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Asian Studies

Professors Kemper (Anthropology; chair), Hirai (History), J. Strong (Religion), Grafflin (History), Yang (Chinese), S. Strong (Japanese), Maurer-Fazio (Economics); Associate Professor Shankar (English); Assistant Professors Nguyen (Art and Visual Culture), Nelson (Politics), Fatone (Music), and Boucher (Psychology); Visiting Assistant Professor Su (Chinese); Visiting Instructors Miao (Chinese) and Strippoli (Japanese); Lecturers Ofuji (Japanese), Sengupta (Asian Studies), and Hiss (Asian Studies)

In the early years of the twenty-first century, Asia has gained enormous visibility across the globe. Knowledge of Asian languages gives access to enduring, complex, and constantly developing societies to which the rest of the world has repeatedly turned for insight. An understanding of Asian cultures complements language study, concentrating on ways Asians live their lives and interact with the larger world.

Asian Studies is an interdisciplinary program designed to acquaint students with the economies, histories, politics, arts, languages, literatures, and religions of Asian societies. The program offers three majors, Chinese, Japanese, and East Asian studies. Each of these majors gives students an opportunity to develop an understanding of East Asia by intensive study of Chinese or Japanese and to pursue nonlanguage courses introducing some of the most accomplished civilizations and dynamic societies in today's world. In addition to the majors, the Program in Asian Studies offers a secondary concentration in Asian studies. More information on the Program in Asian Studies is available on the Web site (www. bates.edu/ASIA.xml).

Chinese

The Chinese major is built around a structured sequence of instruction in language skills leading to competency in spoken and written Mandarin, with classical Chinese taught at the advanced level. Emphasis is placed on familiarizing students with the rich cultural heritage of China's 4,000-year history, which is transmitted and embodied by the native language of more than one billion people. The program strongly recommends that majors spend their junior year on a departmentally-recognized study-abroad program in mainland China or Taiwan.

Cross-listed Courses. Note that unless otherwise specified, when a department/program references a course or unit in the department/program, it includes courses and units cross-listed with the department/program.

Major Requirements. The major consists of a minimum of twelve courses that must include:

1) CHI 101-102, 201-202, 301-302, or the equivalent.

2) CHI 207.

3) three courses or units from the following: CHI 209, 211, 261, ASIA s21, s30, FYS 280, HIST 374, or INDS 212.

4) either CHI 401 or 415.

5) CHI 457 or 458, the senior thesis. Students are expected to utilize some source materials in Chinese in conducting research for the thesis. Qualified students are encouraged to write in Chinese.

Students may petition the program to have courses taken in their study-abroad program applied toward the fulfillment of requirements 1) and 3).

Secondary Concentration. A secondary concentration requires a minimum of seven courses (or six courses and a designated Short Term unit). At least one of the seven courses must involve a study of literature or culture (taught either in Chinese or in translation), but only one course in translation may be counted toward the concentration. A student may petition to have up to three comparable courses, completed at other institutions either in the United States or abroad, apply toward the secondary concentration. Advanced Placement courses may not be applied toward the secondary concentration. Application for a secondary concentration should be made to Professor Yang.

Pass/Fail Grading Option. Pass/fail grading may be elected for two courses applied toward the Chinese major.

General Education. Any one Chinese Short Term unit may serve as an option for the fifth humanities course.

