Philosophy and Religion

Professors Okrent, Tracy, Strong (chair), Allison, and Bruce; Associate Professor Cummiskey; Assistant Professors Stark and O'Callaghan; Lecturer Caspi

Philosophy

The practice of philosophy is a careful, in-depth study of humanity's most basic ideas, presuppositions, and beliefs. Its goal is to understand as clearly as possible one's conception of the world and humanity's place in it, and to see to what extent one's beliefs are justified. Some topics in philosophy include the nature of morality, the justification of law, the possibility of free will, the nature of beauty, the place of mind in a physical world, the nature of perception, the justification of our beliefs, the possibility of knowledge, the social construction of gender, the understanding of the self, the understanding of time and space, the possible existence of god, the nature and possibility of truth, the purpose and proper understanding of language, the nature of emotions, as well as the point and value of philosophical inquiry. Beginning students can get a sense of the breadth of philosophy by taking Philosophy 150, Introduction to Philosophy, but students new to philosophy are also encouraged to start out with 200-level courses that focus on particular problems of philosophical interest. Although critical reading, thinking, and writing skills are developed in all philosophy classes, Philosophy 195, Introduction to Logic, provides a more focused study of proper reasoning that is beneficial to majors and nonmajors alike. The study of philosophy, with its creative interplay of insight and reason, has ancient roots yet the subject remains in continual ferment. The Bates philosophy curriculum emphasizes both the history of philosophical thought and the striking innovations, insights, and relevance of contemporary philosophy. More information on the philosophy curriculum is available on the Web site (www.bates.edu/PHIL.xml).

Cross-listed Courses. Note that unless otherwise specified, when a department/program references a course or unit in the department/program, it includes courses and units cross-listed with the department/program.

Major Requirements. (Note: Students graduating in 2007 or before may choose to fulfill the old major requirements listed in the 2003-2004 catalog.) Students who choose to major in philosophy are expected to complete eleven courses in the field. Eight of the eleven courses must meet the distribution requirements indicated below. The philosophy faculty has structured these requirements to allow students the flexibility to plan their own programs within the constraints of a broad philosophical education. Philosophy Short Term units may count toward the eleven required courses. In addition, students may, with departmental approval, fulfill one of the eleven courses with a course from another field. Students arrange their programs in consultation with their departmental advisors. Those considering attending graduate or professional school are encouraged to consult with their advisors in order to design an appropriate course of study.

1) Logic.
PHIL 195. Introduction to Logic.

2) History of Philosophy. Both of the following:
PHIL 271. Greek Philosophy.
PHIL 272. Philosophy from Descartes to Kant.

3) Ethics and Political Philosophy (the good, the right, and community). One of the following:
PL/RE 212. Contemporary Moral Disputes.
ES/PL 214. Ethics and Environmental Issues.
PHIL 256. Moral Philosophy.
PHIL 258. Philosophy of Law.

4) Metaphysics and Epistemology (being, meaning, knowledge). One of the following:
PHIL 211. Philosophy of Science.
PHIL 234. Philosophy of Language.
PHIL 235. Philosophy of Mind.
PHIL 236. Theory of Knowledge.
PHIL 245. Metaphysics.

5) Seminars.
Two courses at the 300 level.

6) Senior Thesis.
PHIL 457 or PHIL 458.

Students are urged to take the courses listed in 1) and 2) as soon as possible after they decide to major in philosophy.

The department encourages students to design interdisciplinary majors involving philosophy.

Pass/Fail Grading Option. Pass/fail grading may not be elected for courses applied toward the major.

Secondary Concentration. The secondary concentration in philosophy consists of six courses. A coherent program for each student's secondary concentration is designed in accord with program guidelines and in consultation with a member of the philosophy faculty who is chosen or appointed as the student's departmental advisor for the secondary concentration. Among the six courses there should be a) at least one seminar at the 300 level; b) at least four courses related in a coherent group. Examples might include a group of courses relevant to philosophical reflections about the student's major field, or a group of courses on ethical and political questions, or a group of courses on a specific historical period. This group of courses should be designated, in consultation with the departmental advisor, before registration for the third course in the group. The secondary concentration may include up to two Short Term units in philosophy.

Pass/Fail Grading Option. Pass/fail grading may be elected for only one course applied toward the secondary concentration.

General Education. Any one philosophy Short Term unit may serve as an option for the fifth humanities course.

Courses

INDS 165. African American Philosophers.

This course focuses on how African American philosophers confront and address philosophical problems. Students consider the relationship between the black experience and traditional themes in Western philosophy. Attention is also given to the motivations and context sustaining African American philosophers. Recommended background: African American Studies 140A or African American Studies/American Cultural Studies 119. Cross-listed in African American studies, American cultural studies, and philosophy. Not open to students who have received credit for African American Studies 165. Enrollment limited to 40. Offered with varying frequency. J. McClendon.

PHIL 170. Introduction to Ethics: Moral Luck.

This course explores the relationship between luck and morality. It examines the moral and metaphysical problem of free will, determinism, and responsibility, and the related problem of moral luck. It looks at the role friendship plays in the moral life and the ways "relational goods" help to protect us from some of the exigencies of bad luck. It considers Kant's attempt to make morality "safe" from luck. It also looks at the nature of evil and the extent to which evil is under our control. Finally, the course considers issues in social luck, and the extent to which our race, our gender, and our sexual orientation affect our morality and our ability to be happy. New course beginning Fall 2006. Not open to students who have received credit for First-Year Seminar 288. Enrollment limited to 30. Normally offered every other year. S. Stark.

PHIL 195. Introduction to Logic.

An investigation of the nature of valid reasoning, coupled with training in the skills of critical thinking. Close attention is paid to the analysis of ordinary arguments. Enrollment limited to 40 per section. Normally offered every year. C. O'Callaghan.

PHIL 211. Philosophy of Science.

Science has become our model for what counts as knowledge; the course examines that model and discusses how far its claims are justified in the light of the nature and history of science. Topics for consideration are drawn from the nature of scientific explanation, scientific rationality, progress in science, the nature of scientific theories, and the relations of science to society and to other views of the world. Readings include traditional, contemporary, and feminist work in the philosophy of science. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. Normally offered every other year. F. Chessa.

PL/RE 212. Contemporary Moral Disputes.

The course focuses on particular moral issues and the ethical arguments provoked by them. Topics discussed in the course may include abortion and euthanasia, war and nuclear arms, world hunger, and the use of natural resources. Not open to students who have received credit for Philosophy 212 or Religion 212. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30 per section. Normally offered every year. T. Tracy.

ES/PL 214. Ethics and Environmental Issues.

A study of selected issues in environmental ethics, including questions about population growth, resource consumption, pollution, the responsibilities of corporations, environmental justice, animal rights, biodiversity, and moral concern for the natural world. The course explores debates currently taking place among environmental thinkers regarding our moral obligations to other persons, to future generations, to other animals, and to ecosystems and the Earth itself. Not open to students who have received credit for Environmental Studies 214 or Philosophy 214. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. Normally offered every other year. T. Tracy.

INDS 215. African American Culture through Sports.

