian's dynasty at the beginning of the seventh century of the common era. Each week the class convenes for lectures devoted to the political, social, and cultural history of the Empire. In addition, students meet once a week to discuss in detail primary sources for the period. Recommended background: Classical and Medieval Stuides 101 and 107. New course beginning Winter 2006. Enrollment limited to 60. (Premodern.) Normally offered every other year. M. Imber.

CM/EN 121C. Arthurian Literature.

The story of King Arthur of Britain and his Knights of the Round Table is one of Western civilization's most enduring legends. This course explores those elements of the Arthur story that make it so universally compelling in addition to the ways in which its details have been adapted according to the needs and desires of its changing audience. Topics considered include feudal loyalty and kinship, women and marriage, monsters and magic, the culture of violence and warfare, and the stylistic and narrative features of the legendary mode. Students consider modern versions of the story by Marion Zimmer Bradley and T. H. White, Victorian versions by Tennyson and Beardsley, and, in modern English translations, French, English, and Latin versions made popular in the twelfth through fifteenth centuries. New course beginning Fall 2005. Enrollment limited to 25. Offered with varying frequency. S. Federico.

CM/RH 160. Classical Rhetoric.

The Romans ran the ancient world by the sword, but also by the word. This course explores how they did the latter. Readings include classical works about rhetoric, examples of classical oratory, and the variety of exercises by which the practice of rhetoric was taught. Writing assignments include analyses of speeches by classical orators, as well as a range of ancient rhetorical exercises such as fables, speeches of praise and invective, persuasive speeches to historical figures, and mock courtroom speeches. The course concludes with an examination of the Gettysburg Address and consideration of its debt to classical rhetorical theory. All readings are in English. Not open to students who have received credit for Classical and Medieval Studies 160 or Rhetoric 160. Offered with varying frequency. M. Imber.

CMS 180. War, Women, and Wastelands.

Homer created an imaginary world in which supermen pitted themselves against other heroes and the forces of nature, while beautiful women picked their way through the wreckage left behind. We find a similar vision of life in other ancient societies, but it is Homer's world that has captured people's imaginations for almost 3,000 years. This course focuses on Homer's two great epic adventures, the Iliad and the Odyssey. It may also include early epics from other societies, such as Gilgamesh or Beowulf, as well as later works that have been strongly influenced by the Homeric tradition, such as the Argonauts of Apollonius, Virgil's Aeneid, or Dante's Inferno. Offered with varying frequency. H. Walker.

CMS 200. Ancient Comedy and Satire.

Students read (in translation) the comic poets and satirists of Greece and Rome and investigate the nature and social context of ancient humor, satire, and invective. Authors include Homer, Hesiod, Archilochus, Semonides, Aristophanes, Menander, Terence, Horace, Seneca, and Petronius. Recommended background: Classical and Medieval Studies 100. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every other year. D. O'Higgins.

CMS 202. Greek Tragedy.

This course introduces students to fifth-century Athenian tragedies in English translation. The plays form the primary focus of the course, but there are many related topics of discussion: the origin of tragedy and its religious significance, its political context and content, tragedy's audience and affective power, tragedy's self-conscious relationship with epic and lyric. Students also read and discuss a representative selection of modern criticism on Greek tragedy. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every other year. D. O'Higgins.

CM/HI 203. Great Wars of Greek Antiquity.

Much of the perennial appeal of the history of the Persian Wars and the Peloponnesian War lies in storied confrontations of East and West, empire and freedom, rise and fall, folly and intelligence, war and peace, victory and defeat. More of the interest for the reflective student lies in the critical use of the classical sources, especially Herodotus and Thucydides, and in the necessary qualification of those too-simple polarities, East/West, empire/freedom, rise/fall, folly/intelligence, war/peace, victory/defeat, and, of course, good/bad. Not open to students who have received credit for History 202. Open to first-year students. (Premodern.) Normally offered every other year. J. Cole.

CM/WS 204. Gender and the Body in Ancient Greece.

How did people in ancient Greece think about the categories of male and female? How did these categories intersect with others, such as social status, age, and ethnicity? This course considers issues of gender in archaic and classical Greece, and looks at how Greek men and women thought about the body, sexuality, and "transgressive" behavior and individuals. Students analyze literary texts (in translation) as well as medical, religious, and legal evidence—inscriptional and textual—and modern scholarship. Not open to students who have received credit for Classical and Medieval Studies 201. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 35. Normally offered every other year. D. O'Higgins.

