Romance Languages and Literatures

Professors Rice-DeFosse (chair for French) and López; Associate Professors Fra-Molinero (chair for Spanish), Read, and Aburto Guzmán; Assistant Professor Dauge-Roth; Visiting Assistant Professors George, Ortiz, and Serrano; Lecturers Balladur and Báez Mareo

The Department of Romance Languages and Literatures offers courses in French and Spanish.

Courses in French and Spanish help students to learn basic communication skills, to appreciate another culture through its language, and to go beyond the study of language to achieve a deeper understanding of diverse peoples by way of their literature and other modes of cultural production. Texts are read closely from a contemporary critical perspective with attention to their cultural context. All courses are taught in French or Spanish, except in the case of some courses cross-listed with other departments or programs, which may be taught in English. More information on the Romance languages and literatures department is available on the Web site (www.bates.edu/RLL.xml).

Minors. In addition to a major in French or Spanish, a minor can be pursued in these areas of study. Application for a minor must be made prior to Short Term of the senior year, after consultation with a permanent member of the faculty in the language area of concentration (French or Spanish). Advanced Placement courses may not be applied toward the minor.

Study Abroad. All students, and especially majors, are strongly encouraged to spend an extended period of time in a Spanish- or French-speaking country prior to graduation. Opportunities to do so include participation in junior year or junior semester abroad programs, and in the various off-campus Short Term units sponsored by the department. The department supports programs of study it has approved for a junior year or semester abroad as significant means of increasing one's comprehension of the culture and as the most effective method of developing advanced proficiency in the language.

Placement in French and Spanish Courses. Students entering courses in the department are advised of the following general policies and procedures. The beginning (101-102) sequence is reserved for true beginners in the language. Those with more than two years of secondary school study are not admitted at this level and are encouraged to enter at the 200 level, or, in some cases, 102 in the spring semester; students who have followed a conventional sequence of language study in high school (generally three to four years, sometimes more, sometimes involving Advanced Placement courses) are advised to enroll at the early to mid-200 level: 201 for general review or other intermediate courses that concentrate variously on introductions to culture, spoken language, and/or literature. The department allows for self-placement in 201 and 205 (French) and 201 and 207 (Spanish); students are advised to be in touch directly with the instructor for permission or prerequisite waiver for entry into more advanced courses.

General Education Information for the Classes of 2009 and 2010. Any one Short Term unit from the Department of Romance Languages and Literatures and First-Year Seminar 318 may serve as an option for the fifth humanities course. Advanced Placement, International Baccalaureate, or A-Level credit awarded by the department/program may not be used toward fulfillment of any General Education requirements.

French and Francophone Studies

The major in French aims at flexibility within a structure that affords a diversity of experience in Francophone culture and literature and continuous training in the use of the language. It provides effective preparation for graduate work but is not conceived as strictly preprofessional. The significance of French is highlighted by the College's proximity to Québec and by the large number of Franco-Americans who live and work in Northern New England. In addition to France's literary tradition, the Francophone histories and cultures of North Africa, West Africa, the Caribbean, and Québec have produced writers and artists who have influenced the world broadly with their cultural and artistic dynamism and insight, making French and Francophone cultural production truly rich and varied.

Major Requirements. Students may select a major in French language and culture or a major in Francophone cultural studies.

I. French Language and Culture. A major in French language and culture consists of a minimum of ten courses that should include: a) French 250 or 251; b) three courses from French 205, 235, 270, 271, or 305; c) three courses from French 351, 352, 353, 354, 355, and 365; and d) French 240 and 261.

A student may request the department to substitute a Short Term unit for one of the courses above.

Fluent and correct use of the language is essential to the completion of the major. All senior majors in French language and culture are required to complete a two-part capstone experience that serves to synthesize and reflect upon their work in the major as described below:

1) All majors in French language and culture must assemble a portfolio of their work in the major and discuss it in French before the faculty at the end of the second semester of their senior year. This exercise is known as the "soutenance du portfolio." The portfolio contains a personal statement on the student's experience in French and other components such as papers from courses taken at Bates or abroad, a journal of a study-abroad program or travel experience, audio and/or video recordings to show progress in oral proficiency, Web sites that may have been created for courses or other Francophone endeavors, or other personal reflections.