Sports in African American life have served in a variety of ways to offer a means for social, economic, cultural, and even political advancement. This unit examines how sports have historically formed and contemporaneously shape the contours of African American culture. Particular attention is given to such questions as the ethical dimension of segregation, the locus of gender equity, cultural imgages, and their political effects for African American athletes and the African American community. Cross-listed in African American studies, American cultural studies and philosophy. New course beginning Winter 2005. Not open to students who have received credit for Interdisciplinary Studies s18. Enrollment limited to 30. Offered with varying frequency. J. McClendon.

PHIL 220. The Rise of Philosophical Analysis.

This course explores the history of twentieth-century philosophy by examining the methods and characteristic doctrines of two successive philosophical movements. Students first focus on the early twentieth-century attempt, pioneered by Russell and the early Wittgenstein, to apply the newly developed techniques of formal logic to the analysis of the cognitive significance of our ordinary ways of talking. The course then considers the way in which a later generation of "ordinary language" philosophers, including Ryle, Austin, and the later Wittgenstein, reacted against this attempt. Readings are taken from the works of Russell, G. E. Moore, Wittgenstein, Ayer, Ryle, and Austin. Prerequisite(s): one course in philosophy. Recommended background: Philosophy 195 or two courses in philosophy. New course beginning Winter 2006. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. Normally offered every other year. M. Okrent.

AV/PL 226. Philosophy of Art.

An introduction to central issues in contemporary philosophy of art through the lens of artistic works and practice. Students investigate what constitutes a work of art, artistic representation, the nature of aesthetic qualities, and the relevance of artists' intentions to the evaluation of works of art, with close attention to visual, performance, literary, and experimental art forms. Not open to students who have received credit for Art 226 or Philosophy 241. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30 per section. Normally offered every other year. Staff.

PHIL 232. Philosophy of Psychology.

We attribute beliefs, desires, emotions, and all sorts of other psychological states (such as moods or feelings) to human beings. We use these psychological states to explain the actions that human beings take, to evaluate the rationality of an action or of a human being, and to explain when and how a person's psychological development has gone awry. This course investigates the nature of these psychological states, the ways in which they are linked to behavior, and the problems that arise when those linkages are ineffective. Specifically, this course investigates a host of issues in the philosophy of psychology including, but not limited to, self-deception, weakness of the will, motivation, irrationality, the nature of emotions, and mental health and illness. Enrollment limited to 30. Normally offered every other year. S. Stark.

PHIL 234. Philosophy of Language.

This course is an advanced introduction to contemporary issues in the philosophy of language. Students investigate the natures of reference, meaning, and truth while reading the work of Frege, Wittgenstein, Russell, Kripke, Lewis, Putnam, and others. They address questions such as: What is it for a sign or a bit of language to be meaningful? What is it for words to represent or identify something? What is it for a statement to be truthful? What is a language, and what is it to know a language? How can you believe that Superman flies while believing that Clark Kent doesn't? Prerequisite(s): one course in philosophy. Recommended background: Philosophy 195. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. Normally offered every other year. C. O'Callaghan.

PHIL 235. Philosophy of Mind.

An inquiry into the nature of human mentality that pays special attention to the issues raised by experience and the relation between thought and language. Is mind distinct from body? If not, are mental states identical with brain states, or does the mind relate to the brain as programs relate to computer hardware? What is the connection between linguistic meaning and thought? Readings are drawn from historical and contemporary sources. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every other year. M. Okrent.

PHIL 236. Theory of Knowledge.

Is knowledge possible, and if so, how? The course investigates how we can know the ordinary things we take ourselves to know. Students are introduced to major philosophical theories concerning when our thoughts about ourselves and the world are rationally justified. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. Normally offered every other year. Staff.

INDS 240. Theory and Method in African American Studies.

This course addresses the relationship between political culture and cultural politics within African American studies. Particular attention is paid to the contending theories of cultural criticism. Cornel West, Molefi Asante, Patricia Hill Collins, Angela Davis, bell hooks, Maramba Ani, and Henry Louis Gates Jr. are some of the theorists under review. Recommended background: African American Studies/American Cultural Studies 119 or significant work in political science, American cultural studies, or African American studies. Cross-listed in African American studies, American cultural studies, and philosophy. Not open to students who have received credit for American Cultural Studies 240 or Political Science 240. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 50. Offered with varying frequency. J. McClendon.

PHIL 245. Metaphysics.

This course introduces students to some of the central issues in metaphysics. Possible questions considered include: Which kinds of things exist? What is one saying when one says that something "exists"? What does it mean to say that something causes something else? What is one saying when one says that something might possibly be other than it is? What does it mean to say that something is the same identical thing at one time that it is at another? Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. Normally offered every other year. C. O'Callaghan.

PHIL 256. Moral Philosophy.

Is there a difference between right and wrong? Is it merely a matter of custom, convention, preference, or opinion, or is there some other basis for this distinction, something that makes it "objective" rather than "subjective"? How can we tell, in particular cases and in general, what is right and what is wrong? Is there some moral principle or method for deciding particular moral problems? Philosophers discussed include Aristotle, Hobbes, Hume, Kant, and Mill. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30 per section. Normally offered every year. D. Cummiskey.

PHIL 258. Philosophy of Law.

What is law? What is the relationship of law to morality? What is the nature of judicial reasoning? Particular legal issues include the nature and status of liberty rights (the right to privacy including contraception, abortion, and homosexuality, and the right to die), the legitimacy of restrictions on speech and expression (flag burning and racist hate speech), and the nature of equality rights (race and gender). Readings include traditional, contemporary, and feminist legal theory, case studies, and court decisions. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. Normally offered every year. D. Cummiskey.

PL/RE 260. Philosophy of Religion.

A consideration of major issues that arise in philosophical reflection upon religion. Particular issues are selected from among such topics as the nature of faith, the possibility of justifying religious beliefs, the nature and validity of religious experience, the relation of religion and science, and the problem of evil. Not open to students who have received credit for Philosophy 260 or Religion 260. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. Normally offered every other year. T. Tracy.

PHIL 262. Philosophy and Feminism.

To what extent, and in what sense, are the methods and concepts of traditional Western philosophy "male"? What implications might the answer to this question have for feminist philosophical thinking? This course examines the suggestion that many philosophical conceptions of knowledge, reality, autonomy, mind, and the self express a typically or characteristically male point of view. Students examine the contributions that women are making to philosophy, as well as the contributions that philosophy makes to feminism. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. Normally offered every year. S. Stark.

PHIL 271. Greek Philosophy.

A study of the basic philosophical ideas underlying Western thought as these are expressed in the writings of Plato and Aristotle. Greek thought is discussed in its historical and social context, with indications of how important Greek ideas were developed in later centuries. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. Normally offered every year. S. Stark.

PHIL 272. Philosophy from Descartes to Kant.

The problems of knowledge, reality, and morality are discussed as they developed from the time of the scientific revolution and the birth of modern philosophy until their culmination in Kant. The course considers thinkers from among the classic rationalists (Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz) and empiricists (Locke, Berkeley, Hume) as well as Kant. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. Normally offered every year. C. O'Callaghan.

