background

Education

Visiting Professor Regan (chair); Assistant Professor Buck; Senior Lecturer Dodd; Lecturers Gurney, Charles, Salmon, and Feiss

The Bates College Department of Education seeks to foster the democratic possibilities of schooling through the study of American public education and other comparative systems. The aim of the department is to create an environment in which students and faculty together analyze the complex dynamics between the purposes and products of schooling, and the social structures and cultural processes that constitute the broader context for education. In particular, the department aims to nurture in students the development of these qualities:

Critical action and civic responsibility: The department wants students to develop a sense of social responsibility and concern for the common good, and so encourages them to become involved in the local community and beyond through fieldwork, service-learning projects, policy analysis, student teaching, and empirical research.

Reflection and engagement: In the department's vision of education, reflection and engagement work together to deepen students' understanding and foster their personal growth.

Imagination and a passion for learning: With imagination, a passion for learning, and the skills and knowledge they develop, students are well-prepared to pursue their interests in education.

Commitment to social justice: Throughout the program, students are encouraged to recognize and address the influence of social context on the democratic possibilities of schooling.

Because education itself is an interdisciplinary area of study, the education department offers courses that attract students with a variety of interests. Some pursue educational studies as part of their exploration of liberal arts at Bates. Some want to teach immediately after they graduate from Bates or following graduate study. Others link their interest in social institutions, public policy, community, or families and children to a direct and deeper understanding of American schools. Many students simply want to know more about education so that they can be better prepared to fulfill their future roles as citizens and parents. To encourage the integration of theory and practice, education courses require a field placement in a local school or community setting. Students are expected to reflect systematically on the larger questions surrounding educational structures and practices raised through field experiences. More information on the education department is available on the Web site (www.bates.edu/EDUC.xml).

Minor. The Bates Department of Education offers a minor in education with two strands available—teacher education and educational studies—for students interested in connecting their academic interests in a major discipline with the field of education. In both strands, students are required to take Education 231, Perspectives on Education. This course introduces students to the field through foundational perspectives that stimulate further interest in education; it is open to first-year students. Students interested in designing a minor in education are encouraged to come to information sessions offered twice during the academic year and to make appointments with education faculty for early planning and advisement.

Teacher education offers graduates the ability to complete certification as public school teachers (7–12) in several disciplines including English, social studies, science, mathematics, and modern languages (K–12). The program is approved by the Maine State Board of Education, and students who receive Maine certification gain opportunities to teach through reciprocity with approximately forty other states. Some students may choose to enroll in the teacher education program even if they are interested in teaching in an independent school where certification is not required because they gain significant experience in the classroom and thus are better prepared for the challenges they will face when they enter a classroom on their own for the first time.

Educational studies offer students the opportunity to pursue a set of courses that are designed around students' emerging interests in a major and their developing goals for future work and study in educational fields. Many students interested in eventual certification at the elementary school level gain significant background and experience in the electives offered by the department and prepare for certification through summer programs or graduate school.

Students who wish to pursue a minor in education in either teacher education or educational studies should begin planning their course schedules no later than the sophomore year. With early planning they will be able to meet all of the requirements for a major and minor and to spend some time in off-campus study as well. Those students interested in certification need to think about how to manage the demands of student teaching in their senior year with their course work and thesis.

Minor in Education (Teacher Education Strand). Requirements for the College's recommendation for certification in Maine as secondary school teacher include: 1) Education 231, 362; a department elective; and all of the following: 447, 448, 460, and 461, including field experience in conjunction with each of these courses; 2) a major in an appropriate teaching field, although some fields may require additional courses; 3) fulfillment of the College's General Education and other degree requirements; and 4) fulfillment of state requirements, which include passing a standardized test and fingerprinting. Note that licensing of teachers is a state function; requirements differ from state to state, and these rules change frequently. Courses and experiences other than those offered at Bates may be required. Students interested in certification should consult with a faculty member as early as possible to plan for required course work. Applications must be submitted by 15 October of the junior year.