2) All majors in French language and culture must complete a senior thesis, a senior essay, or an oral history project. While not required, a one- or two-semester thesis is often used to fulfill this requirement. Alternatively, students may, in consultation with their advisor, elect to complete a senior essay addressing a significant question that must span several time periods and or Francophone cultures. Academic credit is not given for the essay option. Finally, students may choose to complete the capstone experience by participating in the oral history project. Students enroll for credit as they would for a thesis and undertake a series of interviews with local Maine Francophone residents, the results of which are presented at the Mount David Summit and archived at Bates and in local depositories. Some portion of any of these options must be included in the portfolio for discussion.

Honors candidates register for French 457 and 458.

II. Francophone Cultural Studies. In addition to enhancing the proficiency level in French language, this major develops a deeper understanding of one or more of the significant French-speaking areas of the world outside of France: a) French-speaking Europe (Belgium, Switzerland, Luxembourg); b) sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean; c) North America, particularly Québec and Northern New England; d) North Africa, the Maghreb. This major encourages interdisciplinarity and examines cultural diversity and identity in these Francophone areas.

A major in Francophone cultural studies consists of a minimum of ten courses, which should include: a) French 203; b) French 250 or 251; c) two courses from French 205, 235, 270, 271, or 305; d) French 240 or 261; e) one course from French 352, 353, 354, or 355; f) three courses in related subjects from such departments and programs as African American studies, anthropology, art and visual culture, economics, history, music, philosophy, politics, religious studies, theater and rhetoric, and women and gender studies (these courses should be selected in close consultation with the major advisor and must receive approval from the department chair); and g) senior thesis, French 457 or 458.

A student may request the department to substitute a Short Term unit for one of the courses above.

Honors candidates register for French 457 and 458.

Minor Requirements. A minor in French requires a minimum of seven courses (or six courses and one designated Short Term unit). At least one of the seven courses must have as its focus literature or culture. Advanced Placement courses may not be applied toward the minor.

Study Abroad. Students majoring in French language and culture or Francophone cultural studies or minoring in French are strongly encouraged to study abroad in a country appropriate for their area of interest. A maximum of three credits is normally recognized for one semester of study and five credits for two semesters of study in a recognized program. Students need to obtain approval from a French faculty member in order for their courses to count toward the major or minor; otherwise, credit is not guaranteed.

Pass/Fail Grading Option. There are no restrictions on the use of the pass/fail option within the major or minor.