PHIL 273. Philosophy in the Nineteenth Century.

The course follows the development of modern thought from Kant, through the rise and breakup of Hegelianism, to the culmination of nineteenth-century thought in Nietzsche. The impact of science, the relation of the individual and society, and the role of reflection in experience are examined in readings drawn from among Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Feuerbach, Marx, Mill, Nietzsche, and Kierkegaard. Recommended background: two courses in philosophy or Philosophy 272. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every other year. M. Okrent.

PHIL 274. Phenomenology.

A survey of several of the dominant themes in twentieth-century phenomenology. The course is designed to familiarize students with this area through the study of some of the works of Husserl and Heidegger, among others. Prerequisite(s): one course in philosophy. Normally offered every other year. M. Okrent.

DN/PL 290. Aesthetics and Dance.

What happens when the material of art is a living, breathing human body, subject to a complex array of cultural expectations? How do we pin down the fleeting moment of live performance for intellectual discourse? This course approaches issues of aesthetic theory in terms of dance and human performance. Using some of the pivotal texts that have advanced aesthetic understanding through time, students draw dance into the ongoing dialogue of the arts and their cultural significance, investigating the experience of art, the making of meaning, aesthetic perception, and the curse of beauty. New cross-listing beginning Winter 2005. Not open to students who have received credit for Dance 290. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 12. Offered with varying frequency. C. Dilley.

PHIL 321. Seminar: Topics in the Contemporary Philosophy of Mind and Language.

An examination of recent discussions of topics concerning language, intentionality, and what it is to be a person. Topics vary from year to year.

PHIL 321C. Colors and Sounds.

Traditionally, philosophical thought about perception and consciousness has focused primarily on vision—in particular, on color and color experience. Philosophers interested in the nature and content of experience have much to learn through attention to the distinctive features of other sensory modalities and the things we perceive through them. In this seminar, students examine what colors are, what sorts of things are colored, and the relationship between colors and our experiences of them. They then investigate the nature of sounds and of auditory experience, and address the questions associated with developing a philosophical theory of auditory perception. Prerequisite(s): Philosophy 211, 232, 234, 235, 236, 245, 272, or 274. Enrollment limited to 15. Offered with varying frequency. C. O'Callaghan.

PHIL 322. Seminar: Topics in Contemporary European Philosophy.

An examination of recent developments in Continental philosophy. Normally offered every other year. Staff.

PHIL 324. Seminar: Topics in Ethics.

This course focuses on important issues in ethics and political theory.

PHIL 324B. Consequentialism and its Critics.

Consequentialism is the view that the morally right act is whatever act produces the most good. The appeal of such a view is obvious; it provides a clear way of judging between moral claims, and it generally requires acts that benefit society. Critics complain that consequentialists can manipulate and even kill individuals to achieve their ends, and may also destroy themselves in the process of promoting the good. This course looks at this contemporary debate and the truth about what we ought morally to do. Prerequisites: Philosophy 212 or 256. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 12. Offered with varying frequency. D. Cummiskey.

PHIL 324C. Liberty and Equality.

Liberty and equality are the central values of contemporary political philosophy. These values, however, inevitably seem to conflict. Unlimited freedom leads to inequality, and remedies to inequality restrict liberty. This seminar focuses on competing accounts of the proper balance of liberty and communitarian political theories, and the issues of economic class, racial injustice, gender difference, and the basic liberties, rights, and responsibilities of citizenship. Prerequisite(s): Philosophy 256, 258 or Philosophy/Religion 212. This course has been reinstated beginning Fall 2005. Enrollment limited to 15. Offered with varying frequency. D. Cummiskey.

PHIL 324E. Virtue Ethics.

Virtue ethics emerged as an important kind of moral theory during the last half of the twentieth century. There are many virtue theories, but they share in common a focus on the morality of character rather than the morality of individual actions. Many seek an answer to the question, "How shall I live," rather than, "What should I do?" This course explores both the historical roots of virtue theory found in Aristotle, and according to some scholars, Kant. It also examines several contemporary theories of virtue as well as critics of this approach to moral theory. Prerequisite(s): First Year Seminar 248 or Philosophy 256. New course beginning Winter 2006 Enrollment limited to 15. Offered with varying frequency. S. Stark.

PHIL 325. Seminar: Topics in Meta-Ethics.

This course examines contemporary theories on the meaning of moral language, the possibility of moral knowledge, the existence of moral facts, the nature of moral arguments, and the relationship between morality and rationality. Philosophers typically discussed include Moore, Ayer, Stevenson, Hare, Foot, and Mackie. Some background in moral or political theory is recommended. Enrollment limited to 15.

PHIL 325B. Moral Particularism.

Until recently many moral philosophers have assumed that moral justification proceeds by showing that, for example, an action falls under some more general moral principle. However, the existence and epistemic value of moral generalities have increasingly come to be questioned by a group of contemporary moral philosophers, including Aristotelians, feminists, and some British moral realists. These particularists have advanced the striking metaphysical claim that there are no codifiable moral generalities, as well as the epistemological claim that moral justification need not be parasitic on a supposed metaphysical relationship between justified and justifying properties. This course investigates these claims. Prerequisite(s): Philosophy 256 or First-Year Seminar 248. Enrollment limited to 15. Offered with varying frequency. S. Stark.

INDS 339. Africana Thought and Practice.

This seminar examines in depth a broad range of black thought. Students consider the various philosophical problems and the theoretical issues and practical solutions offered by such scholar/activists as W. E. B. Du Bois, Marcus Garvey, Kwame Nkrumah, Claudia Jones, C. L. R. James, Leopold Senghor, Amilcar Cabrah, Charlotta Bass, Lucy Parsons, Walter Rodney, and Frantz Fanon. Recommended background: a course on the Africana world, or a course in philosophy or political theory. Cross-listed in African American studies, American cultural studies, and philosophy. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 15. Offered with varying frequency. J. McClendon.

PHIL 350. Seminar on Major Thinkers.

The course examines in depth the writings of a major philosopher. Thinkers who may be discussed include Plato, Aristotle, Plotinus, Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz, Hume, Marx, Wittgenstein, and Quine.

PHIL 350A. Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit.

A reading of Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit. In one of the most original and difficult works of philosophy, Hegel developed significant insights about the theory of knowledge and reason and about the interactions of persons and communities. Recommended background: two courses in philosophy or political theory. Instructor permission is required. Offered with varying frequency. Staff.

PHIL 351. Kant.

This course is an intensive study of Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. Interpretations by contemporary critics are considered. Prerequisite(s): Philosophy 272. Offered with varying frequency. M. Okrent.

PHIL 360. Independent Study.

Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study per semester. Normally offered every semester. Staff.

PHIL 365. Special Topics.

A course or seminar offered from time to time and reserved for a special topic selected by the department.

PHIL 365A. Human Nature.

This course examines human nature from philosophical, evolutionary, and cultural perspectives. Students focus on ideals of rationality, the role of the emotions, the nature of free will, the role of culture and biology, and conceptions of human happiness. Recommended background: two philosophy courses. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: Philosophy 150, 256, 271, or 272. Enrollment limited to 15. D. Cummiskey.