Minor in Education (Educational Studies Strand). Students choosing this option must complete seven courses. This minor requires that six of the seven courses be Department of Education courses. Education 231 is required for all students. Each education course requires at least thirty hours of field experience (such as tutoring or action research) in educational settings or fieldwork related to education more generally, such as research on policy. Students may apply to have an off-campus program or course count as one of the six required education courses. These requests require the prior approval of education faculty. For the classes of 2009, 2010, and 2011, at least one field experience must be extended to the equivalent of a semester-long experience of at least seventy hours. Students may also meet this requirement in other ways, such as a faculty-approved and supervised placement in a semester when they are not currently enrolled in an education course, a field-based thesis study, or an off-campus program with prior departmental approval and appropriate documentation. For the class of 2012 and beyond, students are required to take Education 450 (Seminar in Educational Studies) in the fall of their senior year, which carries a thirty-hour field placement requirement. Students design and complete a culminating project in educational studies, which may include an extension of field placements as appropriate. Students are strongly advised to begin preliminary planning and application as soon as possible and no later than the beginning of the junior year, at which time they are assigned an education faculty advisor. A formal application must be submitted by 15 October of the senior year.

Pass/Fail Grading Option. Pass/fail grading may be elected for courses applied toward the minor.

General Education Information for the Classes of 2009 and 2010. Education 231 and any other course or Short Term unit listed below may serve as a department-designated set. The department has incorporated a field experience into First-Year Seminar 300; this course meets the requirements for an elective in the education department and may count as a third social science.

Title II "Report Card." An amendment to Title II, Higher Education Act (HEA), passed by Congress in 1998, requires that states and institutions with teacher-preparation programs annually report to the public certain program information, including the pass rates of program participants on assessments required by the state for teacher certification. Maine requires Praxis I tests in reading, writing, and mathematics as well as the Praxis II subject matter test in the chosen area of certification. Bates College requires only Praxis I passing scores for consideration of program completion. 100 percent of Bates student teachers during 2006–2007 who took the Praxis I examination earned passing scores required for program completion and for Maine certification. One hundred percent of those students taking Praxis II earned passing scores in each student's respective academic content area. Nine students were enrolled in the program as seniors in 2006–2007 (a student-faculty ratio of approximately 2 to 1). The current requirement for clinical experience in the program is 450 hours. Further information about the program's annual report is available from the chair of the department and the director of the teacher education program.

Courses

EDUC 231A. Perspectives on Education: Writing Attentive.This course introduces students to foundational perspectives (anthropological, historical, philosophical, psychological, and sociological) on education and their relations to the realities present in contemporary schools and classrooms. The essential question addressed by the course is: What should be the purpose of education in a democratic society? This first-level course is writing attentive: students write five five-page papers, and have the opportunity for special instruction, editing, and rewriting throughout the writing process. A thirty-hour field experience is required. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 18. [W1] Normally offered every year. Staff.

EDUC 231B. Perspectives on Education.This course introduces students to foundational perspectives (anthropological, historical, philosophical, psychological, and sociological) on education and their relations to the realities present in contemporary schools and classrooms. The essential question addressed by the course is: What should be the purpose of education in a democratic society? A thirty-hour field experience is required. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 28. Normally offered every semester. Staff.

EDUC 235. Teaching Math and Science: Curriculum and Methods.This course provides students with a basic foundation for teaching mathematics and science. Students examine curriculum, instruction, and assessment techniques in these disciplines, and compare and contrast national, state, and local standards in math and science. They explore various pedagogical approaches for engaging students in learning and diverse strategies for assessing their progress. Students discuss current educational issues, develop and teach a unit, and assess the degrees to which their students meet the objectives of the unit. A thirty-hour field placement in a local school is required. Recommended background: math or science majors preferred. A previous education class is recommended. Enrollment limited to 18. Normally offered every year. G. Feiss. Concentrations

AC/ED 238. The Public Work of Academics.This course explores how academic work matters in the world, using various kinds of academic tools, both conventional (historical texts, critical essays, films, and literary work) and experiential (community-based learning or research). Topics include the history of U.S. higher education, questions of academic responsibility to the public welfare, images of academics in film and literature, the vocation of the intellectual, and forms of public scholarship or civic engagement. The course is reading- and writing-attentive and requires thirty hours of community-based learning/research. Enrollment limited to 20. [W2] Normally offered every other year. A. Bartel. Concentrations