Courses
FRE 101. Elementary French I.In the first semester, emphasis is placed on oral proficiency with conversational practice in various aspects of contemporary French culture, and on the acquisition of vocabulary, basic grammar, and reading and writing skills. In the second semester, students concentrate on further development of these skills with short readings and films. French 101 is not open to students with two or more years of French in secondary school. Enrollment limited to 22 per section. Normally offered every year. K. Read, L. Balladur.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE 101-102. Elementary French I and II.In the first semester, emphasis is placed on oral proficiency with conversational practice in various aspects of contemporary French culture, and on the acquisition of vocabulary, basic grammar, and reading and writing skills. In the second semester, students concentrate on further development of these skills with short readings and films. French 101 is not open to students with two or more years of French in secondary school. Enrollment limited to 22 per section. Normally offered every year. K. Read, L. Balladur.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE 102. Elementary French II.In the first semester, emphasis is placed on oral proficiency with conversational practice in various aspects of contemporary French culture. Acquisition of vocabulary, basic grammar, and reading and writing skills. In the second semester, concentration on further development of these skills with short readings and films. French 101 is not open to students with two or more years of French in secondary school. Enrollment limited to 22. Normally offered every year. K. Read, L. Balladur.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE 201. Intermediate French.The course focuses on proficiency in speaking, with intensive review of grammar. Students read and analyze selected texts. Class discussions in French explore both literary and cultural topics. Prerequisite(s): French 102. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 22 per section. Normally offered every semester. A. Dauge-Roth.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE 205. Oral French.The course is designed to develop oral fluency and aural acuity, with attention to vocabulary, syntax, and pronunciation. Students discuss topics of contemporary interest and focus on improvisation, role play, and reporting. Prerequisite(s): French 201. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 15. Normally offered every semester. L. Balladur, K. Read.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE 207. Introduction to Contemporary France.This course develops facility in speaking, reading, and writing French by focusing on French society and culture. Students explore contemporary France through content-based cultural materials such as magazine and newspaper articles, published interviews, video, film, music, and appropriate works of current literature. Students prepare oral reports and written essays. Prerequisite(s): French 201. Not open to students who have received credit for French 202. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. Normally offered every year. M. Rice-DeFosse.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE 208. Introduction to the Francophone World.This course focuses on the Francophone world while developing greater facility in speaking, reading, and writing in French. The Francophone world is first presented through the history of colonization, the slave trade, and the decolonization movements in several areas such as the Caribbean, Senegal, and Algeria. The diversity of Francophone cultures and voices is explored through a variety of cultural material including newspaper and magazine articles, and the work of directors and authors such as Ernest Pépin, Gisèle Pineau (Guadeloupe), Patrick Chamoiseau (Martinique), Assia Djebar, Leïla Sebbar, Lyes Salem (Algeria), Mariama Bâ, Ousmane Sembène, and Djibril Diop Mambety (Senegal). Class presentations and discussions are conducted entirely in French. Prerequisite(s): French 201. Not open to students who have received credit for French 203. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. Normally offered every year. M. Rice-DeFosse.
Concentrations
FRE 235. Advanced French Language.The course is designed to develop facility in conversing and writing in idiomatic French with ease and fluency. Students review linguistic structures with attention to correct written expression. The course focuses on analysis and critical thinking in a variety of media such as film, fiction, documentary, essay, and journalism. Prerequisite(s): French 205. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 15. Normally offered every semester. A. Dauge-Roth, L. Balladur.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE 240. Introduction to French Studies.In these courses, students examine literature in its social, political, and historical context with emphasis on the cultural interrelationship of text and society through short critical papers and class discussion in French. Open to first-year students.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE 240E. Le Maghreb: Vue de l'Enfance.An appreciation and analysis of the amply recorded experience of childhood in North Africa. Students examine the rich body of memoirs, historical accounts, novels, films, and short stories that reveal the often tumultuous conditions of children caught in the calamity of colonization and its aftermath. Particular attention is paid to issues of gender, Orientalism, and religious and cultural diversity within the Maghreb. Authors include Sebbar, Ben Jelloun, Mernissi, and Amrouche and filmmakers Ferroukhi and Boughedir. Recommended background: French 207 or 208. Open to first-year students. [W2] Offered with varying frequency. K. Read.