PHIL 395. Seminar:Topics in Logic.

Students address topics from among: basic metatheory of first-order logic, including soundness and completeness; computability theory and mathematical logic, including Turing machines, the halting problem, and Gödel's incompleteness results; and modal logics and possible worlds semantics. Prerequisite(s): Philosophy 195. New course beginning Fall 2005. Enrollment limited to 15. Offered with varying frequency. C. O'Callaghan.

PHIL 457. Senior Thesis.

Students register for Philosophy 457 in the fall semester and for Philosophy 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both Philosophy 457 and 458. Normally offered every year. Staff.

PHIL 457, 458. Senior Thesis.

Students register for Philosophy 457 in the fall semester and for Philosophy 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both Philosophy 457 and 458. Normally offered every year. Staff.

PHIL 458. Senior Thesis.

Students register for Philosophy 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both Philosophy 457 and 458. Normally offered every year. Staff.
Short Term Courses

INDS s18. African American Culture through Sports.

Sports in African American life have served in a variety of ways to offer a means for social, economic, cultural, and even political advancement. This unit examines how sports have historically formed and contemporaneously shape the contours of African American culture. Particular attention is given to such questions as segregation, gender equity, cultural images, and their political effects for African American athletes and the black community. In addition to the required and recommended readings, lectures, and discussions, videos and films are central to the teaching and learning process. Cross-listed in African American studies, American cultural studies, and philosophy. Not open to students who have received credit for American Cultural Studies s18, Interdisciplinary Studies 215, or Political Science s18. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. Offered with varying frequency. J. McClendon.

PHIL s21. Philosophy of Psychology.

Philosophy of psychology studies the nature of the mind—the nature of the beliefs, desires, emotions, and other psychological states of human beings. It also aims to uncover philosophical assumptions in psychology's study of the mind. This unit examines a host of problems in philosophical psychology, including the problem of consciousness, the nature of the emotions, self-knowledge in psychoanalysis, free will, moral development, and the nature of the self. Topics such as self-deception, weakness of the will, motivation, irrationality, and mental health and illness may be considered as well. Not open to students who have received credit for Philosophy 232. Enrollment limited to 30. Offered with varying frequency. S. Stark.

PHIL s25. Asian and Islamic Ethical Systems.

This unit provides a comparative study of Islamic and several Asian conceptions of ethics, including Confucian, Buddhist, and Hindu belief systems. Students carry out their own research, focusing on the beliefs, practices, and social structure of a particular tradition or community of their choice. The unit ends with seminars in which students share the results of their research. Prerequisite(s): one course in philosophy. New course beginning Short Term 2005. Enrollment limited to 15. Offered with varying frequency. D. Cummiskey.

PHIL s26. Biomedical Ethics.

During the past forty years, the rapid changes in the biological sciences and medical technology have thoroughly transformed the practice of medicine. The added complexity and power of medicine has in turn revolutionized the responsibilities and duties that accompany the medical professions. This unit explores the values and norms governing medical practice; the rights and responsibilities of health care providers and patients; the justification for euthanasia; and the problems of access, allocation, and rationing of health care services. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 12. Normally offered every other year. F. Chessa.

PHIL s50. Independent Study.

Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study during a Short Term. Normally offered every year. Staff.
Religious Studies

The study of religion is a humanistic discipline that focuses on religion as one important element in culture. Historical, literary, anthropological, and theological methods of study offer a critical approach to understanding religion and its expressions in myths, symbols, and ideas, as well as in religious communities, rituals, and moral actions.

Because this study often considers fundamental human questions that are asked by every generation, it is closely linked with other academic disciplines that study the nature and character of human life.

Majoring in the field of religion provides a focus for integrated study in the humanities. Majors are expected to consult with members of the department in designing their program. The study of religion often embraces work in other fields, and majors are encouraged to coordinate courses in other fields with their work in religion. More information on the religion curriculum is available on the Web site (www.bates.edu/REL.xml).

Cross-listed Courses. Note that unless otherwise specified, when a department/program references a course or unit in the department/program, it includes courses and units cross-listed with the department/program.

Major Requirements. (Note: Students graduating in 2007 or before may choose to fulfill the old major requirements listed in the 2003-2004 catalog). The religion major consists of eleven courses (twelve for honors candidates), one of which must be taken in another academic department/program. These courses must comprise:

1) Two courses in theoretical and/or comparative studies of religion. The courses that satisfy this requirement should include a 100-level religion course (preferably taken before the senior year), and one of the following:
REL 210. The Binding of Isaac: Three Traditions.
REL 211. Religion and Sexuality.
CM/RE 218. Greek and Roman Myths.
REL 222. Myths and Their Meaning.
AN/RE 225. Gods, Heroes, Magic, and Mysteries: Religion in Ancient Greece.
AN/RE 234. Myth, Folklore, and Popular Culture.
REL 248. Religion and Sacred Texts.
PL/RE 260. Philosophy of Religion.
AN/RE 265. Anthropological Approaches to the Study of Religion.

2) Two courses or Short Term units from two of the following areas (for a total of four courses—courses taken that are listed in more than one area cannot be counted twice):

Area A (Judaism/Islam):
RE/WS 200. Women's Journey: Still Waters Run Deep.
REL 213. From Law to Mysticism.
REL 214. Bible and Quran.
REL 235. Ancient Israel: History, Religion, and Literature.
REL 238. Early Jewish History and Thought.
REL 246. Biblical Narrative.
REL 258. From Shoah to Shoah: Judaism in the Modern World.
REL 264. The Islamic Tradition.

Area B (Christianity):
REL 236. Introduction to the New Testament.
REL 241. History of Christian Thought I: Conflict, Self-Definition, and Dominance.
REL 242. History of Christian Thought II: The Emergence of Modernity.
REL 243. Christianity and Its Modern Critics.
REL 245. Monks, Nuns, Hermits, and Demons: Ascetic and Monastic Christianity.
REL 247. City upon the Hill.
INDS s26. Reading in the Greek New Testament.

Area C (Religion and Modern Society):
PL/RE 212. Contemporary Moral Disputes.
ES/RE 215. Environmental Ethics.
INDS 228. Caring for Creation: Physics, Religion, and the Environment.
REL 230. Religion in Literature.
REL 243. Christianity and Its Modern Critics.
REL 247. City upon the Hill.
REL 255. African American Religious Traditions.
REL 270. Religion and American Visual Culture.
PL/RE s23. Environmental Ethics.
REL s24. Religion and the City.
REL s27. Field Studies in Religion: Cult and Community.

Area D (Religion in South and East Asia):
AS/RE 208. Religions in China.
AS/RE 209. Religions in Japan.
AS/RE 244. Visual Narratives: Lives Beyond Lives.
AS/RE 249. The Hindu Tradition.
AS/RE 250. The Buddhist Tradition.
AS/RE 251. Religions of Tibet.
AN/RE 263. Buddhism and the Social Order.

3) Two 300-level seminars.

