background

Music

Professors Matthews and Parakilas (chair); Assistant Professors Fatone, Chapman, and Hiroya; Lecturers Glazer, Corrie, and Snow

The Department of Music gives students the opportunity to study music from cultural, historical, theoretical, creative, and interpretive perspectives. The courses offered are suitable for general liberal arts students and for music majors, and include study of Western and non-Western, classical and popular musical traditions. In recent years, students have completed a number of interdisciplinary and double-major programs including substantial work in music.

The department sponsors the following faculty-led extracurricular performing organizations: the College Choir, the College Orchestra, the Fiddle Band, the Bates Gamelan Orchestra, the Jazz Band, the Steel Orchestra, and ad hoc vocal and instrumental ensembles performing chamber music or jazz.

Music 101, 103, 104, 212, 241, 248, 249, 254, and 262—courses introducing musical traditions and concepts—are open to all students without prerequisite. Music 231 is the beginning course in music theory; students considering a major or minor in music should take it as early as possible. Music 235, 237, and 238 are introductory courses in composition. Music 270, private instruction in vocal or instrumental performance, is open to qualified first-year students.

More information on the music department is available on the Web site (www.bates.edu/MUS.xml).

Major Requirements. For students expecting to graduate in 2008, the following requirements apply: All students majoring in music are required to take four courses in music theory (Music 231, 232, 331, and 332), one two-semester course of applied music, two 200-level courses other than applied music, a junior-senior seminar, Music s28, and Music 457 or 458. Honors candidates or others pursuing a full-year thesis register for both 457 and 458.

In addition to these courses, music majors have requirements specific to their field of specialization. Performers take two additional credits of applied music and participate in at least four semesters of small and large departmental performing ensembles. Composers take Music 235 and Music 237. History and theory students take two additional 200- or 300-level courses of their choice. Ethnomusicology students take Music 262 and an additional course in ethnomusicology.

For students expecting to graduate in 2009 or after, the following requirements apply:
Students majoring in music choose one of three tracks in the major: performance, composition, or cultural musicology. All majors take Music 231, 232, 331, and 332 (music theory); Music 210, 212, and a course in the field of music of the Americas (cultural musicology); and Music 457 (thesis).

In addition, students on the performance track take Music 220 and 222 and two credits (four semesters) of applied music (Music 270), and complete four semesters of participation in a faculty-directed ensemble appropriate to their applied music study and two semesters of participation in a different faculty-directed ensemble, employing a different instrumental or vocal medium. Students on the composition track take Music 235 and 237 and two other courses in composition or orchestration. Students on the cultural musicology track take three other music courses, not counting Music 101 or 103 or more than one credit of applied music; for one of these three courses they may substitute a course pertinent to their musical interests, offered in another department or program.

Study of foreign languages is strongly recommended for students planning graduate work in music.

Pass/Fail Grading Option. Pass/fail grading may be elected for courses applied toward the major.

Minor Requirements. The minor in music consists of seven courses: Music 231-232 and five additional music courses, not counting Music 101 or more than one credit of applied music.

Pass/Fail Grading Option. Pass/fail grading may be elected for courses applied toward the minor.

General Education Information for the Classes of 2008, 2009, and 2010. Music s28 (Survey of Western Music) may serve as an option for the fifth humanities course. Advanced Placement, International Baccalaureate, or A-Level credit awarded by the department may not be used toward fulfillment of any General Education requirements.

Courses

MUS 101. Introduction to Listening.Reading and listening assignments, demonstrations, and class discussion provide the opportunity to become familiar with the structures of music. The elements of music and the sociology of music making are studied, using repertoire from various cultures and historical periods, chosen mostly from music of the United States. Emphasis is placed on the student's perception of and involvement in the musical work. The course is open to, and directed toward, students unskilled in reading music as well as those with considerable musical experience. Enrollment limited to 96. Normally offered every other year. W. Matthews. Concentrations

MUS 103. Music Cultures of the World.This course introduces students to the fundamental elements of music in selected music cultures of the world. Lectures include use of recordings, films, live performance, and hands-on workshops with great musicians to enhance each student's understanding of performance practices, aesthetic foundations, and musical belief systems. The course explores the basic principles of ethnomusicology, musical connections to dance and ritual, cross-cultural interactions and influences, and specific performance contexts in various cultural areas of the globe. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every other year. G. Fatone. Concentrations