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE 240F. Borders and Disorders.A study of the various experiences of immigration that the Francophone world has made possible and, in certain cases, forced upon people for political and economic reasons. In an era of increasing globalization, students examine how more and more migrants must negotiate their sense of self through multiple heritages and places, and how Francophone novels and films imagine new forms of belonging that embrace the complex and fluid status of the migrant experience. The central question of the course is: How does one define "home" within one's host country without denying one's past and cultural origins? The course envisions the Francophone world as a theater of multiple encounters that lead to the creation of new hybrid identities that transform both the immigrant and the host country. Authors and filmmakers include Allouache, Benguigui, Bouchareb, Bouraoui, Condé, Kane, Mabanckou, Ngangura, Dardenne, Gomis, Sebbar, and Sembène. Prerequisite(s): French 201. Recommended background: French 207 or 208. [W2] Normally offered every other year. A. Dauge-Roth.
Concentrations
FRE 240G. Science and Literature.This course explores the relationship between science and literature in France. French literature has a particularly rich tradition in which authors have explored this relationship, from those who participated in and investigated both fields, to science fiction writers, and more recently to authors who manipulate the literary form to express scientific theories. While the central theme of the course explores how French literature articulates scientific concepts, a background in science is not required. Readings provide students with a better understanding of certain key scientific concepts such as fractals, entropy, and information systems. Prerequisite(s): French 207 or 208. [W2] Offered with varying frequency. L. Balladur.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE 250. Introduction to French Literature I.An introduction to major French authors and forms of French literature through close readings, short papers, and discussion of texts selected from various periods of French literature. The purpose is to introduce the student to a critical approach to French literature. Although this is not a survey course, the first semester does concentrate on texts written before the French Revolution, and the second semester, on texts written after 1800. Some attention is paid to the socioeconomic context of the works studied and to questions of gender. Prerequisite(s): French 207 or 208. Open to first-year students. [W2] Normally offered every year. L. Balladur, A. Dauge-Roth.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE 250, 251. Introduction to French Literature I and II.An introduction to major French authors and forms of French literature through close readings, short papers, and discussion of texts selected from various periods of French literature. The purpose is to introduce the student to a critical approach to French literature. Although this is not a survey course, the first semester does concentrate on texts written before the French Revolution, and the second semester, on texts written after 1800. Some attention is paid to the socioeconomic context of the works studied and to questions of gender. Prerequisite(s): French 207 or 208. Open to first-year students. [W2] Normally offered every year. L. Balladur, A. Dauge-Roth.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE 251. Introduction to French Literature II.An introduction to major French authors and forms of French literature through close readings, short papers, and discussion of texts selected from various periods of French literature. The purpose is to introduce the student to a critical approach to French literature. Although this is not a survey course, the first semester does concentrate on texts written before the French Revolution, and the second semester on texts written after 1800. Some attention is paid to the socioeconomic context of the works studied and to questions of gender. Prerequisite(s): French 207 or 208. Open to first-year students. [W2] Normally offered every year. L. Balladur, A. Dauge-Roth.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE 261. French Civilization: The Changing Face of French Identity.This course traces the ways in which events have shaped French society and identity. Through various media (literature, art, film, television, popular culture, and the Internet), students explore the enduring importance of historical moments such as the conquest of Gaul, the Renaissance, the Edict of Nantes, the slave trade, the Revolution, the Dreyfus affair, and the two world wars. Students consider the effects of immigration, European unity, relations within the postcolonial Francophone world, and new constructions of the self. Prerequisite(s): French 207 or 208. Open to first-year students. Offered with varying frequency. M. Rice-DeFosse.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE 270. French Stylistics.An intensive review of French grammar with emphasis on developing facility in writing idiomatic French, through weekly compositions, written exercises, oral drills, and grammatical analysis of literary texts. Prerequisite(s): French 207 and 208. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every other year. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE 271. Translation: Theory and Practice.A study of the problems of translation. Passages from newspapers and journals and from literary, technical, and scientific works are translated and analyzed. Prerequisite(s): French 207 or 208. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every other year. M. Rice-DeFosse.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE 351. Early French Literature.Literary identity in early French literature. Students read and discuss aspects of literary identity in medieval and Renaissance literature, devoting particular attention to considerations of religion, gender, kinship, and nationality. Prerequisite(s): French 250 or 251. Normally offered every other year. K. Read.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE 352. French Literature of the Seventeenth Century: "Woman Writer/Women Written".Reading and discussion of women writers of the seventeenth century with a focus on their important role in the formation of the novel. Attention is given to women as heroines or titular characters in the works of male authors of the period. Prerequisite(s): French 250 or 251. Normally offered every other year. K. Read.
Concentrations
FRE 353. French Literature of the Eighteenth Century.A study of major works by authors such as Marivaux, Diderot, Rousseau, Condorcet, Sade, Beaumarchais, and Montesquieu. This course is similar to History 223, which may be taken in its place upon approval of the department chair. Prerequisite(s): French 250 or 251. Not open to students who have received credit for History 223. Offered with varying frequency. M. Rice-DeFosse.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE 354. French Literature of the Nineteenth Century.This course explores a century of enormous political, socioeconomic, and cultural change through its literature. Students consider such authors as Balzac, Sand, Flaubert, Nerval, Baudelaire, Rimbaud, Zola, Rachilde, and Huysmans. Prerequisite(s): French 250 or 251. Normally offered every other year. M. Rice-DeFosse.
Concentrations
FRE 355. Contemporary French Literature.From Proust's quest at the beginning of the twentieth century to Nothomb's haunting fictions one century later, from Apollinaire's ideograms and vision of Paris to Bon's poetry of place, from Delbo's autobiographical account of the Holocaust to Perec's W ou le souvenir d'enfance, from La Vagabonde by Colette to Irigaray's Ce sexe qui n'en est pas un, contemporary French literature has been in constant dialogue with a century marked by social change, redefinition of gender, trauma, urban modernity, and mobility. This course explores how contemporary literature shaped the perceptions of such issues and examines its contribution by understanding its authors in their social and political context. Prerequisite(s): French 250 or 251. Normally offered every other year. A. Dauge-Roth.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE 360. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study per semester. Normally offered every semester. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE 365. Special Topics.These courses are designed for the small seminar group of students who may have particular interests in areas of study that go beyond the regular course offerings. Periodic conferences and papers are required.
FRE 365A. Femmes, Écrivaines.This course explores gender and voice in selected literary, political, and theoretical texts by French women from 1789 to the present. Through a study of writers such as Gouges, Sand, Tristan, Colette, Beauvoir, Duras, Condé, Cixous, and Irigaray, students explore the contributions of French women writers to women's writing, feminist theory, and questions of gender in social context. Open to first-year students. Offered with varying frequency. M. Rice-DeFosse.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE 365D. Colon/Colonisé: Récits de l'Expérience Nord-Africaine.This course studies the colonial, postcolonial, and immigrant experience of North Africans as portrayed in Francophone literature. Readings include narratives and journals from the beginning of the colonial period in Algeria (1830), as well as the contemporary novels and discourse of feminists such as Assia Djebar, Malika Mokkadem, and Leïla Sebbar. Gender is often highlighted as a category of analysis. Instructor permission is required. Offered with varying frequency. K. Read.
Concentrations
FRE 365G. Voix francophones des Antilles.An examination of literary voices from the French-speaking Caribbean from the first half of the twentieth century to the contemporary period, including works by authors such as Aimé Césaire, René Depestre, Edouard Glissant, Marie Chauvet, Maryse Condé, Gisèle Pineau, and Patrick Chamoiseau. The course explores topics such representations of colonial past and slavery, the Négritude movement, issues of political and social justice, hybridity, and créolité. Prerequisite(s): French 250 or 251. Offered with varying frequency. M. Rice-DeFosse.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE 365H. Documenting the Genocide of the Tutsi in Rwanda.This course presents a historical and rhetorical examination of various media and genres that bear witness to the Rwandan genocide of 1994 and a questioning of the ability to document genocide in Africa through Western modes of representation and information. Students analyze literary works written by Francophone sub-Saharan African writers such as Koulsy Lamko (Chad) and Boubacar Boris Diop (Senegal), the play Rwanda 94, written testimonies by Tutsi and Hutu survivors such as Yolande Mukagasana and Annick Kayitezi and those of foreign journalists present during or after the genocide such as Jean Hatzfeld, fictional films by Raoul Peck and Terry George, and numerous documentaries. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: French 240, 250, or 251. Enrollment limited to 20. Offered with varying frequency. A. Dauge-Roth.