4) A course or Short Term unit from outside the religion curriculum that is associated either with a course listed in requirement 1) above (theoretical and/or comparative studies) or with one of the areas chosen under requirement 2). A list of examples of such courses (in African American studies, anthropology, art and visual culture, Asian studies, classical and medieval studies, English, environmental studies, history, philosophy, political science, and women and gender studies), may be obtained from the department's Web site. Other courses in the curriculum are possible with the approval of a student's major advisor. Alternatively, this requirement may be met through two semesters of study at the college level of a relevant foreign language.

5) Religion 450. Senior Research Seminar.

6) Religion 457 or 458 (thesis) or both Religion 457 and 458 (honors thesis).

Pass/Fail Grading Option. Pass/fail grading may not be elected for courses applied towards the major.

Secondary Concentration. The secondary concentration in religion consists of six courses (or five courses and one Short Term unit), which must normally be specified prior to the start of a student's senior year. These courses are to be selected according to the following guidelines and in consultation with a member of the religion faculty who is chosen or appointed as the student's departmental secondary concentration advisor: a) one course or unit from requirement 1) above (theoretical and/or comparative studies of religion); b) at least one 300-level seminar; c) four other courses in religion.

General Education. Any one religion Short Term unit may serve as an option for the fifth humanities course. First-Year Seminars 152 and 309 count toward the humanities requirement.

Courses

REL 100. Religion and Film.

This course introduces students to cinematic representations of religion in feature and documentary films. Films about religion are cultural documents in and through which individual artists, religious and nonreligious groups, and nations symbolically construct their conceptions of themselves and the world. They are also the occasion for political, social, and cultural debates about ethnic and national identities. This course adopts a cultural studies approach to the study of films about religion and invites students to investigate the public debate and interdisciplinary questions and issues raised by the release of films such as Jesus of Montreal (Canada), The Last Temptation of Christ (the United States), The Mahabharata (England and India), Shoah (France), and The Color Purple (the United States). Enrollment limited to 40 per section. Normally offered every year. M. Bruce.

CM/RE 101. Religion and Empire: Religious Conflict in Late Antiquity.

This introduction to the age we call late antiquity (the third through the eighth centuries) explores the emergence of many of today's religions from complex circumstances of the post-classical world. In addition to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, this course investigates Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism as well as the continuation of Greco-Roman polytheism and religious philosophies (Neoplatonism). Topics include state control of religion, the increasing importance of community and ethnicity associated with religious doctrines in this period, mysticism, and ways of thinking about the individual, the divine, and eternal life. Enrollment limited to 40. Offered with varying frequency. R. Allison.

REL 110. Death and Afterlife: Bodies and Souls in Comparative Perspective.

An introduction to the comparative study of religion centering around the ways in which various traditions have addressed a basic question: What happens to humans when they die? Primary attention is given to the answers of at least three of the following religions: Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Chinese and Japanese religions. Ways of studying these answers in their many dimensions (ritual, doctrinal, mythological, sociological, psychological) are introduced; and topics such as notions of heaven and hell, reincarnation, relics, burial patterns, ghosts, visionary journeys to the other world, quests for immortality, near-death experiences, and resurrections are addressed. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every other year. J. Strong.

REL 124. Religion and Life Stories.

An introduction to Western religious thought through autobiographical writings. Topics explored include the nature and functions of religion, the formation and questioning of religious beliefs, religious conceptions of good and evil, and the links between religion and social-political action. Readings are drawn from figures such as Augustine, Joyce Hollyday, Malcolm X, Rigoberta Menchu, and Elie Wiesel. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every other year. T. Tracy.

AS/RE 208. Religions in China.

A study of the various religious traditions of China in their independence and interaction. The course focuses on the history, doctrines, and practices of Daoism, Confucianism, and various schools of Mahayana Buddhism. Readings include basic texts and secondary sources. Not open to students who have received credit for Religion 208. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every other year. J. Strong.

AS/RE 209. Religions in Japan.

A study of the various religious traditions of Japan in their independence and interaction. The course focuses on the doctrines and practices of Shinto, folk religion, and various schools of Buddhism. These are considered in the context of Japanese history and culture and set against their Korean and Chinese backgrounds. Not open to students who have received credit for Religion 209. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every other year. J. Strong.

REL 210. The Binding of Isaac: Three Traditions.

The story of Abraham and Isaac is a paradigmatic story of faith in three traditions. In the biblical narrative, Isaac (Jesus, Ishmael) does not speak upon the altar, nor does he cry out. Is it possible that he would not say a word? Still, he became the focus of a dialogic connection between God and the individual. As a reborn object of the transformative sacrifice, he became the crux (Jesus, the second Isaac) around which the world unfolded. Prerequisite(s): one course in religion. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every other year. M. Caspi.

REL 211. Religion and Sexuality.

A study of the variety of ways human conceptions of sexuality are constructed, complicated, consecrated, and institutionalized by religious discourses. This course examines major doctrines, institutional rituals and practices, and visual representations concerning sexuality in Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism. Additional topics include figurations of the sacred; myths of origin; gender; singleness, marriage, and celibacy; sexual orientation; sanctified and taboo sexual practices; eroticism and mysticism; and religious iconography. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every other year. M. Bruce.

PL/RE 212. Contemporary Moral Disputes.

The course focuses on particular moral issues and the ethical arguments provoked by them. Topics discussed in the course may include abortion and euthanasia, war and nuclear arms, world hunger, and the use of natural resources. Not open to students who have received credit for Philosophy 212 or Religion 212. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30 per section. Normally offered every year. T. Tracy.

REL 213. From Law to Mysticism.

The literary works of Jewish sages were largely formed under the impact of catastrophe. This course surveys how social, religious, and political events shaped Jewish writings, beginning with the post-biblical works of the Chariot in the first century B.C.E. and C.E., through the Qabbala (Jewish mysticism) in thirteenth-century Spain, to the Hassidic movement in eighteenth-century Eastern Europe. This course includes readings from the Book of Formation, the Zohar, and stories of Hassidic masters, as well as interpretive texts. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every other year. M. Caspi.

REL 214. Bible and Quran.

Judaism and Islam are each presented by a religious text that is considered the "word of God." This course explores the "divinity" of the texts vis-à-vis their "secular" aspects. Special attention is given to a comparative literary examination of selected stories in each text (e.g., the story of Joseph, Elijah, the Queen of Sheba), and to an analysis of the sociopolitical features of these major religious texts. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every other year. M. Caspi.

ES/RE 215. Environmental Ethics.

Values are important influences on the ways human communities relate to ecological communities, and hence on the character of the interaction between persons and their natural worlds. The course examines a range of environmental issues as moral problems requiring ethical reflection. This ethical reflection takes into account both the cultural and religious contexts that have given rise to what is understood as a technological dominion over nature, and the cultural resources still remaining that may provide clues on how to live in friendship with the Earth. Recommended background: one course in philosophy or religion. Not open to students who have received credit for Environmental Studies 214 or 215, or Philospohy 214, or Religion 215. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every other year. T. Tracy.

REL 216. American Religious History, 1550-1840.