MUS 104. Music and Religion.Music renders words, spaces, and rituals sacred. It opens individuals to spiritual experience and unites individuals into religious communities. In this course students explore across different religious traditions the question of how people use music to relate to the divine. Traditions investigated include the historic choral music of the Catholic Church, the vocal and instrumental music of African American churches, and the mystical musical practices of Sufism. Issues include music as a vehicle of prayer, music as a means of entering a spiritual state, and the debates within various traditions about what kinds of music are proper for worship. Normally offered every other year. J. Parakilas. Concentrations

MUS 210. Classical Music in Western Culture.An introduction to the study of Western classical music. This course is at once a survey of representative works, an investigation of the concepts that have shaped the institutions and practices of classical music, and an introduction to the kinds of study that support classical music culture. The course considers the nature of a musical tradition in which works are defined by their place in a historical sequence and in which performance consists of interpreting historic written texts. Students choose a composer and a musical genre as subjects of individual projects. Prerequisite(s): any one course in music or permission of the instructor. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every year. J. Parakilas.

MUS 212. Introduction to Ethnomusicology.An introduction to the field of ethnomusicology, the study of "music as culture." Emphasis is on the interdisciplinary character of the field, and the diverse analytical approaches to music making undertaken by ethnomusicologists over time. The centrality of fieldwork and ethnography to the discipline is also a core concept of the course. Through readings, multimedia, and discussion, students examine relationships between ethnomusicology, musicology, anthropology, and world music, and consider the implications of globalization to the field as a whole. Students explore music learning as well as performance as a research technique through participation in several hands-on workshops with the Bates Gamelan Orchestra. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every year. G. Fatone. Concentrations

MUS 220. Performance in Western Classical Music.A study of performance issues in the Western classical tradition of music. How does a composer convey a fully developed conception of a musical work through written notation? How does a performer interpret that notation? How do performers reconcile past with present resources and conditions, and how do they learn to improvise in this tradition? Through study of historic performance textbooks, early and recent recordings, and current debates about performance, students consider how performance traditions are passed on and challenged and how interpretative concepts are translated into sound. Projects may take the form of either performance or written analysis. Prerequisite(s): Music 272 or permission of the instructor. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every other year. J. Parakilas.

MUS 222. Jazz Performance Workshop.Participants study jazz composition and harmonic theory and apply that knowledge to the practice and performance of small-group jazz improvisation. Course activities include the transcription and analysis of historical performances, composing and/or arranging, individual practice, group rehearsals on a common repertoire of standards, and at least two public performances. Vocalists and performers on any instrument may enroll. Prerequisite(s): Music 231. Recommended background: instrumental or vocal performance experience. Not open to students who have received credit for Music 233. Open to first-year students. Instructor permission is required. Normally offered every year. T. Snow. Concentrations

MUS 231. Music Theory I.Beginning with a study of notation, scales, intervals, and rhythm, the course proceeds through composition and analysis of melodic forms, a study of harmonic motion, an introduction to the principles of counterpoint, and the analysis and composition of complete works in several popular and classical styles. The course includes practical ear-training and keyboard work in additional regularly scheduled laboratory sessions. Prerequisite(s): a reading knowledge of music. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every year. Staff. Concentrations

MUS 232. Music Theory II.A continuation of Music Theory I. Prerequisite(s): Music 231. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every year. G. Fatone. Concentrations

MUS 235. Music Composition.Composition may be pursued by students at various levels of expertise and training. The course includes a weekly seminar and private lessons, and concentrates on—without being limited to—contemporary idioms. Prerequisite(s): Music 232. Open to first-year students. Instructor permission is required. Normally offered every year. H. Miura.

MUS 237. Computers, Music, and the Arts.A hands-on study of music making with computers, using the facilities of the Bates Computer Music Studio. Topics include digital synthesis, sampling, MIDI communications, simple programming, and the aesthetics of art made with computers. No computing experience is presumed, and the course is especially designed for students of the arts who wish to learn about new tools. Work produced in the course is performed in concert. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 18. Instructor permission is required. Normally offered every year. W. Matthews. Concentrations

MUS 238. Contemporary Popular Composition and Arranging. This course explores a variety of composition and arranging styles from recent American popular song. Students develop skills necessary for contemporary composition, gaining knowledge through listening and analysis, harmonic and/or melodic transcription, in-class ear-training exercises, and composition assignments. The final project is a complete piece of music, either composed or arranged, performed or prerecorded for an in-class presentation. Recommended background: competence on keyboard or other harmony instrument. Prerequisite(s): Music 231 or permission of the instructor. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every other year. T. Snow.