CMS 205. Ovid's Metamorphoses Transformed.

Very soon after its publication, Ovid's Metamorphoses became the standard source for the stories of Greco-Roman mythology. This course traces (in English) the various retellings of some of those myths through medieval, Renaissance, and modern times, in Europe and the Americas, primarily in literary reworkings, but with some attention to art and music as well. Reading portions of the Ovidian original in Latin is encouraged for students with one or more years of Latin. Open to first-year students. Offered with varying frequency. T. Hayward.

CM/HI 207. The Roman World and Roman Britain.

The Roman Empire is famous for its decline and fall. Stretching from the Euphrates to the Atlantic, however, this remarkable multiethnic empire persisted for 500 years. Its story is a fascinating example of what Theodore Mommsen tagged the moral problem of "the struggle of necessity and liberty." This course is a study of the unifying and fragmenting forces at work on the social, economic, and political structures of the Roman imperial world. Key themes include the western provinces and Roman Britain, the effects of Romanization on conquered peoples, and the rise of Christianity. The survey begins with the reign of Augustus and concludes with the barbarian invasions of the fifth century. Not open to students who have received credit for History 207. Open to first-year students. (Premodern.) Normally offered every other year. M. Jones.

INDS 208. Introduction to Medieval Archeology.

The Middle Ages were a time of major cultural changes that laid the groundwork for Northwest Europe's emergence as a global center of political and economic power in more recent centuries. However, many aspects of life in the period from 1000 to 1500 C.E. were unrecorded in contemporary documents and art, and archeology has become an important tool for recovering that information. This course introduces the interdisciplinary methods and the findings of archeological studies of topics including medieval urban and rural lifeways, health, commerce, religion, social hierarchy, warfare, and the effects of global climate change. Cross-listed in anthropology, classical and medieval studies, environmental studies, and history. New course beginning Fall 2005. Open to first-year students. (Premodern.) G. Bigelow.

CM/HI 209. Vikings.

The Vikings were the most feared and perhaps misunderstood people of their day. Savage raiders branded as the Antichrist by their Christian victims, the Vikings were also the most successful traders and explorers of the early Middle Ages. The Viking Age lasted for three centuries (800-1100 C.E.), and the Vikings' world stretched from Russia to North America. Study of the myth and reality of Viking culture involves materials drawn from history, archeology, mythology, and literature. Prerequisite(s): History 102. Not open to students who have received credit for Classical and Medieval Studies 209 or History 209. (Premodern.) Offered with varying frequency. M. Jones.

CMS 210. Greek Temples for Greek Gods.

Who can think of ancient Greece without conjuring a white marble temple reaching into the blue Mediterranean sky? How did the structure, location, and sculptural details of temples embody a Greek understanding of the place of human beings in the cosmos, the nature of gods, and the relationship between the two? Students examine the temples of classical Athens in their religious, architectural, and cultural context in order to address these questions. Offered with varying frequency. L. Maurizio.

CM/RE 218. Greek and Roman Myths.

Did the Greeks and Romans believe their myths about winged horses, goddesses, and golden apples? How are myths related to the religious, political, and social world of Greece and Rome? This course examines Greek and Roman myths from a variety of theoretical perspectives in order to understand their meaning in the ancient world and their enduring influence in Western literature and art. Not open to students who have received credit for Classical and Medieval Studies 218 or Religion 218. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 60. Normally offered every other year. L. Maurizio.

CM/WS 219. Greek Myths and the Psychology of Gender.

Ever since Freud argued that Sophocles' Oedipus Rex revealed the most important feature of human development, the Oedipal crisis, psychologists have used Greek myths to understand the human psyche and sexual difference. What do myths tell us about men, women, femaleness, maleness, in ancient Greece or today? Students examine and criticize how influential psychologists such as Freud have interpreted Greek myths and thereby influenced Western notions of gender and sex. This course emphasizes psychological interpretations of Greek myths. It therefore differs from and complements Classical and Medieval Studies 218 (Greek and Roman Myths). Not open to students who have received credit for Classical and Medieval Studies 265. Open to first-year students. Offered with varying frequency. L. Maurizio.