This course introduces students to the major themes and movements in American religious history from the Colonial period to the end of Jacksonian reform. Among the topics discussed are Reformation "churches" and "sects," Puritanism and secularism in seventeenth-century America, ethnic diversity and religious pluralism in the Middle Colonies, slavery and slave religion, revivalism, religion and the American Revolution, and social reform. This course has been reinstated beginning Fall 2005. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. M. Bruce.

REL 217. American Religious History, 1840-Present.

The course seeks to understand the importance of religion in the evolution of a sense of national identity and of national destiny for the United States. Consideration is given to the importance of religious traditions both in the development and sanctioning of national mythologies, and in the critique or criticism of these mythologies. The historical background of such considerations begins with Native American religions. The course concludes with a study of "religious freedom" in a multicultural nation again uncertain of its grounds for unity. This course has been reinstated beginning Fall 2005. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. M. Bruce.

CM/RE 218. Greek and Roman Myths.

Did the Greeks and Romans believe their myths about winged horses, goddesses, and golden apples? How are myths related to the religious, political, and social world of Greece and Rome? This course examines Greek and Roman myths from a variety of theoretical perspectives in order to understand their meaning in the ancient world and their enduring influence in Western literature and art. Not open to students who have received credit for Classical and Medieval Studies 218 or Religion 218. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 60. Normally offered every other year. L. Maurizio.

REL 222. Myths and Their Meaning.

Specific examples of myths drawn from a variety of religious traditions (the ancient Near East, India, and nonliterate societies) are examined in the light of classic and contemporary theories about myth. What role do myths play? What do they mean? How do they reflect and relate to other forms of religious expression? These questions are among those addressed from a variety of perspectives. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. Offered with varying frequency. J. Strong.

AN/RE 225. Gods, Heroes, Magic, and Mysteries: Religion in Ancient Greece.

An anthropological and historical approach to ancient Greek religion in which archeological, literary, and art historical sources are examined and compared with evidence from other cultures to gain an understanding of the role of religion in ancient Greek culture and of changing concepts of the relationship between human beings and the sacred. Topics explored include pre-Homeric and Homeric religion, cosmology, mystery cults, civil religion, and manifestations of the irrational, such as dreams, ecstasy, shamanism, and magic. Not open to students who have received credit for Anthropology 225 or Religion 225. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every other year. L. Danforth, R. Allison.

INDS 228. Caring for Creation: Physics, Religion, and the Environment.

This course considers scientific and religious accounts of the origin of the universe, examines the relations between these accounts, and explores the way they shape our deepest attitudes toward the natural world. Topics of discussion include the biblical creation stories, contemporary scientific cosmology, the interplay between these scientific and religious ideas, and the roles they both can play in forming a response to environmental problems. Cross-listed in environmental studies, physics, and religion. Not open to students who have received credit for Environmental Studies 228, Physics 228, or Religion 228. Enrollment limited to 40. Offered with varying frequency. J. Smedley, T. Tracy.

REL 230. Religion in Literature.

The most fruitful approach to the meeting of religion and literature is not simply to examine literature for its explicitly religious content, but to discover how literature expresses what it means to be human (or inhuman). The course examines religious metaphors, images, and similes that express holistic meanings and human values in literature. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every other year. M. Caspi.

AN/RE 234. Myth, Folklore, and Popular Culture.

A variety of "texts," including ancient Greek myths, Grimms' folktales, Apache jokes, African proverbs, Barbie dolls, Walt Disney movies, and modern Greek folk dances, are examined in light of important theoretical approaches employed by anthropologists interested in understanding the role of expressive forms in cultures throughout the world. Major emphasis is placed on psychoanalytic, feminist, Marxist, structuralist, and cultural-studies approaches. Not open to students who have received credit for Anthropology 234 or Religion 261. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 80. Normally offered every other year. L. Danforth.

REL 235. Ancient Israel: History, Religion, and Literature.

Introduction to the Hebrew Bible (in English translation) with readings in related ancient literature. This course traces the history of ancient Israel from its prehistory in the Bronze Age (the time of the Patriarchs) through to the fall of Jerusalem to the Babylonian Empire (the end of the First Temple Period). Major topics of study include the evolution of Israelite religious ideas and practices and the various literary traditions represented in the Hebrew Bible (especially the prophetic, priestly, and wisdom traditions) and such topics as biblical mythology, nationhood, women in ancient Israel, internal politics, and international relations with the ancient Near Eastern centers of civilization. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every other year. R. Allison.

REL 236. Introduction to the New Testament.

Readings in the New Testament and related Greek and early Christian literature. Studies of the gospels include investigation into the nature of the early Jesus movement and Jesus' place in the Judaism of his day, the interpretation of Jesus' teaching in the context of Roman-occupied Palestine, and the growth of the Jesus tradition in the early Church. Topics such as the diversity of ideas about salvation, influence of Greco-Roman religious thought, the place of women in the early Church, the break between Christianity and Judaism, and the formation of the early Church in its first century are covered in the study of the New Testament epistles (emphasis on the apostle Paul's epistles) and the Book of Revelation. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every other year. R. Allison.

REL 238. Early Jewish History and Thought.

Introduction to the later books of the Hebrew Bible and to the literature, religion, and history of Judaism from the Persian Period through the Second Temple Period and the beginnings of the Roman occupation of Palestine. Major topics of study include the formation of Judaism, concepts of nationhood and the Diaspora, the origins of anti-Semitism, Hellenized Judaism, and Jewish apocalyptic. Readings include the later biblical books, selected writings from wisdom and apocalyptic works from the Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha and from the Dead Sea Scrolls, Jewish historian Josephus, Philo of Alexandria, and selected early rabbinical writings. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every other year. R. Allison.

REL 241. History of Christian Thought I: Conflict, Self-Definition, and Dominance.

This course is a study of the convictions, controversies, and conflicts by which an egalitarian Jewish revitalization movement in Palestine became a worldwide religion. Students follow Christianity's development from martyrdom and persecution to a state-sponsored religion of the Roman Empire, from internal heresy and schism to the "One Great Holy and Apostolic Catholic Church." Special attention is given to regional diversity and the changing place of women in the church. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. Offered with varying frequency. R. Allison.

REL 242. History of Christian Thought II: The Emergence of Modernity.

A study of the development of Christian thought from the fall of the Roman Empire to the beginnings of the modern era. The history of religious ideas in the West is considered in its social and political context. Readings include selections from Augustine, Gregory the Great, Anselm, Hildegard von Bingen, Aquinas, Luther, and Calvin. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. Offered with varying frequency. T. Tracy.

REL 243. Christianity and Its Modern Critics.

A study of some encounters between Christian traditions and modern culture, as they have developed since the Enlightenment. Attention is given to significant critiques of religion that have helped define the context for understanding religious meaning in a post-Christian culture. Readings are drawn from critics such as Kant, Hume, Schleiermacher, Kierkegaard, Feuerbach, Marx, Nietzsche, and Freud. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. Offered with varying frequency. C. Straub.

AV/RE 244. Visual Narratives: Lives Beyond Lives.