MUS 241. The Romantic Ideal: Robert and Clara Schumann.Using the music, letters, and critical writings of the Schumanns and their peers, students explore Romanticism in European music from the 1830s to the 1850s. Musicians include Clara Schumann, Robert Schumann, Nicolai Paganini, Frederic Chopin, Franz Liszt, Johannes Brahms, Richard Wagner, and Hector Berlioz. Not open to students who have received credit for Music 240D. Open to first-year students. Offered with varying frequency. W. Matthews.

MUS 247. Jazz and Blues: History and Practice.American jazz and blues offer two rich traditions through which one can study music, race, and American history. Through extensive listening, reading assignments, and interaction with musicians themselves, students explore the recorded history and contemporary practice of jazz and blues. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: Music 101, 102, 103, or 231. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 96. Normally offered every other year. D. Chapman.

MUS 248. Music in Contemporary Popular Culture.The last thirty years have witnessed a sea change in contemporary society, as dramatic technological and economic transformations have altered the way we see the world. This course addresses recent developments in popular music, jazz, and "art" music, examining how trends running from minimalism to hip hop and MTV comment upon this cultural environment. The course raises many questions: How has information technology altered our worldview? How does recent music reflect our ideas about race, class, gender, and sexuality? How does it disrupt conventional ideas about the separation between "high" and "low" culture? Open to first-year students. Normally offered every other year. D. Chapman. Concentrations

AA/MU 249. African American Popular Music.The history of the twentieth century can be understood in terms of of the increasing African-Americanization of music in the West. The rapid emergence and dissemination of African American music made possible through recording technologies has helped to bring about radical cultural change: it has subverted received wisdoms about race, gender, and sexuality, and has fundamentally altered our relationship to time, to our bodies, to our most basic cultural priorities. This course explores some crucial moments in the history of this African-Americanization of popular music and helps students develop an understanding of the relationship between musical sound and cultural practice. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every other year. D. Chapman. Concentrations

AS/MU 252. Musics of Southeast Asia.Designed for students interested in performing arts cultures based outside the West, this course introduces selected historical and contemporary musical traditions of mainland and island Southeast Asia. The integration of music, dance, theater, and ritual is a unifying theme of the course. Special attention is given to historical and contemporary gong-chime cultures of the region. Several practical sessions, in which students learn to play instruments of the Bates Gamelan Orchestra, enhance the grasp of formal principles common to a variety of Southeast Asian musics. The study of Southeast Asian arts contributes to students' understanding of the region. Prerequisite(s): Any course in music or Asian Studies. Open to first-year students. Offered with varying frequency. G. Fatone. Concentrations

MUS 254. Music and Drama.How do music and drama go together, and how are the possible relationships between them exploited in different media? This course is a study of dramas that use music, not only opera, but also musicals, movies, and non-Western musical theater. Works are heard and seen through audio and video recordings, and the class may attend an opera performance in Boston or Portland. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every other year. J. Parakilas. Concentrations

INDS 262. Ethnomusicology: African Diaspora.For Paul Gilroy, the African diaspora is to be understood as the "Black Atlantic"—a dynamic, politically charged web of interrelationships that links diasporic communities through patterns of migration, movement, and historical contingency. This course explores the musical dimensions of the Black Atlantic, but it also demonstrates how music's flow and dynamism make it uniquely well-suited to embodying these cultural relationships, making them deeply felt as present in the immediacy of the moment. Cross-listed in African American studies, anthropology, and music. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 25. Normally offered every other year. D. Chapman. Concentrations

MUS 266. Miles Davis.This course explores the life, music, and cultural significance of Miles Davis, using his work and persona as windows into the turbulence of mid-twentieth-century America. The course considers such issues as his role in challenging historically entrenched representations of race, as well as his controversial defiance of musical conventions. Students develop a critical understanding of his musical output, from his early work with Charlie Parker to his late explorations of funk, psychedelic rock, and hip hop. Miles Davis is studied in the context of other major jazz musicians such as John Coltrane, Gil Evans, Wayne Shorter, and Wynton Marsalis. Prerequisite(s): Music 231 and 247. Not open to students who have received credit for Music 265F. Open to first-year students. Offered with varying frequency. D. Chapman.