Courses
CHI 101. Beginning Chinese I.An introduction to spoken and written modern Chinese. Conversation and comprehension exercises in the classroom and laboratory provide practice in pronunciation and the use of basic patterns of speech. Normally offered every year. S. Yang, Staff.
CHI 102. Beginning Chinese II.A continuation of Chinese 101 with increasing emphasis on the recognition of Chinese characters. By the conclusion of this course, students know more than one quarter of the characters expected of an educated Chinese person. Classes, conducted increasingly in Chinese, stress sentence patterns that facilitate both speaking and reading. Prerequisite(s): Chinese 101. Normally offered every year. S. Yang, Staff.
CHI 201. Intermediate Chinese.Designed to enable students to converse in everyday Chinese and to read simple texts in Chinese (both traditional and simplified characters). Classes conducted primarily in Chinese aim at further development of overall language proficiency. Prerequisite(s): Chinese 102. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every year. L. Miao.
CHI 201-202. Intermediate Chinese.Designed to enable students to converse in everyday Chinese and to read simple texts in Chinese (both traditional and simplified characters). Classes conducted primarily in Chinese aim at further development of overall language proficiency. Prerequisite(s): Chinese 102. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every year. L. Miao.
CHI 202. Intermediate Chinese.Designed to enable students to converse in everyday Chinese and to read simple texts in Chinese (both traditional and simplified characters). Classes conducted primarily in Chinese aim at further development of overall language proficiency. Prerequisite(s): Chinese 102 Open to first-year students. Normally offered every year. L. Miao.
CHI 207. Traditional Chinese Literature in Translation.An exploration of Chinese literature through reading and discussion of some of its masterworks of poetry, drama, fiction, and belles-lettres prose pieces from ancient times through the premodern era. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 25. Normally offered every year. S. Yang.
CHI 209. Modern China through Film and Fiction.This course explores modern China through a number of short stories and feature films produced in the twentieth century, from Lu Hsun's fiction of the 1920s to recent films directed by such directors as Zhang Yimou and Ang Lee. The course focuses on ways of interpreting different cultural products of modern China, but students also gain a general knowledge of the history of modern Chinese fiction and film. All readings, lectures, and discussions are in English. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 35. Normally offered every year. S. Yang.
CHI 211. Film and Chinese Modernity.This course explores the role film has played in China's ongoing construction of modernity since the end of the nineteenth century. Discussion focuses not only on the social and historical context of Chinese films, but also on various kinds of cinematic languages through which Chinese filmmakers articulate their ideas, especially those involving debates concerning tradition, modernity, revolution, gender, sexuality, and national identity, as well as Chinese filmmakers' responses to constructions of the cultural "other" in Western films. Conducted in English. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 25. Normally offered every year. Staff.
INDS 212. Writing/Righting Chinese Women.This course is a survey of major writings by Chinese women, from Ban Zhao (40–120 C.E.), whose nujie is considered the early canon of female moral virtues, to the most recent novels by women writers who pride themselves in their audacity to write about their bodies. The course emphasizes ways women writers across time have countered various masculine constructions of silenced femininity and developed their own literary sensibility, especially in the context of China's modern development. Literary works explore topics that resonate with women's experience such as family, marriage, gender identity, sexuality, revolution, nation, and modernity. Conducted in English. Cross-listed in Asian studies, Chinese, and women and gender studies. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 25. Offered with varying frequency. H. Su.
CHI 261. Self and Society in Chinese Culture: Classics and Folk Tales.An introduction to Chinese culture and civilization through reading and discussion of a number of classical texts of Confucian, Taoist, and Buddhist thought, as well as traditional tales, popular stories, and legends in which these basic philosophies are reflected. Readings and lectures are all in English. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every other year. S. Yang.
CHI 301. Upper-Level Modern Chinese.Designed for students who already have a strong background in spoken Chinese, the course gives an intensive review of the essentials of grammar and phonology, introduces a larger vocabulary and a variety of sentence patterns, improves conversational and auditory skills, and develops some proficiency in reading and writing. The course makes extensive use of short texts (both literary and nonfictional) and some films. Classes are conducted primarily in Chinese. Prerequisite(s): Chinese 202. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every year. L. Miao.
CHI 301-302. Upper-Level Modern Chinese.Designed for students who already have a strong background in spoken Chinese, the course gives an intensive review of the essentials of grammar and phonology, introduces a larger vocabulary and a variety of sentence patterns, improves conversational and auditory skills, and develops some proficiency in reading and writing. The course makes extensive use of short texts (both literary and nonfictional) and some films. Classes are conducted primarily in Chinese. Prerequisite(s): Chinese 202. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every year. L. Miao.
CHI 302. Upper-Level Modern Chinese.Designed for students who already have a strong background in spoken Chinese, the course gives an intensive review of the essentials of grammar and phonology, introduces a larger vocabulary and a variety of sentence patterns, improves conversational and auditory skills, and develops some proficiency in reading and writing. The course makes extensive use of short texts (both literary and nonfictional) and some films. Classes are conducted primarily in Chinese. Prerequisite(s): Chinese 202. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every year. L. Miao.
CHI 360. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study per semester. Normally offered every semester. Staff.
CHI 365. Special Topics.Designed for the small seminar group of students who may have particular interests in areas of study that go beyond the regular course offerings. Periodic conferences and papers are required. Instructor permission is required. Offered with varying frequency. Staff.
CHI 401. Advanced Chinese I.This course is designed to further enhance students' ability to understand and speak idiomatic Mandarin Chinese. Included are readings of modern and contemporary literary works, journalistic writings, and other nonliterary texts. Classical texts may also be studied upon students' request. Prerequisite(s): Chinese 302. Recommended background: three years or more of Chinese. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every year. S. Yang, Staff.
CHI 402. Advanced Chinese II.A continuation of Chinese 401. Prerequisite(s): Chinese 302 or 401. Recommended background: three years of Chinese or more. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every year. Staff.
CHI 415. Readings in Classical Chinese.An intensive study of classical Chinese through reading selections of ancient literary, historical, and philosophical texts in the original, including excerpts from the Analects, the Mencius, Laozi, Zhuangzi, Shiji, Tang-Song prose, and poetry. Conducted in Chinese. Prerequisite(s): Chinese 302 or 401. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every other year. S. Yang.
CHI 457. Senior Thesis.An extended research or translation project on a topic in Chinese literature, culture, or language utilizing some source materials in Chinese. Qualified students may choose to write the thesis in Chinese. Before registering for either 457 or 458, the student should consult with his or her advisor and submit a concise description and a tentative bibliography. Students register for 457 in the fall semester or for 458 in the winter semester unless the program gives approval for a two-semester project. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both Chinese 457 and 458. Normally offered every year. Staff.
CHI 457, 458. Senior Thesis.An extended research or translation project on a topic in Chinese literature, culture, or language utilizing some source materials in Chinese. Qualified students may choose to write the thesis in Chinese. Before registering for either 457 or 458, the student should consult with his or her advisor and submit a concise description and a tentative bibliography. Students register for 457 in the fall semester or for 458 in the winter semester unless the program gives approval for a two-semester project. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both Chinese 457 and 458. Normally offered every year. Staff.
CHI 458. Senior Thesis.An extended research or translation project on a topic in Chinese literature, culture, or language utilizing some source materials in Chinese. Qualified students may choose to write the thesis in Chinese. Before registering for either 457 or 458, the student should consult with his or her advisor and submit a concise description and a tentative bibliography. Students register for 457 in the fall semester or for 458 in the winter semester unless the program gives approval for a two-semester project. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both Chinese 457 and 458. Normally offered every year. Staff.
Short Term Courses
CHI s30. Chinese Calligraphy and Etymology.A study of Chinese calligraphy through practice in the use of the brush-pen and through analysis of the aesthetics as well as the historical development of this graphic art. Calligraphy or brushwriting (shufa in Chinese and shodo in Japanese) is considered in East Asia as a spontaneous yet premeditated act of self-expression, which embraces philosophy, religion, culture, and an artistic tradition thousands of years old. Conducted in English. Prerequisite(s): Chinese 101 or Japanese 101. Recommended background: some knowledge of Chinese characters or kanji. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 20. Offered with varying frequency. S. Yang.
CHI s50. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study during a Short Term. Normally offered every year. Staff.
Japanese

The major in Japanese presents an opportunity for an in-depth and focused study of Japanese language and culture. The major places emphasis on the student's acquisition of oral and written language proficiency as well as on the development of cultural awareness and competency. The program strongly recommends that majors spend their junior year at the Associated Kyoto Program or another approved year-long study-abroad program in Japan.