This course examines the narrative art of South and Southeast Asian traditions and the important artistic tradition of narrative paintings, bas-reliefs, and stone carvings. The course focuses on Buddhist and Hindu legends, stories, and folklore. Philosophically, it deals from the visual perspective with religious and popular concepts of reincarnation, rebirth, cause and effect, meritorious accumulation, wisdom perfection, and the ultimate enlightenment. The course explores different contexts in which the artworks were produced. Topics include narrative theory, text-image relationships, Jataka stories (the Buddha's previous lives), a youthful Sudhana's long search for wisdom and enlightenment, and the Ramayana epic. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every other year. T. Nguyen.

REL 245. Monks, Nuns, Hermits, and Demons: Ascetic and Monastic Christianity.

The history of Christian monasticism from the hermits of the Egyptian and Palestinian deserts to the monastic orders of the Western Middle Ages, to Eastern Orthodox Palamism, and to modern monastic revivals. Topics include monastic demonology; hermit sages and wonderworkers; ascetical mysticism; virgins, widows, and the escape from sexual suppression; pilgrimage and the cult of relics; and the rise of monastic orders. Includes a field trip to a New England monastery. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. Offered with varying frequency. R. Allison.

REL 246. Biblical Narrative.

Biblical narratives present various stories where we find fear, loss of love, death, and anxiety, all of which are part of the human condition. These aspects are examined through the narratives of Creation, and the stories of Joseph, Moses, Samson, Jonah, and Job. Enrollment limited to 40. Offered with varying frequency. M. Caspi.

REL 247. City upon the Hill.

From John Winthrop to Ronald Reagan, Americans imagined themselves as a chosen people, a righteous empire, and a city upon a hill. The course examines this religious view of America and its role in shaping American ideas regarding politics, education, work, women, ethnic groups, and other countries. Assigned readings include works by Edmund Morgan, Sacvan Bercovitch, R. W. B. Lewis, and William Clebsch. Prerequisite(s): one course in religion. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every other year. M. Bruce.

REL 248. Religion and Sacred Texts.

This course has two major goals. The first is to understand the nature and role of "sacred texts" in the three monotheistic traditions (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam). The second is to evoke the wonderful variety of their teachings and to engage the spiritual world they present. Readings are drawn from the Hebrew Bible, New Testament, Quran, Dead Sea Scrolls, Midrash, Fathers of the Church, and Qisas. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every other year. M. Caspi.

AS/RE 249. The Hindu Tradition.

An examination, through the use of primary and secondary texts, of the various traditions of Hinduism, with some consideration of their relation to Jainism and Indian Buddhism. Special attention is paid to the Vedas, Upanishads, and Bhagavad-Gita, as well as to the classical myths of Hinduism embodied in the Puranas, and to ritual and devotional practices. Not open to students who have received credit for Religion 249. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every other year. J. Strong.

AS/RE 250. The Buddhist Tradition.

The course focuses on the Buddha's life and teachings; on early Buddhism in India and the rise of various Buddhist schools of thought; on the development of Mahayana philosophies; on rituals, meditation, and other forms of expression in India and Southeast Asia. Not open to students who have received credit for Religion 250. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every other year. J. Strong.

AS/RE 251. Religions of Tibet.

Tibetan religions are a complex mixture of Indian, Chinese, and indigenous elements. This course focuses on the history, doctrines, practices, literatures, major personalities, and communities of the different religious traditions that are expressions of this mixture, including the rNying ma, bKa' brgyud, Sa skya, and dGe lugs sects of Buddhism as well as the Bön and "folk" traditions. Not open to students who have received credit for Religion 251. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every other year. J. Strong.

REL 255. African American Religious Traditions.

This course examines the origins, historical development, and diversity of African American religious traditions from the colonial era to the present. Throughout American history, African Americans have used religion not only as a means of expressing complex views of themselves and their world, but also as a form of cultural critique, social reform, economic independence, and political activism. Among the movements and topics discussed are African and Caribbean religious influences, slave religion, the rise of African American denominations, the Nation of Islam, the importance of spirituals and gospel music, Afrocentricity, and the civil rights movement. Given the complex nature of African American religious experience, this course adopts an interdisciplinary approach and draws upon scholarship on religion in sociology, political science, history, art, literature, and music. Prerequisite: Religion 100. Enrollment limited to 40. Offered with varying frequency. M. Bruce.

REL 258. From Shoah to Shoah: Judaism in the Modern World.

This course explores issues and thinkers in modern Judaism. Topics vary from year to year, and may include one or more of the following: twentieth-century European and American Jewish experience, the varieties of modern Judaism, religion and politics in contemporary Jewish thought, gender issues in Judaism, and interreligious relations with Islam or Christianity. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every other year. M. Caspi.

PL/RE 260. Philosophy of Religion.

A consideration of major issues that arise in philosophical reflection upon religion. Particular issues are selected from among such topics as the nature of faith, the possibility of justifying religious beliefs, the nature and validity of religious experience, the relation of religion and science, and the problem of evil. Not open to students who have received credit for Philosophy 260 or Religion 260. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. Normally offered every other year. T. Tracy.

AN/RE 263. Buddhism and the Social Order.

The West looks upon Buddhism as an otherworldly religion with little interest in activity in this world. Such has not been the case historically. The Dhamma (Buddhist doctrine) has two wheels, one of righteousness and one of power, one for the other world and one for this world. Lectures and discussions use this paradigm to consider the several accommodations Buddhism has struck with the realities of power in various Theravada Buddhist societies in ancient India, Sri Lanka, and Southeast Asia. Not open to students who have received credit for Anthropology 244 or Religion 263. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every other year. S. Kemper.

REL 264. The Islamic Tradition.

An introduction to the history and the classical forms of Islam with special attention to the Shi'ah and the Sunnis. In addition to introducing the Quran, the course explores basic teachings of Islam in their historical and social contexts, and covers such subjects as the life and teachings of the Prophet, the Khalifahs and the expansion of Islam, Islamic theology and law, Islamic worship and ritual, and Islamic mysticism. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. Offered with varying frequency. M. Caspi.

AN/RE 265. Anthropological Approaches to the Study of Religion.

As human societies change, so do the religious beliefs and practices these societies follow. The course examines the symbolic forms and acts that relate human beings to the ultimate conditions of their existence, against the background of the rise of science. Emphasis is placed on both Western and non-Western religions. Not open to students who have received credit for Anthropology 241, Religion 262, or Sociology 241. Open to first-year students. Offered with varying frequency. S. Kemper.

AN/RE 266. Islam, the Muslim World, and the West.

The course examines the challenges Muslims confront as they adapt Islam to everyday life in the West. What does it mean to be a Muslim in a non-Muslim context? The course focuses on Muslim immigrants, tracing their movement from country of origin to settlement in the West. It explores the relationship between religion and culture as Muslims redefine Islam in these new contexts. Topics include social practices, identity formation, gender relations, body and space, and representations of Islam. New cross-listing beginning Fall 2006. Not open to students who have received credit for Anthropology 266. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. Offered with varying frequency. H. Lindkvist.

REL 270. Religion and American Visual Culture.