CM/HI 231. Litigation in Classical Athens.

This course studies the practice of law in ancient Athens. About 100 speeches survive from the fourth century B.C.E. in which Athenians contested everything from wills and property disputes to the worthiness of political candidates for office and the proper conduct of domestic and international affairs. Study of these speeches illuminates not merely the procedural organization of law in the Athenian democracy, but also the nature of political, social, and cultural structures in Athens. Consequently, the course concentrates as much on the various methodological approaches scholars have applied to the orations as on learning the mechanics of Athenian legal procedure. Not open to students who have received credit for Classical and Medieval Studies 231 or History 231. Open to first-year students. (Premodern.) Offered with varying frequency. M. Imber.

AV/CM 232. Pyramid and Ziggurat.

A survey of the art and architecture of the ancient worlds of Egypt and the Near East, with attention given to topics including women in ancient Egypt, the Kingdom of Kush, and current developments in archeology. Not open to students who have received credit for Art 232. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 50. Normally offered every other year. R. Corrie.

AV/CM 241. The Art of Islam.

Art of the Islamic world from its roots in the ancient Near East to the flowering of Safavid Persia and Mughal India in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries. Developments are traced through architecture, painting, ceramics, textiles, and metalwork. Consideration is given to the continuity of the Near Eastern artistic tradition and Islamic art in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Not open to students who have received credit for Art 241. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 50. Normally offered every other year. R. Corrie.

AV/CM 251. The Age of the Cathedrals.

An investigation of medieval architecture from the Early Christian era to the end of the Gothic period in Europe, including Russia and the Byzantine East. Emphasis is placed on the development of Christian architecture and the emergence of the Gothic cathedral in the context of European political and social history before 1500. Not open to students who have received credit for Art 251. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every other year. R. Corrie.

AV/CM 252. Art of the Middle Ages.

In Europe from the Early Christian era to the end of the Gothic age, from 300 to 1450 C.E., precious objects, manuscripts, wall paintings, and stained glass were produced in great quantities. The course traces the development of these and other media, including tapestry and sculpture. Emphasis is placed on the changing images of men and women in medieval art. The roles of liturgy, theology, and technological and social changes are stressed. Not open to students who have received credit for Art 252. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 50. Normally offered every other year. R. Corrie.

AV/CM 265. Florence to Bruges: The Early Renaissance in Europe.

This course investigates the art and architecture of Northern and Southern Europe between 1250 and 1450. Students analyze the impact of theology, liturgy, social change, urbanism, gender, and social class on visual culture. Artists considered include Cimabue, Duccio, Giotto, Fra Angelico, Donatello, Brunelleschi, Jan van Eyck, and Rogier van der Weyden. Not open to students who have received credit for Art 265. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every other year. R. Corrie.

CMS 285. Democracies and Crisis: Athens and America.

This course considers how the response of a democracy to external threats affects its internal notions of civil liberties. Students examine the pressures the Peloponnesian War and the rise of Macedon imposed on ancient Athenian notions about the rights of citizens. They compare these classical precedents with contemporary debates about civil liberties and executive power in the United States in the wake of 11 September 2001. This writing-intensive course is intended to help sophomores and juniors prepare for senior thesis work in the humanities and social sciences. Recommended background: Classical and Medieval Studies 231, Classical and Medieval Studies/History 100, 106, Political Science 115 and 118. Enrollment limited to 25. Offered with varying frequency. M. Imber.

CMS 360. Independent Study.

Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study per semester. Normally offered every semester. Staff.

AV/CM 376. Seminar in Medieval and Renaissance Art.

This seminar examines the visual culture of Europe and the Mediterranean basin in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. In different years the seminar focuses on specific subjects, which may include manuscript illumination, regional architecture, Crusader art, and medieval urbanism.

AV/CM 376C. Siena: Art and Social Memory.