Concentrations
FRE 457. Senior Thesis.Open only to senior majors, with departmental permission. Before registering for 457 or 458 a student must present to the department chair an acceptable plan, including an outline and a tentative bibliography, after discussion with a member of the department. Students register for French 457 in the fall semester or for French 458 in the winter semester. Senior majors register for 457 or 458 only, unless the department gives permission for a second semester's credit because the nature of the project warrants it. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both French 457 and 458. Normally offered every year. Staff.
FRE 457, 458. Senior Thesis.Open only to senior majors, with departmental permission. Before registering for 457 or 458 a student must present to the department chair an acceptable plan, including an outline and a tentative bibliography, after discussion with a member of the department. Students register for French 457 in the fall semester or for French 458 in the winter semester. Senior majors register for 457 or 458 only, unless the department gives permission for a second semester's credit because the nature of the project warrants it. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both French 457 and 458. Normally offered every year. Staff.
FRE 458. Senior Thesis.Open only to senior majors, with departmental permission. Before registering for 457 or 458 a student must present to the department chair an acceptable plan, including an outline and a tentative bibliography, after discussion with a member of the department. Students register for French 457 in the fall semester or for French 458 in the winter semester. Senior majors register for 457 or 458 only, unless the department gives permission for a second semester's credit because the nature of the project warrants it. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both French 457 and 458. Normally offered every year. Staff.
Short Term Courses
FRE s28. Social Pulse, Documentary Impulse.What kind of unique knowledge does a documentary film seek to offer? What are the strengths and the limits of this genre in our increasingly visual culture? Does the documentary impulse bring us closer to the "reality" of which it takes the pulse? Does it force us to face the existential and political practices it makes socially visible? How do documentary films, in comparison with historical fictions or novels, position their viewers and call for social engagment? Moreover, to what extent are documentary films able to renew our vision of postcolonial history and national memory? This unit examines these issues through the works of several French and Francophone documentary filmmakers. Recommended background: French 201. Offered with varying frequency. A. Dauge-Roth.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE s34. French Drama in Performance.A study and performance of scenes from French dramatic works from a variety of literary styles, movements, and eras. Students read, discuss, and perform dramatic works (or portions thereof) throughout the unit and then conceive and create a coherent production of portions of these plays to be presented in public to area high schools and colleges. Readings may include the works of Molière, Racine, Beaumarchais, De Musset, Ionesco, and Duras, which, though drawn from a wide range of time periods and approaches, are assimilated and reconciled under a common theme to be determined by the class. Prerequisite(s): French 201. Recommended background: adequate oral fluency in French, good reading comprehension. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 25. Offered with varying frequency. K. Read.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE s35. French in Maine.A bilingual study of what it means to speak French and to be French in Maine. The unit explores the Franco-American heritage as well as contemporary expressions of Franco-American culture. It focuses on questions of language and identity through oral and written histories, interviews, newspaper articles, documentaries, literature, and music. Students visit local cultural sites. Prerequisite(s): French 201. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 20. Offered with varying frequency. M. Rice-DeFosse.
Concentrations
FRE s36. The Evolution of French Cinema.A study of the development of theme, structure, and technique in French film through the works of directors such as Vigo, Clair, Renoir, Resnais, Godard, Truffaut, Kurys, Beneix, and Jeunet. Prerequisite(s): French 201. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 25. Instructor permission is required. Offered with varying frequency. M. Rice-DeFosse.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE s39. Tintin et les Intellos.The intrepid boy reporter Tintin is a cultural icon of vast international acclaim. His adventures, drawn and written by Georges Rémi (Hergé), have been translated into over fifty languages and sold hundreds of millions of copies. In this Short Term unit, students explore the Tintin phenomenon as artistic production, as colonialist discourse, as commodified object, and as part of a distinctly European tradition of graphic storytelling. Readings include a selection of the twenty-three adventures, a biography of Hergé, and related critical works on the reception and controversy of Tintin's enduring popularity. All readings and discussions are in French. Prerequisite(s): French 201. Recommended background: another upper-level course in French. Enrollment limited to 30. Offered with varying frequency. K. Read.
FRE s50. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study during a Short Term. Normally offered every year. Staff.
Spanish