Cross-listed Courses. Note that unless otherwise specified, when a department/program references a course or unit in the department/program, it includes courses and units cross-listed with the department/program.

Major Requirements. The major consists of a minimum of twelve courses that must include:

1) JPN 101-102, 201-202, 301-302, or the equivalent.

2) AS/JA 125.

3) two courses or units from the following: FYS 277 or another first-year seminar on Japan; AS/JA 130 and 210, JA/WS 255, ES/ JA 290, JPN s27 or another Short Term unit on Japan, CHI s30.

4) ES/JA 320 or one other 300-level seminar on Japan.

5) JPN 401.

6) JPN 457 or 458, the senior thesis project, which may be completed independently or, for students who wish to write in Japanese, in conjunction with JPN 402 (with thesis components). Students are expected to utilize some source materials in Japanese when conducting research for the thesis.

Students may petition the program to have courses taken in their study-abroad program (including the Bates Fall Semester Abroad) applied toward the fulfillment of requirements 1) and 3).

Secondary Concentration. A secondary concentration requires a minimum of seven courses (or six courses and a designated Short Term unit). At least one of the seven courses must involve a study of literature or culture (taught either in Japanese or in translation), but only one course in translation may be counted toward the concentration. A student may petition to have up to three comparable courses, completed at other institutions in either the United States or abroad, apply towards the secondary concentration. Advanced Placement courses may not be applied toward the secondary concentration. Application for a secondary concentration should be made to Professor S. Strong.

Pass/Fail Grading Option. Pass/fail grading may be elected for two courses applied toward the Japanese major.

General Education. Any one Japanese Short Term unit may serve as an option for the fifth humanities course.