At the height of its power Siena, Italy, bankrolled much of Europe and from 1250 to 1450 produced images that influenced painting from England to the Islamic world. Studying the work of Sienese artists including Duccio, Simone Martini, and the Lorenzetti, this course investigates the ties between visual culture (including sculpture and architecture) and politics, economics, religion, urban structure, and social identity. Recommended background: at least one 200-level course in the history of art and visual culture or the equivalent, or a course in medieval or Renaissance history. Not open to students who have received credit for Art 376C or Classical and Medieval Studies 376C. Enrollment limited to 15. Offered with varying frequency. R. Corrie.

AV/CM 376D. Crusader Art and Architecture.

This seminar investigates the visual and material culture of the Crusader states found between 1099 and 1500 from Jerusalem to Syria, Constantinople, Greece, and the islands of the Aegean. Focused on manuscript and icon painting, sculpture, and church and military architecture of the Frankish states, it also addresses the related production of Armenian Cilicia, the Byzantine Empire, Cyprus, Greece, the Balkan kingdoms, Europe, and the Islamic Near East and North Africa, concluding with a consideration of the nineteenth- and twentieth-century fascination with the Crusades and the recent flowering of scholarship on Crusader art. Recommended background: at least one 200-level course in the history of art and visual culture or in a related field such as history or religion. Not open to students who have received credit for Art 376D or Classical and Medieval Studies 376D. Enrollment limited to 15. Offered with varying frequency. R. Corrie.

CM/HI 390D. Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.

Edward Gibbon's classic Decline and Fall is the most famous work of history written in English. This course uses it as an introduction to the problem of the collapse of complex, premodern societies and specifically the end of the Roman West. Changing historical explanations for the fall of Rome are a microcosm of Western historiography. Students also explore basic questions on the nature of history and historians. Not open to students who have received credit for History 390D. Enrollment limited to 15. (Premodern.) Offered with varying frequency. M. Jones.

CM/HI 390I. Anglo-Saxon England.

This seminar concentrates on Dark Age Britain (circa 400-800 C.E.). This period is a mystery wrapped in an enigma. Ignorance and obscurity offer one advantage to students: the sources are so few that they may be explored in a single semester. The course is designed to present typical kinds of early medieval evidence (saints' lives, chronicles, annals, charters, poetry, genealogy, archeology), introduce students to their potentials and difficulties, and then set a series of problems that requires application of these materials to gain an answer. Not open to students who have received credit for History 390I. Enrollment limited to 15. (Premodern.) Offered with varying frequency. M. Jones.

CM/HI 390R. The Catilinarian Crisis.

This seminar explores the causes of the Catilinarian crisis in the year 63 B.C.E., and the consequences of Catiline for the Roman Republic. Students read and analyze the primary sources for the political career of Rome's great failed rebel, study the complex context of Roman politics during the thirty years between Sulla and Caesar's successful dictatorships, and the careers and ambitions of Rome's prominent political and military leaders (Pompey, Crassus, Caesar, and Cicero), all of whom played critical roles in the Catilinarian crisis. Finally, students study and critique the often contradictory scholarly assessments of the Catilinarian crisis. Prerequisite(s): One 100 level course in Classical and Medieval Studies or history, and one 200 level course in Classical and Medieval Studies or history. New Course beginning Winter 2006 Enrollment limited to 25. Normally offered every other year. M. Imber.

CM/EN 395E. Medieval Romance.

Romance was the most popular literary genre of the later Middle Ages. Originating in France in the twelfth century, this highly adaptable form quickly became an international phenomenon, with numerous examples found across Europe and the British Isles. Many romances tell tales of amorous exploits, exotic travels, and quests for knowledge; the celebration of chivalric ideals is a central theme. But many of these tales seem to question and sometimes undermine the very ideals they otherwise espouse: courtly love mingles with sexual adventurism, for instance, and loyalty to one's lord often results in alienation or death. Students read a selection of romances from France and Britain (all texts are in modern English translation or manageable Middle English) with an eye toward how they variously articulate and deconstruct the notion of chivalry. Prerequisite(s): one English course. New course beginning Winter 2006. Enrollment limited to 15. Instructor permission is required. Offered with varying frequency. S. Federico.

CM/EN 395Q. Images of Sainthood in Medieval English Literature.