EDUC 240. Gender Issues in Education.This course considers education, especially classroom teaching, in relation to recent theory and research on gender. In addition to providing a feminist philosophical perspective on education, the course explores the implications of gender, race, class, and sexual orientation on ways of knowing, developing, and interacting for K–12 curriculum and classroom practice for both males and females. A thirty-hour field experience is required. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 25. [W2] Normally offered every year. H. Regan. Concentrations

ED/SO 242. Race, Cultural Pluralism, and Equality in American Education.Through historical, political, and philosophical lenses this course explores the question: What would equal educational opportunity look like in a multicultural society? The course compares divergent approaches to the education of distinct racial/ethnic groups within the United States—African Americans, Asian Americans, European Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans. In light of contextual perspectives in educational thought, the course confronts contemporary debates surrounding how the race/ethnicity of students should affect the composition, curriculum, and teaching methods of schools, colleges, and universities. Specific issues explored include bilingual education, college admissions, curriculum inclusion, desegregation, ethnic studies, and hiring practices. A thirty-hour field experience is required. Recommended background: Education 231. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 25. [W2] Normally offered every other year. Staff. Concentrations

EDUC 245. Literacy in Preschool and Elementary Years.This course examines how literacy is defined and developed through a child's early and elementary years from a variety of perspectives: social, educational, political, and linguistic. Students connect these theories with practice by exploring various methods and materials that foster literacy development in elementary students and by doing fieldwork in local schools. Working collaboratively with classroom teachers, students design and implement literacy development strategies and projects with elementary students. A thirty-hour field experience is required. Recommended background: Education 231 and Education/Psychology 262. Enrollment limited to 25. [W2] Offered with varying frequency. A. Charles. Concentrations

EDUC 250. Critical Perspective on Teaching and Learning.This course examines and critiques shifting historical and contemporary notions of good pedagogy, curriculum and assessment through the lens of critical theory. Particular emphasis is given to the ways teaching can contribute to social justice, i.e., teaching that critiques and transforms, that is culturally relevant, and that engages in activism. A thirty-hour field placement is required. Recommended background: Education 231. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 25. [W2] Offered with varying frequency. H. Regan. Concentrations

ED/PY 262. Action Research.Action research often begins with a general idea that some kind of improvement or change is desirable. For example, a teacher who is experiencing discipline problems in a classroom may seek an understanding of this issue with the help of trusted observers. In this course, students collaborate with local teachers or service providers on research projects that originate in their work sites. Class meetings introduce design issues, methods of data collection and analysis, and ways of reporting research. Prerequisite(s): Psychology 218 or Education 231. Enrollment limited to 15 per section. [W2] Normally offered every year. G. Nigro. Concentrations

DN/ED 265. Teaching through the Arts.This course provides students an opportunity to explore teaching in and through the arts. The class addresses education theory and policy, practical aspects of using the arts as teaching practice, and considers career options. Class sessions include large and small group work, participatory experiences, lectures, group discussions, and student-led activities and presentations. Through a thirty-hour field placement in community schools, students experience the challenges and delights of using the arts in teaching. Enrollment limited to 18. Offered with varying frequency. N. Salmon. Concentrations

EDUC 270. Educating for Democracy.Troubling voter turnout rates and levels of civic participation in the United States raise questions about the health of our democracy. Youth, in particular, express a sense of alienation from government and formal political processes. What does this say about education for democracy? If education is vital to the success of democratic governance, what might be done in schools and other educational institutions to better engage young people in public life? This course explores the relationship between education and democracy and various approaches to civic and citizenship education. A thirty-hour field experience is required. Recommended background: Education 231. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 25. Offered with varying frequency. Staff.