Courses
JPN 101. Beginning Japanese I.An introduction to the basics of spoken and written Japanese as a foundation for advanced study and proficiency in the language. Fundamental patterns of grammar and syntax are introduced together with a practical, functional vocabulary. Mastery of the katakana and hiragana syllabaries, as well as approximately 140 written characters, introduce students to the beauty of written Japanese. Normally offered every year. Staff.
JPN 101-102. Beginning Japanese I and II.An introduction to the basics of spoken and written Japanese as a foundation for advanced study and proficiency in the language. Fundamental patterns of grammar and syntax are introduced together with a practical, functional vocabulary. Mastery of the katakana and hiragana syllabaries, as well as approximately 140 written characters, introduce students to the beauty of written Japanese. Normally offered every year. Staff.
JPN 102. Beginning Japanese II.Introduction to the basics of spoken and written Japanese as a foundation for advanced study and proficiency in the language. Fundamental patterns of grammar and syntax are introduced together with a practical, functional vocabulary. Mastery of the katakana and hiragana syllabaries, as well as approximately 140 written characters, introduce students to the beauty of written Japanese. Normally offered every year. Staff.
AS/JA 125. Japanese Literature and Society.This course examines major trends in Japanese literature and society from its beginnings to the present. Are there features of Japanese culture that continue unchanging through time? How have ideas of what is artistically valuable been linked with ideas of what is Japanese? How valid are the claims that Japanese culture is intimately involved with the appreciation of nature and the seasons? Students examine visual, literary, and historical texts, including classical narratives and painting scrolls of aristocratic culture, early modern plays and prints of samurai and geisha, and recent stories and films exploring questions of individual and national identity. All readings are in English. Normally offered every year. S. Strong.
AS/JA 130. Japanese Film.This course introduces students to Japanese cinema and criticism. They consider the aesthetic style and narrative themes of films from the silent era to the present day, focusing on directors such as Ozu Yasujiro, Kurosawa Akira, and Oshima Nagisa. They explore such questions as: Is there a distinctive Japanese film style? How do filmic qualities such as camera movement relate to story? How do films relate to their particular historical and cultural moment? In addition to viewing films, students read Japanese film history and criticism. No prior familiarity with Japan is required. Conducted in English. Normally offered every other year. Staff.
JPN 201. Intermediate Japanese I.A continuation of Japanese 102, the course stresses the acquisition of new and more complex spoken patterns, vocabulary building, and increasing knowledge of cultural context through use of calligraphy, role play, video, and varied reading materials. One hundred fifty Chinese characters are introduced. A range of oral as well as written projects and exercises provide a realistic context for language use. Prerequisite(s): Japanese 102. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every year. K. Ofuji.
JPN 201-202. Intermediate Japanese I and II.A continuation of Japanese 102, the course stresses the acquisition of new and more complex spoken patterns, vocabulary building, and increasing knowledge of cultural context through use of calligraphy, role play, video, and varied reading materials. One hundred fifty Chinese characters are introduced. A range of oral as well as written projects and exercises provide a realistic context for language use. Prerequisite(s): Japanese 102. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every year. K. Ofuji.
JPN 202. Intermediate Japanese II.A continuation of Japanese 102, the course stresses the acquisition of new and more complex spoken patterns, vocabulary building, and increasing knowledge of cultural context through use of calligraphy, role play, video, and varied reading materials. One hundred fifty Chinese characters are introduced. A range of oral as well as written projects and exercises provide a realistic context for language use. Prerequisite(s): Japanese 102. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every year. K. Ofuji.
AS/JA 210. Heterogeneous Japan.Scholars of Japan have long portrayed Japan as culturally homogenous. In recent years, however, people in and outside the academy have begun to challenge this assumption. In this course, students examine autobiography, fiction, and films that emphasize Japan's ethnic, regional, and socioeconomic diversity. Readings also may include historical and analytical essays and theoretical works on the relationship of modernity, national identity, and narrative. Conducted in English. Not open to students who have received credit for Japanese 210 or Asian Studies 210. Open to first-year students. Offered with varying frequency. Staff.
JA/WS 255. Modern Japanese Women Writers.In its beginnings, Japanese literature was considered a female art: the greatest writers of the classical period were women, while men at times assumed a female persona in order to write. How do Japanese women writers of the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries portray the complexities of today's world? How do they negotiate the gendered institutions of the society in which they live? What values do they assign to being a woman, to being Japanese? What significance does the female canon hold for them as modern and postmodern writers? Students consider issues such as family, power, gender roles, selfhood, and the female body in reading a range of novels, short stories, and poems. Authors may include Enchi and Fumiko, Ohba Minako, Kurahashi Yumiko, Tsushima Yuko, Tawara Machi, Yamada Eimi, and Yoshimoto Banana. Readings and discussion are in English. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every other year. S. Strong.
ES/JA 290. Nature in East Asian Literature.How have poets and other writers in Japan and China portrayed, valued, and responded to the myriad phenomena that Western tradition calls "nature"? What ideas have they used to construct the relationship between human beings and the environment? Do their views offer the modern world a possible antidote to its environmental ills? This course looks closely at several works from Japanese and Chinese traditions whose authors pay particular attention to the relationship between the self and the physical world the self observes. Specific writers may include Hitomaro, Saigyô, Kamo no Chomei, Bashô, Li Po, and Wang Wei. Conducted in English. Open to first-year students. Offered with varying frequency. S. Strong.
JPN 301. Intermediate Japanese III.The course completes the introduction of essential Japanese syntactic forms and sentence patterns. Students continue development of oral skills and emphasis is placed on increased competence in the written language. Two hundred new characters are introduced. Prerequisite(s): Japanese 202. Normally offered every year. Staff.
JPN 301-302. Intermediate Japanese III and IV.The course completes the introduction of essential Japanese syntactic forms and sentence patterns. Students continue development of oral skills and emphasis is placed on increased competence in the written language. Two hundred new characters are introduced. Prerequisite(s): Japanese 202. Normally offered every year. Staff.
JPN 302. Intermediate Japanese IV.The course completes the introduction of essential Japanese syntactic forms and sentence patterns. Students continue development of oral skills and emphasis is placed on increased competence in the written language. Two hundred new characters are introduced. Prerequisite(s): Japanese 202. Normally offered every year. S. Strong.
JPN 310. The Myth of the Samurai.The samurai, the sword-wielding warrior with his strict bushido code of honor, is one of the most enduring images of Japan, both in the West and among the Japanese themselves. This course first acquaints students with the decidedly less glamorous reality of the samurai. Students then explore the myths surrounding the warrior through medieval war tales, kabuki play scripts, and modern novels. Discussions focus on the shifting meanings invested in the image of the samurai by different writers and audiences over the centuries. Recommended background: one course in Japanese culture, history, or language. Conducted in English. Enrollment limited to 15. Normally offered every other year. Staff.
ES/JA 320. Haiku and Nature in Japan.The concise, seventeen-syllable verse form known today as haiku rose to prominence in the popular culture of seventeenth-century Japan. With its emphasis on the experience of the present moment and its use of clear natural imagery, haiku is seen by many as defining the way generations of Japanese have perceived and related to the natural world. This seminar examines the poetics of haiku and linked verse (renku) and looks at the expression of their aesthetics in recent Japanese literature and culture from architecture to the novel to Zen. Prerequisite(s): at least one course in Japanese or one course in environmental studies. Conducted in English. Normally offered every other year. S. Strong.
JPN 360. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study per semester. Normally offered every semester. Staff.
JPN 401. Advanced Japanese I.Through the discussion and study of contemporary literary texts and other journalistic modes, the course seeks to utilize, develop, and integrate skills acquired in the earlier stages of language learning. Particular emphasis is placed on reading and writing, and translation. Through class presentations and discussion students further develop oral skills and expand their understanding of Japanese culture. Prerequisite(s): Japanese 302. Normally offered every year. K. Ofuji.
JPN 402. Advanced Japanese II.This course covers materials in Japanese such as newspaper articles, other media material, and short stories. Through presentations and discussions students utilize, develop, and integrate spoken skills acquired in the earlier stages of language learning. Written skills are also emphasized; normally students complete a final research project on a topic of their choice. Students taking this course in conjunction with the thesis should also register for Japanese 458. Prerequisite(s): Japanese 401. Normally offered every year. Staff.
JPN 457. Senior Thesis.An extended research or translation project on a topic in Japanese literature, culture, or language utilizing some source materials in Japanese. Qualified students may choose to write the thesis in Japanese. Before registering for either 457 or 458, the student should consult with his or her advisor and submit a concise description of the proposed project as well as a tentative bibliography. Students register for Japanese 457 in the fall semester or for Japanese 458 in the winter semester unless the program gives approval for a two-semester project. Majors writing an honors thesis register for Japanese 457 and 458. Normally offered every year. Staff.
JPN 457, 458. Senior Thesis.An extended research or translation project on a topic in Japanese literature, culture, or language utilizing some source materials in Japanese. Qualified students may choose to write the thesis in Japanese. Before registering for either 457 or 458, the student should consult with his or her advisor and submit a concise description of the proposed project as well as a tentative bibliography. Students register for Japanese 457 in the fall semester or for Japanese 458 in the winter semester unless the program gives approval for a two-semester project. Majors writing an honors thesis register for Japanese 457 and 458. Normally offered every year. Staff.
JPN 458. Senior Thesis.An extended research or translation project on a topic in Japanese literature, culture, or language utilizing some source materials in Japanese. Qualified students may choose to write the thesis in Japanese. Before registering for either 457 or 458, the student should consult with his or her advisor and submit a concise description of the proposed project as well as a tentative bibliography. Students register for Japanese 457 in the fall semester or for Japanese 458 in the winter semester unless the program gives approval for a two-semester project. Majors writing an honors thesis register for Japanese 457 and 458. Normally offered every year. Staff.
Short Term Courses
JA/WS s21. Geisha Fantasy: Representations of an Icon.This course examines the stereotypes of the cultural category of geisha in film, literature, visual culture, and the performing arts. Students locate the discourse surrounding the geisha in both Japan and the United States, which leads to themes of "orientalism" (differentiating self and other in a way that hierarchizes the self), "self-orientalism," and nihonjinron (doctrine of a Japanese essence). Students focus on historical contexts in which the category of geisha was formed and developed largely as a projection of male desire and male fantasy, and explore the homogenizing and dichotomizing of racial and sexual identities in the construction of the geisha. Conducted in English. Offered with varying frequency. Staff.
JPN s25. Haiku Poetry.Matsuo Bashô (1644–1694) is one of Japan's most celebrated poets. As a haikai master he led group compositions in linked verse (renga), in addition to writing the seventeen-syllable hokku for which he is best known. His travel diaries represent a landmark in the history of Japanese literature. This unit explores the background and nature of the haikai genre, with particular attention to Bashô's outstanding achievement. Students of Japanese language are encouraged to do some guided reading in the original. Recommended background: Japanese 240 and History 172. Conducted in English. Enrollment limited to 25. Normally offered every other year. S. Strong.
JPN s27. Hiroshima and Nagasaki.The technologies of the industrial and postindustrial age have made possible a scale of destruction that seems impossible for human beings either to grasp or perhaps even to survive. Japan is the only nation to have experienced attack by atomic weapons. What is the role of art, literature, film, and journalism in expressing the "inexpressible" and possibly preventing its reoccurrence? This unit examines Japanese and Korean responses to the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Enrollment limited to 30. Offered with varying frequency. S. Strong.
JPN s50. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study during a Short Term. Normally offered every year. Staff.
East Asian Studies