The saints of the Christian church were not only central to the belief system of the European Middle Ages, they also provided an opportunity for rich and varied narrative and cultural constructions. The saints' legends found in the medieval English collection that is the focus of this course sometimes reveal more about the hopes and fears of the people by and for whom they were composed than about the saints themselves, but they are no less interesting for that reason. Translation of a chosen text, historical investigation, and creative rewriting all play a part in the process of acquainting students with the nature of narrative and the continuing hold the saints have upon our imagination. Prerequisite(s): English 206. Enrollment limited to 15. Instructor permission is required. (Pre-1800.) Offered with varying frequency. A. Thompson.

CMS 457. Senior Thesis.

Required of all majors. The research and writing of an extended essay in classical and medieval studies, following the established practices of the field, under the guidance of a supervisor in the classical and medieval studies program. Students register for Classical and Medieval Studies 457 in the fall semester and for Classical and Medieval Studies 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both Classical and Medieval Studies 457 and 458. Normally offered every year. Staff.

CMS 457, 458. Senior Thesis.

Required of all majors. The research and writing of an extended essay in classical and medieval studies, following the established practices of the field, under the guidance of a supervisor in the classical and medieval studies program. Students register for Classical and Medieval Studies 457 in the fall semester and for Classical and Medieval Studies 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both Classical and Medieval Studies 457 and 458. Normally offered every year. Staff.

CMS 458. Senior Thesis.

Required of all majors. The research and writing of an extended essay in classical and medieval studies, following the established practices of the field, under the guidance of a supervisor in the classical and medieval studies program. Students register for Classical and Medieval Studies 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both Classical and Medieval Studies 457 and 458. Normally offered every year. Staff.
Short Term Courses

AV/CM s19. From Antiquity to Renaissance in Florence and Rome.

In Florence and Rome, students investigate the persistence of the classical aesthetic in Italy through the centuries from ancient Rome to the Renaissance. Not open to students who have received credit for Art s27. Enrollment limited to 10. Instructor permission is required. Offered with varying frequency. R. Corrie.

CM/EN s22. Reading Chaucer: A Brief Introduction to The Canterbury Tales in Middle English.

This unit focuses on learning to read late fourteenth-century Middle English in the dialect used by the most celebrated and influential poet of the medieval period, Geoffrey Chaucer, and on close study of the General Prologue and a small number of tales from The Canterbury Tales. Selections include The Wife of Bath's Prologue and Tale, one of the most frequently read and controversial Chaucerian texts. Students consider a few representative critical approaches to the contemporary problems The Wife poses, including questions of power, gender, and domestic violence. New course beginning Short Term 2005. E. Hansen.

INDS s26. Reading in the Greek New Testament.

Intensive introduction to New Testament Greek. Students begin reading in the Gospel of John, while studying the Koine, or commonly spoken Greek language of late classical and early Christian times. No previous knowledge of Greek is assumed. Cross-listed in classical and medieval studies, Greek, and religion. Not open to students who have received credit for Classical and Medieval Studies s26, Greek s26, or Religion s26. Enrollment limited to 8. Offered with varying frequency. R. Allison.

CMS s27. Readings in the Odyssey of Homer.

The Odyssey has proved an inspiring and inexhaustible text over the centuries. This unit explores the poem in detail, examining its cultural and literary context and considering modern approaches to this most enigmatic text. The unit is taught in English, but students who have completed one or more years of ancient Greek are encouraged to read sections in Greek, and learn how to "perform" the poetry. Enrollment limited to 15. Instructor permission is required. Offered with varying frequency. Staff.

INDS s27. The Viking World: Archeology and Ethnohistory.

When the Vikings poured out of their Scandinavian homelands they transformed the early medieval world. Tales of their piracy and raiding dominate the written records of the time, but a growing volume of archeological and environmental evidence is shedding new light on the Vikings as explorers, founders of towns, traders, artisans, and specialists in northern agriculture and fishing. This unit emphasizes the findings of archeology and studies of Icelandic sagas in outlining the lifeways, historical impacts, and differing fates of the Scandinavian peoples from 800-1100 C.E. Cross-listed in anthropology, classical and medieval studies, and history. New unit beginning Short Term 2005. (Premodern.) Offered with varying frequency. G. Bigelow.

CMS s28. Food in Ancient Greece and Rome.