ED/WS 280. Globalization and Education.We live in an era characterized by global flows of ideas and information, commodities, and people. In this course students examine the impacts of globalization upon educational policy and practices. Students explore how these transformative forces influence the educative process in different geographical, national, and cultural contexts. Topics address a set of concerns with enduring resonance to the field of educational studies, including social inequity and change; relations of power; and constructions of race, gender, and social class. A thirty-hour field experience is required. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 28. [W2] Normally offered every other year. P. Buck. Concentrations

EDUC 320. Community Education/Community Action.Education at its best builds on the strengths and actively addresses the needs of communities and neighborhoods. This guiding philosophy is manifested in the development of full-service community schools, after-school programs, adult and cooperative learning programs, and grassroots efforts to educate for social change. This course offers an introduction to the theory and principles of community education as well as engagement in community capacity building through service-learning projects. The course is well-suited to students committed to service-learning and centers on partnerships with schools and a variety of organizations in the community. A thirty-hour field placement is required. Enrollment limited to 15. Normally offered every year. P. Buck.

ED/WS 330. Gender, Power, and Leadership.This course examines classic and contemporary conceptualizations of gender, power, and leadership; the interactions among them; and the implications of these interactions for the practice of leadership in education and other fields of student interest. A thirty-hour field placement is required. Prerequisite(s): a combination of any two courses from education, politics, sociology, or women and gender studies. Not open to students who have received credit for Education/Women and Gender Studies s29. Not open to students who have received credit for ED/WS s29. Enrollment limited to 18. Offered with varying frequency. H. Regan.

EDUC 343. Learning and Teaching: Theories and Practice.Students explore learning and teaching with an emphasis on reflective practice. They consider various theories and research on learning and motivation, educational philosophies, and current issues, such as the standards movement and standardized testing. This knowledge serves as a basis for critically examining curriculum development, classroom practice, and the roles of teachers and students in today's schools. Students apply what they learn by creating and teaching a mini-curriculum unit in a local classroom. The teaching fulfills part of the required thirty-hour field experience for the course. Recommended background: Education 231, Psychology 101. Enrollment limited to 15. Offered with varying frequency. Staff. Concentrations

EDUC 355. Adolescent Literacy.This course examines various perspectives on and issues in adolescent literacy in today's middle and high schools, focusing primarily on sociocultural frameworks for the study of current practices and beliefs. Topics include not only "what" we mean by literacy, but also "how" youths today make meaning within various discourse communities and contexts. Topics include multiple literacies, literacy across the curriculum, the influence of complex technologies, diverse learners, and current policies and paradigms influencing instruction. This course interweaves theory with practice through a required thirty-hour field placement in a local middle or high school. Recommended background: Education 231. Enrollment limited to 25. [W2] Offered with varying frequency. A. Charles. Concentrations

EDUC 360. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study per semester. Normally offered every semester. Staff.

EDUC 362. Basic Concepts in Special Education.Students learn the legal requirements (IDEA, ADA) for providing special services to and the characteristics of students who need additional support to learn. They explore a variety of strategies and modifications teachers can use to help students with various learning differences, styles, and abilities succeed in the mainstream classroom. They critically examine how differences in students' gender, cultural, socioeconomic, racial, and ethnic backgrounds affect the quality of the education they receive. A thirty-hour field experience is required. Because this course is required for certification as a teacher in Maine, it is also required for Bates students pursuing the minor in Teacher Education. Recommended background: Education 231. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 25. [W2] Normally offered every year. A. Dodd. Concentrations

EDUC 365. Special Topics.A course or seminar offered from time to time and reserved for a special topic selected by the department. Staff. Concentrations

AN/ED 378. Ethnographic Approaches to Education.This course provides an introduction to fieldwork for those planning to conduct qualitative research for a thesis in the social sciences. Ethnography focuses on the daily lives and meaning-making processes of people who associate regularly in local networks, institutions, or communities. Ethnographers observe, interview, and participate in the routine activities of the people they study. They also explore the connections between locally situated activity and broader realms of symbolic meaning and social organization. This course introduces students to interpretive methods with which to examine the webs of meaning that give shape to educational spaces. Through active engagement in empirical research in educational settings across the Lewiston-Auburn community, students grapple with theoretical assumptions, procedures, and standards of quality in ethnographic research. A thirty-hour field experience is required. Enrollment limited to 15. [W2] Normally offered every year. P. Buck. Concentrations