Spanish is the most widely spoken language in the Americas, without even including ten percent of the United States population. It is also spoken in Spain, Equatorial Guinea, Israel, and the Philippines. The established cultural, political, and economic ties among all nations of the American continents underscore the importance of this discipline. The major in Spanish develops not only students' language skills, it exercises critical thinking around subjects related to the culture, literatures, art, and history of the Spanish-speaking peoples of all continents. Reading, discussing, and writing in Spanish are the principal activities of the major. Spanish majors are strongly encouraged to spend a year or a semester living and studying in a Spanish-speaking country. Students interested in graduate studies in Spanish or Latin American studies, or in business, medicine, law, or international relations, are encouraged to develop advanced proficiency in Spanish.

Major Requirements. Spanish majors acquire a broad knowledge of the different literatures and cultural histories of the Spanish-speaking peoples. In consultation with the faculty in Spanish, the student elects courses in a variety of areas. The requirements for the major consist of ten courses beyond Spanish 202. They must include:

1) At least three 200-level courses.

2) One course taken outside of the Spanish program preapproved by the faculty in Spanish. This course may be chosen from a number of options from literary theory to history or politics of Latin America (e.g., Anthropology 234, English 295, History 181, Politics 249) or a research methods course in areas such as women and gender studies, African American studies, or American cultural studies.

3) At least two seminars on the literatures or cultural histories of Spain or Latin America (300-level) taught by Bates faculty, usually taken during senior year.

In addition, majors must complete a senior thesis (Spanish 457 or 458) written in Spanish. This may be a literary or cultural analysis of any topic related to the Hispanic world. Honors candidates register for Spanish 457 and 458.

Students interested in proposing an independent interdisciplinary studies major with a focus on Latin American studies should contact the chair of Spanish or Professor Ortiz.

Minor in Spanish. A minor requires a minimum of seven courses in Spanish (or six courses and a designated Short Term unit). At least one of the seven courses must be beyond 208. Advanced Placement courses may not be applied toward the minor.

Study Abroad. Spanish majors are encouraged to gain proficiency in the language through the experience of studying in a Spanish-speaking country. A maximum of three credits is normally recognized for one semester and five for two semesters of study in a recognized program. Students need to obtain approval from a Spanish faculty member in order for their courses to count toward the major or minor; otherwise, credit is not guaranteed.

Pass/Fail Grading Option. The use of the pass/fail option is restricted to one course within the major. There are no restrictions on the use of the pass/fail option within the minor in Spanish.