In addition to the Chinese and Japanese language majors, the Program in Asian Studies offers an East Asian studies major. It provides students with a broad introduction to both China and Japan. Students are required to organize their study of East Asia around two years of Chinese or Japanese language study and are strongly urged to spend at least one-semester at an approved program in mainland China, Taiwan, or Japan.

Cross-listed Courses. Note that unless otherwise specified, when a department/program references a course or unit in the department/program, it includes courses and units cross-listed with the department/program.

Major Requirements. The major requires ten courses, plus a thesis, including:

1) four courses of Chinese or Japanese language.

2) HIST 171 or 172.

3) two courses from two of the following four groups:
a) CHI 207 or AS/JA 125;
b) AS/EC 229 or 231;
c) AS/RE 208 or 209;
d) AV/AS 246 or 247;

4) three additional courses or units focusing on East Asia, no more than one of which may be a language course.

5) ASIA 457 and/or 458, a senior thesis, written under the direction of a faculty advisor in Asian Studies.

In fulfilling requirements for the East Asian studies major, students must take at least one course dealing primarily with China and one dealing primarily with Japan. Students are urged to take at least one course that addresses premodern culture in China or Japan and another course addressing the modern period in China or Japan.

Pass/Fail Grading Option. Pass/fail grading may not be elected for courses applied toward the major in East Asian studies.

Secondary Concentration in Asian Studies. Students may complete a secondary concentration in Asian studies by completing six courses from the list of courses and units in Asian studies. In consultation with an Asian studies faculty member (chosen or appointed by the Asian studies chair) and in accord with program guidelines, students may design their own course of study. Among the six courses, at least four should be related as a coherent group. Examples include a group of courses related to Buddhist studies, South Asia, gender issues, environmental concerns, a specific historical period, or the socioeconomic or political situation of a particular region.

The secondary concentration may include one Short Term unit and a maximum of two language courses. With the approval of the secondary concentration advisor, students may apply up to two courses taken on study-abroad programs toward the secondary concentration as well as courses taken on Fall Semester Abroad programs in Asia. Majors in Chinese, Japanese, or East Asian studies may count no more than two courses (or units) as fulfilling requirements toward both the Asian studies secondary concentration and their major.