ED/SO 380. Education, Reform, and Politics.The United States has experienced more than three centuries of growth and change in the organization of public and private education. The goals of this course are to examine 1) contemporary reform issues and political processes in relation to the constituencies of school, research, legal, and policy-making communities and 2) how educational policy is formulated, implemented, and evaluated. The study of these areas emphasizes public K–12 education but includes postsecondary education. Examples of specific educational policy arenas include governance, school choice (e.g., charter schools, magnet schools, and vouchers), school funding, standards and accountability, and parental and community involvement. A research-based field component of at least thirty hours is required. Recommended background: one or more courses in education and sociology. Enrollment limited to 15. Instructor permission is required. Offered with varying frequency. Staff. Concentrations

EDUC 447. Curriculum and Methods.This course continues study of the concepts needed to understand curriculum design and program evaluation, and helps students develop the skills needed to design and teach curriculum units in their subject area. The course is part workshop: students plan, develop, teach, and evaluate their own curriculum units. At the same time, students read about and reflect on classic questions in curriculum and instruction, such as: To what extent are teachers responsible for developing their own curriculum? Should curriculum and instruction focus on transmitting established knowledge, developing individuals' talents, or preparing successful members of society? Can teachers assess students' knowledge in ways that allow them to learn from the assessments? What particular teaching methods are appropriate for the different disciplines? Students develop a repertoire of methods to use in student teaching and in future teaching. Prerequisite(s): Education 231 and 460. Corequisite(s): Education 448 and 461. Normally offered every year. A. Charles, A. Dodd.

EDUC 448. Senior Seminar in Teacher Education: Reflection and Engagement.The seminar helps students reflect on and engage with their experiences as teachers. Students are encouraged to develop their own philosophies of education and to use these philosophies in planning and teaching their classes. The seminar also addresses three areas of practice—technology, community-based, and interdisciplinary approaches—and helps students incorporate these into their teaching. Prerequisite(s): Education 231, 362, and 460. Corequisite(s): Education 447 and 461. Instructor permission is required. Normally offered every year. A. Dodd, A. Charles.

EDUC 460. Student Teaching I.This is an intensive field experience in secondary education. Students begin by observing a host teacher in their academic field, spending one or two class periods each day in the high school. Soon they begin teaching at least one class per day. In regular, informal meetings, they are guided and supported by their host teachers, a supervisor from the Bates Department of Education, and other members of a supervisory support team. Students also meet weekly at Bates to address conceptual matters and to discuss problems and successes in the classroom. These weekly seminars include workshops in content area methods and extensive informal reflective writing. Students begin to move toward proficiency in four areas of practice: curriculum, instruction, and evaluation; classroom management, interactions, and relationships; diversity; time management and organizational skills. Prerequisite(s): Education 231 and 362. Instructor permission is required. Normally offered every year. A. Dodd, A. Charles.

EDUC 461. Student Teaching II.This course continues and deepens the experiences and reflection begun in Education 460. Students spend four or five class periods each day in a local high school observing, teaching, and becoming fully involved in the life of the school. Students continue to meet regularly with their host teacher, Bates supervisor, and others on their supervisory support team. Although there are no weekly meetings for this course, students spend extensive time planning their classes and reflecting in writing on their experiences. Prerequisite(s): Education 231, 362, and 460. Corequisite(s): Education 447 and 448. Normally offered every year. A. Dodd, A. Charles.

Short Term Courses

EDUC s19. Theory and Practice of Writing and Tutoring.Winston Churchill is supposed to have asked, "How can I tell what I think until I see what I've said?" This unit explores the intersection of thinking, learning, and writing in the academy, and in particular, the teaching and tutoring of writing. Students consider readings in current composition and peer-tutoring theory and practice and have opportunities to apply and practice a variety of writing and tutoring strategies in and out of class. The course serves as a foundation for students seeking to become peer writing assistants and those interested in teaching writing at the secondary level. Enrollment limited to 20. Instructor permission is required. Offered with varying frequency. J. Cole.