In this unit, students explore aspects of food in ancient Greece and Rome: the food supply, for both agrarian and urban populations; malnutrition and famine; the hierarchical symbolism of the heroic banquet—a division of the sacrificial animal among ranked members of society, and between men and gods; cuisine and delicacies of the rich; the Roman "orgy" in film and in fact; forbidden food, and the implications of dietary transgression; and sacred food. Students engage in some actual cookery, using Apicius and other ancient sources; the course culminates in a Roman banquet. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. Offered with varying frequency. D. O'Higgins.

INDS s28. Shetland Islands: Archeological Field Course.

The main element of this unit is the excavation of a late medieval/early modern farmstead at Brow, Shetland (Scotland). Early settlement in Shetland was on the margin of successful medieval colonization of the North Atlantic. The Brow site is a revealing "laboratory" in which to explore the interaction of climate change and human settlement in a fragile coastal zone. A series of field trips in mainland Scotland place the Brow excavation in the wider context of settlement, environment,archeology and history ofScotland and the North Atlantic. Recommended background: Prior courses in Medieval history or archaeology. Cross-listed in history, environmental studies and classical and medieval studies. Not open to seniors. New Course beginning Short Term 2006. Enrollment limited to 10. Instructor permission is required. Normally offered every year. M. Jones.

CM/EN s29. Tolkien's Middle Ages.

J. R. R. Tolkien, in his double roles as popular writer and Oxford medievalist, taught countless numbers of readers to appreciate many of the central themes of medieval literature. These overarching themes—including the relationship between the natural and the supernatural spheres, the struggle between good and evil, and the morally ambivalent status of monsters and magicians—are largely found in early Celtic and Norse mythology. In this unit students analyze these myths in an attempt to better understand where Tolkien's Hobbit is coming from, and how the novelist adopted and adapted medieval material for his modern audience. All texts are read in modern English. New course beginning Short Term 2006. Enrollment limited to 30. Offered with varying frequency. S. Federico.

CMS s29. Two Thousand Years of Classical Myth.

Using Ovid's Metamorphoses as a foundation, this unit traces (in English) some of the many versions of Greco-Roman myths through medieval, Renaissance, and modern times, in Europe and the Americas, primarily in literary reworkings, but including some examples from art and music as well. Reading portions of Ovid in the original language is encouraged for students with one or more years of Latin. New course beginning short term 2007. Enrollment limited to 30. Offered with varying frequency. T. Hayward.

CMS s30. World Theater and the Ancient Stage.

Students work under the supervision of faculty and visiting artists in leadership positions with other students in the production of a play that fuses a distinct theatrical tradition or style with ancient Greek tragedies, myth, or dramatic technique. Students must audition for acting roles. Enrollment limited to 15. Instructor permission is required. L. Maurizio.

CMS s50. Independent Study.

Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study during a Short Term. Normally offered every year. Staff.


Additional Courses
The following courses, described under their departmental listings, may be applied to the major.

AN/RE 225. Gods, Heroes, Magic, and Mysteries: Religion in Ancient Greece.

ENG 206. Chaucer.

REL 213. From Law to Mysticism.
REL 214. Bible and Quran.
REL 235. Ancient Israel: History, Religion, and Literature.
REL 236. Introduction to the New Testament.
REL 238. Early Jewish History and Thought.
REL 241. History of Christian Thought I: Conflict, Self-Definition, and Dominance.
REL 242. History of Christian Thought II: The Emergence of Modernity.
REL 245. Monks, Nuns, Hermits, and Demons: Ascetic and Monastic Christianity.

SPAN 240. Loco amor/buen amor.

Greek
Latin

Greek and Latin

The study of Greek and Latin language is an important component of the major in classical and medieval studies. Ancient languages are the royal road to a complicated and vital past which, for better or worse, still haunts our present. In addition, the study of Greek and Latin language has practical and professional benefits. Graduate programs in English and modern languages, for example, frequently require reading knowledge of either Greek or Latin, and professional programs in law and medicine often favor applicants who have studied an ancient language. Studying either Greek or Latin not only offers insight into English vocabulary but also leads to understanding how languages work and hence to improving one's own writing skills and logical thinking.