Courses
AS/JA 125. Japanese Literature and Society.This course examines major trends in Japanese literature and society from its beginnings to the present. Are there features of Japanese culture that continue unchanging through time? How have ideas of what is artistically valuable been linked with ideas of what is Japanese? How valid are the claims that Japanese culture is intimately involved with the appreciation of nature and the seasons? Students examine visual, literary, and historical texts, including classical narratives and painting scrolls of aristocratic culture, early modern plays and prints of samurai and geisha, and recent stories and films exploring questions of individual and national identity. All readings are in English. Normally offered every year. S. Strong.
AS/JA 130. Japanese Film.This course introduces students to Japanese cinema and criticism. They consider the aesthetic style and narrative themes of films from the silent era to the present day, focusing on directors such as Ozu Yasujiro, Kurosawa Akira, and Oshima Nagisa. They explore such questions as: Is there a distinctive Japanese film style? How do filmic qualities such as camera movement relate to story? How do films relate to their particular historical and cultural moment? In addition to viewing films, students read Japanese film history and criticism. No prior familiarity with Japan is required. Conducted in English. Normally offered every other year. Staff.
AS/RE 208. Religions in China.A study of the various religious traditions of China in their independence and interaction. The course focuses on the history, doctrines, and practices of Taoism, Confucianism, and various schools of Mahayana Buddhism. Readings include basic texts and secondary sources. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every other year. J. Strong.
AS/RE 209. Religions in Japan.A study of the various religious traditions of Japan in their independence and interaction. The course focuses on the doctrines and practices of Shinto, folk religion, and various schools of Buddhism. These are considered in the context of Japanese history and culture and set against their Korean and Chinese backgrounds. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every other year. J. Strong.
AS/JA 210. Heterogeneous Japan.Scholars of Japan have long portrayed Japan as culturally homogenous. In recent years, however, people in and outside the academy have begun to challenge this assumption. In this course, students examine autobiography, fiction, and films that emphasize Japan's ethnic, regional, and socioeconomic diversity. Readings also may include historical and analytical essays and theoretical works on the relationship of modernity, national identity, and narrative. Conducted in English. Not open to students who have received credit for Japanese 210 or Asian Studies 210. Open to first-year students. Offered with varying frequency. Staff.
INDS 212. Writing/Righting Chinese Women.This course is a survey of major writings by Chinese women, from Ban Zhao (40–120 C.E.), whose nujie is considered the early canon of female moral virtues, to the most recent novels by women writers who pride themselves in their audacity to write about their bodies. The course emphasizes ways women writers across time have countered various masculine constructions of silenced femininity and developed their own literary sensibility, especially in the context of China's modern development. Literary works explore topics that resonate with women's experience such as family, marriage, gender identity, sexuality, revolution, nation, and modernity. Conducted in English. Cross-listed in Asian studies, Chinese, and women and gender studies. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 25. Offered with varying frequency. H. Su.
AS/EC 229. Economics of Greater China.The Chinese are among the world's leading experimentalists in economics. The twentieth-century economic history of China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and the overseas Chinese diaspora spans the entire gamut of economic regimes from virtually unrestricted competition to rigid state management. This course surveys economic development in Greater China with emphasis on understanding how institutions and institutional change affect economic and social development. Prerequisite(s): Economics 101 or 103. Not open to students who have received credit for Economics 229. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 45. Offered with varying frequency. M. Maurer-Fazio.
AS/EC 231. The Economic Development of Japan.This course surveys the development of Japan's economy. A brief historical introduction focuses on the preconditions for economic modernization and the role of the government in Japan's late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century experience. The course then concentrates on an overview of Japan's post–World War II experience of recovery, explosive growth, slowdown, and attempted reform. Students consider whether the Japanese economy operates according to principles, objectives, and structures that are substantially different from those of the West. Japan's economic impact on other East Asian countries and relatedness with the world economy are also explored. Prerequisite(s): Economics 101 or 103. Not open to students who have received credit for Economics 231. Open to first-year students. Offered with varying frequency. M. Maurer-Fazio.
AV/AS 234. Chinese Visual Culture.This course introduces Chinese visual cultures, from the Neolithic period to the present day, focusing on a period of particular cultural significance from the Han to Qing Dynasty. The course reveals interrelationships among Chinese art, literature, religious philosophy, and politics. Topics discussed include artists' places within specific social groups, theories of arts, questions of patronage, and the relation of traditional indigenous art forms to the evolving social and cultural orders from which they draw life. Principal objects include ritual objects, bronze vessels, ceramics, porcelain, lacquer ware, sculptures, rock-cut temples, gardens, painting, calligraphy, and wood-block prints. Recommended background: Asian Studies/Religion 208, Chinese 261, and History 171. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every other year. T. Nguyen.
AV/AS 243. Buddhist Visual Worlds.The course examines the history of Buddhist visual cultures. It provides a basic introduction to a broad spectrum of Buddhist art, beginning with the emergence of early Buddhist sculpture in India and ending with modern Buddhist visual works. It examines selected works of architecture, sculpture, and paintings in their religious, social, and cultural contexts. It also briefly surveys regional Buddhism and its arts. Normally offered every year. T. Nguyen.
AV/AS 245. Architectural Monuments of Southeast Asia.This course examines the arts of Southeast Asia by focusing on significant monuments of the countries in the region. It examines the architecture, sculpture, and relief carvings on the ancient monuments and their relations to religious, cultural, political, and social contexts. Sites covered include Borobudur, Angkor, Pagan, Sukkhothai, and My-Son. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every other year. T. Nguyen.
AV/AS 246. Visual Narratives: Storytelling in East Asian Art.This course examines the important artistic tradition of narrative painting in China and Japan. Through study of visually narrative presentations of religious, historical, and popular stories, the course explores different contexts in which the works—tomb, wall, and scroll paintings—were produced. The course introduces various modes of visual analysis and art historical contexts. Topics include narrative theory, text-image relationships, elite patronage, and gender representation. Recommended background: History 171, 172, and Japanese 240. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every other year. T. Nguyen.
AV/AS 247. The Art of Zen Buddhism.The art of Zen (Chan) as the unique and unbounded expression of the liberated mind has attracted Westerners since the mid-twentieth century. But what is Zen, its art, and its culture? This course considers the historical development of Zen art and its use in several genres within monastic and lay settings. It also examines the underlying Buddhist concepts of Zen art. The course aims to help students understand the basic teachings of Zen and their expression in architecture, gardens, sculpture, painting, poetry, and calligraphy. Recommended background: Art and Visual Culture/Asian Studies 243, Asian Studies/Religion 208, 209, 250, or 309. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. Normally offered every other year. T. Nguyen.