EDUC s20. Creating Educational Experiences at Morse Mountain.In this unit students design and teach applied educational experiences. Students work together to develop a project-based field trip. As part of the planning process, they address curriculum, instruction, assessment, and the legalities and logistics of running a field trip. The students implement their work by bringing groups of students from area schools on a field trip to the Bates-Morse Mountain Conservation Area. Recommended background: one course in education or a major in math or science. Offered with varying frequency. Staff.

EDUC s25. Democratic Dialogue.How do democratic citizens talk and reason together in order to reach collective decisions? How are ideals of equality, respect, inclusion, and civility modeled in such processes? In recent years the theory of deliberative democracy, as well as practical models of deliberation and dialogue, have gained attention in a variety of national and international contexts ranging from scholarly research and policy formulation to grassroots political organizing. This unit explores the theoretical underpinnings of deliberative democracy and experiments with specific approaches to dialogue, particularly in relationship to public policy and uses of dialogue in educational settings. A thirty-hour field experience is required. Enrollment limited to 30. Offered with varying frequency. Staff.

EDUC s27. Literacy in the Community.The field of "new literacy studies" calls into question the traditional emphasis upon discrete reading and writing skills. In an expanded definition scholars place literacy within anthropological and cross-cultural frameworks that attend to the embeddedness of reading and writing practices within families, communities, and cultures. This unit introduces students to the literature of new literacy studies and educational anthropology in conjunction with a thirty-hour service-learning placement in the Lewiston area. Students are asked to investigate the impact culturally informed knowledge and experience have upon the literacy practices of those community members with whom they work closely. Enrollment limited to 30. Normally offered every year. P. Buck, A. Charles. Concentrations

ED/EN s28. Children's Writing Workshop.Students read and discuss a wide range of literature for and by children as well as pertinent critical studies, and travel weekly to Dunn Elementary School in New Gloucester to work with third, fourth, and fifth graders on well-known poetry and fiction as well as the children's own creative writing. With help from the children, they produce a classroom magazine and organize a poetry/fiction reading. A thirty-hour field experience is required. Prerequisite(s): one course in either English or education. Enrollment limited to 12. Offered with varying frequency. L. Nayder. Concentrations

ED/WS s29. Gender, Power, and Leadership.This course examines the classic and contemporary conceptualizations of gender, power, and leadership; the interactions among them; and the implications of these interactions for the practice of leadership in education or other fields of student interest. A thirty-hour field placement involving observation of a decision-making group in action, interviews of group participants, and service to the host organization is required. Prerequisite(s): one course in education, sociology or women and gender studies. Not open to students who have received credit for Education 330. Enrollment limited to 18. [W2] Offered with varying frequency. H. Regan.

DN/ED s29A. Tour, Teach, Perform I.This unit uses the diverse collective skills of the students in the class as base material for the creation of a theater/dance piece that tours to elementary schools. The first two weeks are spent working intensively with a guest artist to create the performance piece. The remaining weeks are spent touring that piece, along with age-appropriate movement workshops, to elementary schools throughout the region. Open to performers and would-be performers of all kinds. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 20. Normally offered every year. Staff. Concentrations

DN/ED s29B. Tour, Teach, Perform II.Continued study of the integration of dance and other arts for the purpose of producing a performance piece for elementary school children. Students participate in all aspects of creating the performance, encompassing a wide variety of topics and movement-based performance styles, and developing a creative movement workshop to be taught in the classrooms. Open to performers and would-be performers of all kinds. Prerequisite(s): Dance s29A. Enrollment limited to 6. Normally offered every year. Staff. Concentrations

DN/ED s29C. Tour, Teach, Perform III.Further study of the integration of dance and other arts for the purpose of producing a performance piece for elementary school children. Students participate in all aspects of creating the performance, encompassing a wide variety of topics and movement-based performance styles, and developing a creative movement workshop to be taught in the classrooms. Open to performers and would-be performers of all kinds. Prerequisite(s): Dance s29B. Enrollment limited to 4. Normally offered every year. Staff. Concentrations

EDUC s50. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study during a Short Term. Normally offered every year. Staff. Concentrations