A study of the constitutive role of visual culture in the formation of American religious traditions and the influence of religious experience on American art and mass culture. Moving from the colonial period to the present, this course examines the symbiotic relationship between American visual culture and religion in painting, photography, illustrated media, mass-produced objects, memorials, architecture, and decorative items. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every other year. M. Bruce.

REL 303. Seminar in Biblical Criticism.

Each year the seminar focuses upon a particular subject in biblical studies, employing the techniques of textual, historical, and form criticism and exegesis for the purpose of developing sound hermeneutical conclusions.

REL 303C. Apocalypse.

From the perspective of a new millennium, this seminar looks back at 2,000 years of Christian apocalypses and books of revelation to gain an understanding of how this kind of thinking originated and developed. The seminar focuses on apocalypse as a genre and on the major themes, images, and symbol systems of Judeo-Christian apocalyptic imagination. Readings include a wide range of Jewish and Christian books of revelation and personal accounts of journeys out of the body to heavens and hells. These texts are from the Bible, the Dead Sea Scrolls, and Jewish and Christian Apocrypha ("hidden books"). Prerequisite(s): one of the following: Religion 100, 235, 236, or 238. Enrollment limited to 15. Offered with varying frequency. R. Allison.

REL 306. Seminar on American Religious Thought and History.

The seminar focuses on a different figure, movement, or issue of significance for the development of American religious thought and history. Recommended background: a course in American cultural studies or philosophy. Enrollment limited to 15. Staff.

AS/RE 308. Buddhist Texts in Translation.

This seminar involves the close reading and discussion of a number of texts representing a variety of Buddhist traditions. Emphasis is placed on several different genres including canonical sutras, commentarial exegeses, philosophical treatises, and popular legends. Prerequisite(s): Asian Studies/Religion 250, Anthropology/Religion 263 (formerly Anthropology 244/Religion 263), or Art and Visual Culture/Asian Studies 243. Not open to students who have received credit for Religion 308. Enrollment limited to 15. Offered with varying frequency. J. Strong.

AS/RE 309. Buddhism in East Asia.

This seminar focuses on the teachings, traditions, and contemplative practices of a number of East Asian schools of Buddhism, including the Tiantai (Tendai), Huayan (Kegon), Chan (Zen), Zhenyan (Shingon), and Pure Land traditions. Special consideration is given to the question of the continuities and discontinuities in the ways these schools became established in China, Korea, and Japan. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: Asian Studies/Religion 208, 209, or 250. Not open to students who have received credit for Religion 309. Enrollment limited to 15. Normally offered every other year. J. Strong.

REL 312. Why Hidest Thy Face? Job in Three Traditions and Literature.

Victor Hugo, the nineteenth-century poet and essayist, once declared that the Book of Job is perhaps the greatest masterpiece of human history. Indeed, readers, scholars, and poets have gradually elevated this impressive amalgamation of poetry, prose, monologues, and dialogues to a monolithic stature. Nevertheless, in spite of initial portrayals of Job as a biblical rebel who courageously protests the judgment and the action of his Creator, the epilogue of the story leaves the reader somewhat disturbed. In response to Job's silent repentance the reader objects: Repent? For what sin? Enrollment limited to 15. Normally offered every other year. M. Caspi.

REL 360. Independent Study.

Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study per semester. Normally offered every semester. Staff.

REL 365. Special Topics.

Offered from time to time on topics of special interest.

REL 365A. The Sublime.

What is the sublime? Can it be described, labeled, categorized, analyzed, and/or presented? Or is it, as the French philosopher Jean-Francois Lyotard suggests, the unpresentable, that which we can conceive of and allude to but never present? Can both the desire and attempt to present the sublime in some enduring form become the occasion for terror? This seminar seeks to address these questions in the writings of Lyotard and four contemporary authors who have become witnesses of the unpresentable: Toni Morrison, Primo Levi, Edward Said, and Paul Monette. Each views narration as both a responsible act and a way of mediating the terror of such moments as slavery, genocide, exile, and disease; each attempts to say and write what seems and appears to be unpresentable. Students review the history of the concept of the sublime, discuss works by the above-mentioned authors, and examine the critical reception of their writings. Prerequisite(s): one 100-level religion course. Enrollment limited to 15. Instructor permission is required. Offered with varying frequency. M. Bruce.

REL 450. Senior Research Seminar.

A course designed to give senior majors a common core experience in research in religion. Through writing, presenting, and discussing several papers, students explore topics of their own choosing from different theoretical and comparative perspectives. Required of all majors. Enrollment is limited to junior and senior majors and, by written permission of instructor, to interdisciplinary majors. Normally offered every year. T. Tracy.

REL 457. Senior Thesis.

Research for and writing of the senior thesis, under the direction of a member of the department. Majors writing a regular thesis register for Religion 457 in the fall semester or Religion 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both Religion 457 in the fall semester and 458 in the winter semester. Normally offered every year. Staff.

REL 457, 458. Senior Thesis.

Research for and writing of the senior thesis, under the direction of a member of the department. Majors writing a regular thesis register for Religion 457 in the fall semester or Religion 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both Religion 457 in the fall semester and 458 in the winter semester. Normally offered every year. Staff.

REL 458. Senior Thesis.

Research for and writing of the senior thesis, under the direction of a member of the department. Majors writing a regular thesis register for Religion 457 in the fall semester or Religion 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both Religion 457 in the fall semester and 458 in the winter semester. Normally offered every year. Staff.
Short Term Courses

REL s24. Religion and the City.

This unit examines the specific challenges faced by religious communities and organizations working to meet the needs of inner-city residents in Lewiston, Maine. It analyzes 1) the manner in which religious leaders within a particular community articulate and set about realizing the social, political, and economic agenda of their communities and 2) how religious communities and organizations often become the site of the very conflicts that characterize their interactions with other groups on their boundaries. The unit addresses intrafaith/interfaith conflicts and the problems of the city. It includes discussions led by those working in the inner city, field trips to various institutions, and fieldwork in agencies and religious communities in Lewiston. Recommended background: a course in religion. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 12. Offered with varying frequency. M. Bruce.

INDS s26. Reading in the Greek New Testament.

Intensive introduction to New Testament Greek. Students begin reading in the Gospel of John, while studying the Koine, or commonly spoken Greek language of late classical and early Christian times. No previous knowledge of Greek is assumed. Cross-listed in classical and medieval studies, Greek, and religion. Not open to students who have received credit for Classical and Medieval Studies s26, Greek s26, or Religion s26. Enrollment limited to 8. Offered with varying frequency. R. Allison.

REL s27. Field Studies in Religion: Cult and Community.

The unit provides an opportunity for in-depth study of one of the many religious groups in southern Maine. In addition to mainstream Catholic, Protestant, and Jewish communities, there are many nearby religious movements of particular interest: Shakers, Jehovah's Witnesses, Eckanckar, Transcendental Meditation, the Shiloh Community, Catholic charismatics, Unitarians, and others. Students carry out their own field research, focusing on the social structure, beliefs, and practices of a community of their choice. The unit ends with a seminar in which students share the results of their research. Enrollment limited to 15. Offered with varying frequency. T. Tracy.

REL s50. Independent Study.

Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study during a Short Term. Normally offered every year. Staff.