AS/RE 249. The Hindu Tradition.An examination, through the use of primary and secondary texts, of the various traditions of Hinduism, with some consideration of their relation to Jainism and Indian Buddhism. Special attention is paid to the Vedas, Upanishads, and Bhagavad-Gita, as well as to the classical myths of Hinduism embodied in the Puranas, and to ritual and devotional practices. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every other year. J. Strong.
AS/RE 250. The Buddhist Tradition.The course focuses on the Buddha's life and teachings; on early Buddhism in India and the rise of various Buddhist schools of thought; on the development of Mahayana philosophies; on rituals, meditation, and other forms of expression in India and Southeast Asia. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every other year. J. Strong.
AS/RE 251. Religions of Tibet.Tibetan religions are a complex mixture of Indian, Chinese, and indigenous elements. This course focuses on the history, doctrines, practices, literatures, major personalities, and communities of the different religious traditions that are expressions of this mixture, including the rNying ma, bKa' brgyud, Sa skya, and dGe lugs sects of Buddhism as well as the Bön and "folk" traditions. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every other year. J. Strong.
AS/MU 252. Musics of Southeast Asia.Designed for students interested in performing arts cultures based outside the West, this course introduces selected historical and contemporary musical traditions of mainland and island Southeast Asia. The integration of music, dance, theater, and ritual is a unifying theme of the course. Special attention is given to historical and contemporary gong-chime cultures of the region. Several practical sessions, in which students learn to play instruments of the Bates Javanese gamelan orchestra, enhance the grasp of formal principles common to a variety of Southeast Asian musics. The study of Southeast Asian arts contributes to students' understanding of the region. Prerequisite(s): Any course in music or Asian Studies. Open to first-year students. Offered with varying frequency. G. Fatone.
AS/PY 260. Cultural Psychology.This course provides an introduction to the theoretical perspectives and research findings of cultural psychology, with an emphasis on comparisons between North American and East Asian cultural groups. Topics include defining culture as a topic of psychological inquiry; the methods of conducting cultural research; the debate between universality versus cultural specificity of psychological processes; acculturation and multiculturalism; and cultural influences on thought, feeling, motivation, personality, abnormality, and social behavior. Prerequisite(s): Psychology 101. Enrollment limited to 50. Normally offered every year. H. Boucher.
AS/RE 308. Buddhist Texts in Translation.This seminar involves the close reading and discussion of a number of texts representing a variety of Buddhist traditions. Emphasis is placed on several different genres including canonical sutras, commentarial exegeses, philosophical treatises, and popular legends. Prerequisite(s): Asian Studies/Religion 250, Anthropology/Religion 263, or Art and Visual Culture/Asian Studies 243. Enrollment limited to 15. Offered with varying frequency. J. Strong.
AS/RE 309. Buddhism in East Asia.This seminar focuses on the teachings, traditions, and contemplative practices of a number of East Asian schools of Buddhism, including the Tiantai (Tendai), Huayan (Kegon), Chan (Zen), Zhenyan (Shingon), and Pure Land traditions. Special consideration is given to the question of the continuities and discontinuities in the ways these schools became established in China, Korea, and Japan. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: Asian Studies/Religion 208, 209, or 250. Enrollment limited to 15. Normally offered every other year. J. Strong.
ASIA 360. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study per semester. Normally offered every semester. Staff.
AV/AS 380. Stupas: Forms and Meanings.Stupas are the most pervasive and symbolic form of Buddhist architecture in Asia. Buddhist stupas serve as the symbols of illumination, and repositories for the relics of revered persons. They also serve as universal symbols, embodiments of metaphysical principles and multivalent meanings. This seminar not only examines different architectural forms of stupas, but also studies religious concepts and symbolic meanings expressed in stupas in Buddhist Asia. Recommended background: one of the following: Anthropology 244, Art and Visual Culture/Asian Studies 243, Asian Studies/Religion 250, 251, 308, or 309. Enrollment limited to 15. Offered with varying frequency. T. Nguyen.
ASIA 457. Senior Thesis.Students register for Asian Studies 457 in the fall semester and for Asian Studies 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both Asian Studies 457 and 458. Prerequisite(s): one course of appropriate preparatory work to be determined in consultation with the advisor. Normally offered every year. Staff.
ASIA 457, 458. Senior Thesis.Students register for Asian Studies 457 in the fall semester and for Asian Studies 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both Asian Studies 457 and 458. Prerequisite(s): one course of appropriate preparatory work to be determined in consultation with the advisor. Normally offered every year. Staff.
ASIA 458. Senior Thesis.Students register for Asian Studies 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both Asian Studies 457 and 458. Prerequisite(s): one course of appropriate preparatory work to be determined in consultation with the advisor. Normally offered every year. Staff.
Short Term Courses
ASIA s21. Traditional Chinese Color Ink Painting.A study of traditional Chinese color ink painting through practice in the use of the brush-pen on rice paper. Students explore the aesthetics as well as brush techniques and brushwork styles of this unique form of art. Techniques include gongbi (meticulous brushwork on details) and xieyi (an impressionistic way of evoking subtle moods) renditions of plant and animal images such as grapes, lotus flowers, chrysanthemums, roses, peonies, plum blossoms, chickens, butterflies, shrimp, and goldfish. There is a studio fee of $150. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 20. Offered with varying frequency. M. Maurer-Fazio.
ASIA s22. Indian Lyrical Traditions.Much of premodern literature from India consists of poignant, sensual love poetry, full of pining heroines whose bodies are "scalded by moonlight" or enamored male heroes whose feet are "pricked by thorns." This unit introduces students to translated poetry from several classical and medieval Indian traditions and languages (Sanskrit, Prakrit, Brajhbhasha, Urdu, Bengali, Tamil), accompanied by interpretive orientations and related material from visual arts, music, and dance. Students engage with the traditions creatively by composing their own poems—in English—according to various conventions. At the end of the term, the class presents a public reading of selected student works. Not open to students who have received credit for First-Year Seminar 321. Enrollment limited to 30. Normally offered every year. S. Sengupta.
AS/HI s25. Americans in Japan.The unit considers Americans who visited Japan since the first contact between the two nations in 1853. Focusing on the period before World War II, students examine the motivations and goals of these sojourners, and what they accomplished in their travels. Enrollment limited to 16. (East Asian.) Normally offered every year. A. Hirai.
AS/PT s28. Sufi Saints and Muslim Missionaries.This unit offers an introduction to the study of Islam in South Asia, focusing on Chishti Sufi saints, their shrines, and the work of the Tablighi Jama'at, a distantly related movement devoted to the cause of religious revival and reform (tajdid) around the world. During four weeks in India, students attend lectures by faculty at local universities and travel to mosques, shrines, and other sites of religious and historical significance in Delhi, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh. A tolerance for very high temperatures is essential. Recommended background: previous course work concerning Islam and/or non-Western countries. Enrollment limited to 12. Instructor permission is required. Offered with varying frequency. M. Nelson.