Courses at the 200 and 300 levels have been created for second-, third-, and fourth-year students. Students who have had only one year of college-level Greek or Latin at Bates or the equivalent at another institution should register for the 200-level course. All other students should register for the 300-level course. During some semesters, second-year students may meet separately from upper-division students. Other semesters, students will meet collectively for two of three classes per week and divide into smaller groups to accommodate their individual needs. All courses focus on improving language skills (developing vocabulary, increasing reading comprehension, and learning meter if appropriate) as well as exploring the historical context of the author(s) studied.

Secondary Concentration. A secondary concentration in Greek or Latin requires a minimum of six courses in Greek or Latin and one course in translation chosen from the following: Classical and Medieval Studies/History 100, 102, 106, 107; Classical and Medieval Studies/Religion 101; Classical and Medieval Studies/Art 252. A student may petition to have up to three comparable courses, completed at institutions either in the United States or abroad, apply toward the secondary concentration.

Greek Courses

Courses

GRK 101. Elementary Ancient Greek.

The objective of the course is to begin a study of classical Greek as a foundation for upper-level reading courses. It covers the basics of grammar, syntax, and vocabulary building. Students learn to read Greek sentences and passages and to translate from English into Greek. During the early stage much learning by rote of forms and rules is necessary, but students find that Greek is a structured and beautiful language, and the pleasure of reading "in the original" is inestimable. Normally offered every year. D. O'Higgins, Staff.

GRK 101-102. Elementary Ancient Greek.

The objective of the course is to begin a study of classical Greek as a foundation for upper-level reading courses. It covers the basics of grammar, syntax, and vocabulary building. Students learn to read Greek sentences and passages and to translate from English into Greek. During the early stage much learning by rote of forms and rules is necessary, but students find that Greek is a structured and beautiful language, and the pleasure of reading "in the original" is inestimable. Normally offered every year. D. O'Higgins, Staff.

GRK 102. Elementary Ancient Greek.

The objective of the course is to begin a study of classical Greek as a foundation for upper-level reading courses. It covers the basics of grammar, syntax, and vocabulary building. Students learn to read Greek sentences and passages and to translate from English into Greek. During the early stage much learning by rote of forms and rules is necessary, but students find that Greek is a structured and beautiful language, and the pleasure of reading "in the original" is inestimable. Normally offered every year. Staff.

GRK 201. Classical Prose.

Called the "age of enlightenment," classical Greece witnessed the invention of democracy, philosophy, and medicine, to name but a few. Students read Plato, Thucydides, Demosthenes, or Lysias in order to understand how and why the Greeks created these disciplines and institutions. Prerequisite(s): Greek 101 and 102. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every other year. Staff.

GRK 202. Classical Poetry.

From Oedipus' self- blinding to the trial of a cheese grater, Athenian tragedies and comedies portray the human condition and the Athenian political world. Students read the works of the comedians, Aristophanes and Menander, and the tragic poets, Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, who dramatized and satirized the human condition. Prerequisite(s): Greek 101 and 102. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every other year. Staff.

GRK 203. Prose about Archaic Greece.

As the population exploded in archaic Greece, so did political, social, religious, and cultural institutions. The Persians invaded Greece, the Olympics were inaugurated, tyrants were overthrown, and law courts invented. Students examine these momentous events in archaic authors such as Herodotus and Antiphon or in later writers such as Plutarch and Pausanias. Prerequisite(s): Greek 101 and 102. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every other year. Staff.

GRK 204. Poetry from Archaic Greece.

Homer sang about Troy's destruction and Odysseus' travels; Hesiod, about the birth of gods and his cheating brother. Sappho praised the power of Aphrodite; Alcaeus, the power of wine. Students explore how the poets in archaic Greece sang about their lives and their world. Prerequisite(s): Greek 101 and 102. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every other year. Staff.

GRK 301. Classical Prose: Advanced.

This course covers the same material as Greek 201, but is designed for students who have completed two or more years of college-level Greek. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every other year. Staff.

GRK 302. Classical Poetry: Advanced.

This course covers the same material as Greek 202, but is designed for students who have completed two or more years of college-level Greek. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every other year. Staff.

GRK 303. Prose about Archaic Greece: Advanced.

This course covers the same material as Greek 203, but is designed for students who have completed two or more years of college-level Greek. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every other year. Staff.

GRK 304. Poetry from Archaic Greece: Advanced.

This course covers the same material as Greek 204, but is designed for students who have completed two or more years of college-level Greek. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every other year. Staff.