MUS 270. Applied Music.An exploration of the literature for voice or a solo instrument through weekly instruction. Problems of performance practice, style, form, and technique are emphasized equally. Individual instruction is available in banjo, double bass, electric bass, bassoon, clarinet, drum set, euphonium, fiddle, flute, French horn, guitar, harpsichord, oboe, organ, percussion, classical or jazz piano, saxophone, sitar, trombone or bass trombone, trumpet, tuba, viola, violin, violoncello, and voice. Instruction may be available in other classical, jazz, folk, and non-Western instruments when demand exists. One course credit is granted upon completion of every two consecutive semesters of lessons. A maximum of four course credits may be earned in Music 270. Students register for Music 270 whenever they take the course; the actual sequential course number (271–278) is recorded in the student's registration. Those who register for applied music instruction on an instrument must have at least a beginner's facility with that instrument. Corequisite(s): Participation in a department ensemble during both semesters of applied music study or enrollment in one departmental course other than applied music during that year. A special fee of $320 per semester is charged for each course. Written permission of the department chair is required for the first semester of applied music (270A), but not for subsequent semesters (270B). Open to first-year students. Normally offered every semester. Staff.

MUS 280. Applied Music II.See Music 270 for course description. Students register for both Music 270 and 280 if they are studying two musical instruments (or an instrument and voice) during the same semester. Students register for Music 280 whenever they take the course; the actual sequential course number (281–288) is recorded in the student's registration. A maximum of four course credits may be earned in Music 280. Those who register for applied music instruction on an instrument must have at least a beginner's facility with that instrument. A special fee of $320 is charged for each course. Written permission of the department chair is required for the first semester of applied music (280A), but not for any subsequent semester (280B). Corequisite(s): Music 270. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every semester. Staff.

MUS 331. Music Theory III.A continuation of Music Theory II, emphasizing four-voice textures, modulation, chromatic harmony, and sonata forms. Students compose music in several forms and styles, and continue practical ear-training and keyboard work. This course includes regularly scheduled laboratory sessions. Prerequisite(s): Music 232. Normally offered every year. J. Parakilas.

MUS 332. Music Theory IV.A continuation of Music Theory III, emphasizing chromatic harmony and the post-tonal styles of the twentieth century. This course includes regularly scheduled laboratory sessions. Prerequisite(s): Music 331. Normally offered every year. H. Miura.

DN/MU 337. Atelier.The atelier offers composers, performers, choreographers, and other artists the opportunity to collaborate using new technologies. Meeting in the Olin Computer Music Studio, students work together with interactive music and video software to create performances. Work in progress is shown weekly, then performed in public on and off campus. Recommended background for music majors: Music 222 and either 235 or 237. Enrollment limited to 16. Instructor permission is required. Offered with varying frequency. W. Matthews. Concentrations

MUS 340. Music and Cinema.Cinema has barely more than a hundred years of history, and sound was only introduced on screen in the 1920s. This course investigates the ways in which sound interacts with moving images beyond the preconceived notion of a "soundtrack." Traditional film scoring techniques such as underscoring and leitmotif are investigated through compositional and theoretical affinities between Hollywood film music and late romantic operas. Alternative approaches are explored through late twentieth-century narrative and experimental cinema. Students compose a score to a short silent film of their choice. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: Music 235, 237, or 238. Enrollment limited to 15. Normally offered every other year. H. Miura. Concentrations

MUS 360. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study per semester. Normally offered every semester. Staff.

MUS 365. Special Topics.A course or seminar offered from time to time and reserved for a special topic selected by the department. Offered with varying frequency. Staff.

MUS 396. Junior-Senior Seminar in Musicology: Music History and Cultural Politics.Music embodies a kind of radical potentiality, a statement of the possibilities dormant in cultural norms. This potentiality is of central concern to the musicologist, whose role is to understand the relationship between music and its historical context. This course addresses the capacity of music for creating social meaning and embodying cultural change. Students engage with influential writings in historiography, music criticism, ethnography, performance practice, and analysis, with perspectives on repertory ranging from Josquin des Prez to Kanye West, from Robert Schumann to the Ronettes. Prerequisite(s): Music 232. Enrollment limited to 15. [W3] Offered with varying frequency. D. Chapman.