The following courses may be taken to fulfill the East Asian studies major:

AV/AS 234. Chinese Visual Culture.
AV/AS 243. Buddhist Visual Worlds.
AV/AS 246. Visual Narratives: Storytelling in East Asian Art.
AV/AS 247. The Art of Zen Buddhism.
AVC 248. Rock-Cut Temples in Asia.
AV/AS 380. Stupas: Forms and Meanings.
AV/EN s10. A Cultural and Literary Walk into China.
AVC s36. Buddhist Objects and Their Contexts.

AS/JA 125. Japanese Literature and Society.
AS/JA 130. Japanese Film.
AS/RE 208. Religions in China.
AS/RE 209. Religions in Japan.
AS/JA 210. Heterogeneous Japan.
AS/EC 229. Economics of Greater China.
AS/EC 231. The Economic Development of Japan.
AS/RE 251. Religions of Tibet.
AS/PY 260. Cultural Psychology.
ASIA 280. Ethnicity and Gender: United States, Japan, and Korea.
AS/RE 308. Buddhist Texts in Translation.
AS/RE 309. Buddhism in East Asia.
ASIA 360. Independent Study.
ASIA s21. Traditional Chinese Color Ink Painting.
AS/HI s25. Americans in Japan.

CHI 101-102. Beginning Chinese I and II.
CHI 201-202. Intermediate Chinese.
CHI 207. Traditional Chinese Literature in Translation.
CHI 209. Modern China through Film and Fiction.
CHI 211. Film and Chinese Modernity.
CHI 261. Self and Society in Chinese Culture: Classics and Folk Tales.
CHI 301-302. Upper-Level Modern Chinese.
CHI 401-402. Advanced Chinese I and II.
CHI 415. Readings in Classical Chinese.
CHI s30. Chinese Calligraphy and Etymology.

EC/ES s27. Sustaining the Masses.

EN/WS 121G. Asian American Women Writers.
EN/WS 395S. Asian American Women Writers, Filmmakers, and Critics.

ES/JA 290. Nature in East Asian Literature.
ES/JA 320. Haiku and Nature in Japan.

FYS 211. The Fantastic in Modern Japan.
FYS 348. Literature through Cataclysm.

HIST 171. China and Its Culture.
HIST 172. Japan: Myths, Stereotypes, and Realities.
HIST 274. China in Revolution.
HIST 275. Japan in the Age of Imperialism.
HIST 276. Japan since 1945 through Film and Literature.
HIST 278. Taiwan.
HIST 374. Understanding Chinese Thought.
HIST 390A. Japan's War against the United States.
HIST 390T. Men and Women in Japanese History.
HIST s30. Food in Japanese History.

INDS 212. Writing/Righting Chinese Women.

JPN 101-102. Beginning Japanese I and II.
JPN 201-202. Intermediate Japanese I and II.
JA/WS 255. Modern Japanese Women Writers.
JPN 301-302. Intermediate Japanese III and IV.
JPN 310. The Myth of the Samurai.
JPN 401, 402. Advanced Japanese I and II.
JA/WS s21. Geisha Fantasy: Representation of an Icon.
JPN s25. Haiku Poetry.
JPN s27. Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

In addition to the courses and units listed above for a major in East Asian studies, the following courses may be taken to fulfill the secondary concentration in Asian studies:

ANTH 240. Peoples and Societies of South Asia.
AN/RE 263. Buddhism and the Social Order.

AV/RE 244. Visual Narratives: Lives Beyond Lives.
AV/AS 245. Monuments of Southeast Asia.

AS/RE 249. The Hindu Tradition.
AS/RE 250. The Buddhist Tradition.
AS/RE 252. Musics of Southeast Asia.

ENG 260. Literature of South Asia.
ENG 395G. Literature and Cultural Critique.

FYS 307. Islam.
FYS 346. Desire, Devotion, Suffering.

PLTC 254. Religion and Politics in South Asia.
PLTC 348. Islam and Democracy.