GRK 360. Independent Study.

Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study per semester. Normally offered every semester. Staff.
Short Term Courses

INDS s26. Reading in the Greek New Testament.

Intensive introduction to New Testament Greek. Students begin reading in the Gospel of John, while studying the Koine, or commonly spoken Greek language of late classical and early Christian times. No previous knowledge of Greek is assumed. Cross-listed in classical and medieval studies, Greek, and religion. Not open to students who have received credit for Classical and Medieval Studies s26, Greek s26, or Religion s26. Enrollment limited to 8. Offered with varying frequency. R. Allison.

Latin Courses

Courses

LATN 101. Elementary Latin.

A humanistic introduction to classical Latin vocabulary, forms, and syntax, with special emphasis on reading the actual words of ancient authors. Relations to English grammar and etymology are stressed. The course concentrates on Latin-English translation, with some English-Latin composition. Latin 101 is not open to students with two or more years of Latin in secondary school. Normally offered every year. M. Imber.

LATN 101-102. Elementary Latin.

A humanistic introduction to classical Latin vocabulary, forms, and syntax, with special emphasis on reading the actual words of ancient authors. Relations to English grammar and etymology are stressed. The course concentrates on Latin-English translation, with some English-Latin composition. Latin 101 is not open to students with two or more years of Latin in secondary school. Normally offered every year. M. Imber.

LATN 102. Elementary Latin.

A humanistic introduction to classical Latin vocabulary, forms, and syntax, with special emphasis on reading the actual words of ancient authors. Relations to English grammar and etymology are stressed. Concentration on Latin-English translation, with some English-Latin composition. Latin 101 is not open to students with two or more years of Latin in secondary school. Normally offered every year. Staff.

LATN 201. Prose of the Empire.

The persecution of Christians, the eruption of Mount Vesuvius, and Nero's fiddle are topics of the diverse literature of the Roman Empire. Students read letters, philosophical treatises, histories, and novels from the likes of Tacitus, Seneca, Pliny, and Suetonius. Prerequisite(s): Latin 101 and 102. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every other year. Staff.

LATN 202. Poetry of the Empire.

From Ovid's fables of women turning into trees to Lucan's descriptions of battles and Seneca's drama of Thyestes who feasts on his sons, the tumultuous events of the Roman Empire find strange expression in the poets who could not write openly about the cruelties of their emperors. Students read the works of Ovid, Seneca, Lucan, Statius, and Martial. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every other year. Staff.

LATN 203. Republican Prose.

The Roman Republic was imagined to be the result of fratricide and rape. Caesar crossed the Rubicon and Cicero's hands and ears were cut off and then hung in the Forum. The course explores the social, political, and religious foundations as well as the violence of the Roman Republic through the eyes of authors such as Livy, Cato, Cicero, Sallust, and Caesar. Prerequisite(s): Latin 101 and 102. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every other year. Staff.

LATN 204. Republican Poetry.

Why do slaves always have the leading roles in Roman comedy? Was Aeneas pious or power-hungry? Did Lesbia really have 300 lovers? The Roman Republic was explained, celebrated, criticized, and ignored in the works of its poets. The course answers why and how through a study of such writers as Plautus, Catullus, Virgil, and Horace. Prerequisite(s): Latin 101 and 102. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every other year. Staff.

LATN 301. Prose of the Empire: Advanced.

This course covers the same material as Latin 201, but is designed for students who have completed two or more years of college-level Latin. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every other year. Staff.

LATN 302. Poetry of the Empire: Advanced.

This course covers the same material as Latin 202, but is designed for students who have completed two or more years of college-level Latin. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every other year. Staff.

LATN 303. Republican Prose: Advanced.

This course covers the same material as Latin 203, but is designed for students who have completed two or more years of college-level Latin. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every other year. Staff.

LATN 304. Republican Poetry: Advanced.

This course covers the same material as Latin 204, but is designed for students who have completed two or more years of college-level Latin. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every other year. Staff.

LATN 360. Independent Study.

Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study per semester. Normally offered every semester. Staff.

LATN 365. Special Topics.

Designed for the small seminar group of students who may have particular interests in areas of study that go beyond the regular course offerings. Periodic conferences and papers are required. Instructor permission is required.