MUS 397. Junior-Senior Seminar in Musicology: Texts, Performances, Recordings.The field of musicology was created with the purpose of perpetuating the notated music of past eras as a musical tradition. Musicologists have created canons of works, editing their texts and offering guidance to their performance. But the field has increasingly concerned itself with unnotated kinds of music as well, especially folk music and jazz. Some scholars have treated this unnotated music as texts—through transcriptions, recordings, and film—while others have demanded more appropriate approaches to it. At the same time, scholars working on notated music have challenged the field's tradition of text worship. This course introduces the debates. Prerequisite(s): Music 232. Not open to students who have received credit for Music 399G. [W3] Offered with varying frequency. J. Parakilas.

MUS 398. Junior-Senior Seminar in Ethnomusicology.This course introduces students to ethnomusicological methods by encouraging the development of critical and analytical tools of inquiry necessary for fieldwork and research. The course focuses on the social, cultural, political, and intellectual forces that have shaped the growth of ethnomusicology in the United States and abroad. Students are expected to undertake an innovative research project on a theoretical approach to musical study in its cultural and historical context. They incorporate into their projects musical analysis, current philosophical thoughts on ethnomusicology, and their own personal interviews with musicians. Prerequisite(s): Music 232. Not open to students who have received credit for Music 399B. Enrollment limited to 15. [W3] Offered with varying frequency. G. Fatone.

MUS 457. Senior Thesis.An independent study program culminating in: a) an essay on a musical topic; b) an original composition accompanied by an essay on the work; or c) a recital accompanied by an essay devoted to analysis of works included in the recital. Students register for Music 457 in the fall semester and for Music 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both Music 457 and 458. Normally offered every year. Staff.

MUS 457, 458. Senior Thesis.An independent study program culminating in: a) an essay on a musical topic; b) an original composition accompanied by an essay on the work; or c) a recital accompanied by an essay devoted to analysis of works included in the recital. Students register for Music 457 in the fall semester and for Music 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both Music 457 and 458. Normally offered every year. Staff.

MUS 458. Senior Thesis.An independent study program culminating in: a) an essay on a musical topic; b) an original composition accompanied by an essay on the work; or c) a recital accompanied by an essay devoted to analysis of works included in the recital. Students register for Music 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both Music 457 and 458. Normally offered every year. Staff.

Short Term Courses

MUS s24. History of Electronic Dance Music.This unit explores the development of electronic dance music, from its inception in the house and techno subcultures of Chicago and Detroit to its global apotheosis as the soundtrack for rave culture. The enormous popularity of this music challenges some of our most deeply held cultural assumptions, and raises crucial questions about the relationships between music, technology, the body, and culture: How do various subgenres of electronic dance music map out our sense of postindustrial reality? In what ways do the use (and deliberate misuse) of such sound technologies as turntables, digital samplers, drum machines, and musical software challenge traditional notions of musical authorship and authenticity? In what sense do these genres and subcultures present alternative models of sexuality, or different ways of understanding the politics of the body? Enrollment limited to 30. Offered with varying frequency. D. Chapman. Concentrations

MUS s25. Performing the Musical Art of Indonesia.This unit introduces students to traditional music of Indonesia through study and performance of gamelan (gong-chime orchestra) and related theater arts under the leadership of a resident Indonesian artist-scholar. Students develop collaborative rehearsal and performance skills in a largely oral transmission setting, experiencing alternative modes of both conceptualizing and learning music. Class members have the additional opportunity to study independently with the resident artist. Study culminates in a series of local/regional public ensemble performances. Students learn to locate Indonesian gamelan in the larger context of Southeast Asian performing arts. Enrollment limited to 20. Offered with varying frequency. G. Fatone. Concentrations

MUS s27. Exploring Jazz Guitar.This unit explores the nature of the guitar in jazz. A historical survey of jazz guitarists includes extensive listening and viewing of video performances, with special attention to the techniques that established their individual voices on the instrument. Elements of guitar acoustics are discussed and demonstrated in the laboratory. While the unit is designed for players and nonplayers, it includes a discussion of jazz theory and analysis. Private lessons are available for guitarists. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. Offered with varying frequency. J. Smedley. Concentrations

MUS s50. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study during a Short Term. Normally offered every year. Staff.