Courses
SPAN 101. Elementary Spanish I.Emphasis is placed on oral proficiency with pronunciation exercises and conversational practice and the development of reading and writing skills. The course includes drill in the essential constructions and basic vocabulary of Spanish, complemented by short films and cultural presentations. Spanish 101 is not open to students with two or more years of Spanish in secondary school. Spanish 101 is open only to first and second year students. Enrollment limited to 22 per section. Normally offered every year. Staff.
SPAN 101-102. Elementary Spanish I and II.Emphasis is placed on oral proficiency with pronunciation exercises and conversational practice and the development of reading and writing skills. The course includes drill in the essential constructions and basic vocabulary of Spanish, complemented by short films and cultural presentations. Spanish 101 is not open to students with two or more years of Spanish in secondary school. Spanish 101 is open only to first and second year students. Enrollment limited to 22 per section. Normally offered every year. Staff.
SPAN 102. Elementary Spanish II.Emphasis is placed on oral proficiency with pronunciation exercises and conversational practice. Development of reading and writing skills. Drill in the essential constructions and basic vocabulary of Spanish, complemented by short films and cultural presentations. Spanish 102 is not open to students with two or more years of Spanish in secondary school. Spanish 102 is open only to first and second year students. Enrollment limited to 22 per section. Normally offered every year. Staff.
SPAN 201. Intermediate Spanish I.Designed to increase students' vocabulary and to improve mastery of language skills: speaking, listening, reading, and writing. The course provides a thorough review of grammar as well as an emphasis on conversational proficiency, expository writing, and Hispanic culture. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 102. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 22 per section. Normally offered every year. Staff.
SPAN 202. Intermediate Spanish II.Intensive practice in reading, composition, and conversation, as well as attention to selected grammar problems. The course focuses on discussion through visual presentations and selections of Hispanic literature, art, and culture. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 201. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 22 per section. Normally offered every year. Staff.
SPAN 207. Advanced Spanish: Culture and Language.This course develops oral fluency and aural acuity as well as reading and writing skills by means of directed and spontaneous classroom activities and regular written assignments. Conversations and compositions are based primarily on readings and films. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 202. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 20 per section. Normally offered every year. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 208. Advanced Spanish: Texts and Contexts.This course is a continuation of Spanish 207 with particular emphasis upon analyzing a variety of texts and developing more sophistication in writing. Conversations and compositions are based on both literary and cultural readings. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 202. Recommended background: Spanish 207. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 20 per section. Normally offered every year. F. López, D. George.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 215. Readings in Spanish American Literature.A survey of representative Spanish American literary texts. Major emphasis is on reading and discussing texts that relate to specific problems of literary form (such as poetry, theater, and novel), literary movements, and literary periodization. The topics are also discussed in their sociocultural contexts. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 208. Open to first-year students. [W2] Normally offered every year. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 216. Readings in Peninsular Spanish Literature.A survey of representative peninsular Spanish texts. Major emphasis is on reading and discussing texts that relate to specific problems of literary form (such as poetry, theater, and novel), literary movements, and literary periodization. The topics are also discussed in their sociocultural contexts. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 208. Open to first-year students. [W2] Normally offered every year. B. Fra-Molinero, F. López.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 217. Literatura en el cine.This course explores the complex relationship between literature and cinema in light of narrative techniques and the mechanical, social, cultural, political, and economic limitations that determine the representative possibilities of both media. Through the study of literary works and their cinematic adaptations from Latin America, Spain, and the United States, students consider the theoretical and practical debates—between writers and directors, publishers and producers, literary critics and film critics, and readers and viewers as consumers—that emerge in the process of transposition from the written word to film. Prerequsite(s): Spanish 208, 211, 215, or 216. Offered with varying frequency. C. Aburto Guzmán, D. George.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 230. Third Gender in Latin America.Since the 1960s, Latin American writers have used el/a travesti, and more recently, transgender characters in their fictional narratives. These works may be read as political allegories, as interventions in national identity construction as well as in existing traditional gender discourses, or as an engagement with contemporary Latin American human rights movements. Students read the original works in Spanish. The theoretical framework may be read in English, although all discussions and written assignments are in Spanish. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 211 or 215. Offered with varying frequency. C. Aburto Guzmán.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 240. Loco amor/buen amor.In this course students study different ways of representing the passion of love, from the love of God to loving someone of the same sex. Spanish cities in the Middle Ages and San Francisco, California, are some settings where idealized as well as forbidden forms of love take place in the texts of the Arcipreste de Hita, La Celestina, and gay Mexican American poets. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 211, 215, or 216. [W2] Normally offered every other year. B. Fra-Molinero.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 250. The Latin American Short Story.A study of the short story as a genre in Latin America. Attention is given to the genre's definition and to the different trajectories and currents in its development. Students read major works as well as those by less-known writers. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 215 or 216. Open to first-year students. [W2] Normally offered every year. C. Aburto Guzmán.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 251. Spanish Short Story.The first manifestations of the short story as a genre in Spanish date back to the Middle Ages. In this course, students consider the evolution of the genre, from the cultural hybridity that shaped the earliest short stories to contemporary approaches to the literary form. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 211, 215 or 216. Recommended background: Spanish 216. [W2] Offered with varying frequency. F. López.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

INDS 320. Afroambiente: Writing a Black Environment.This course studies the response of black writers and intellectuals of the Spanish-speaking world to issues related to the natural environment. In three countries, Ecuador, Puerto Rico, and Equatorial Guinea, modernity has brought serious challenges to notions of economic progress, human rights, and national sovereignty, as well as individual and communal identity. Course materials include written texts from local newspapers and magazines, as well as other sources of information such as Internet sites that discuss issues related to the environment and the arts. Prerequisite(s): one 200-level Spanish course. Cross-listed in African American studies, environmental studies, and Spanish. Not open to students who have received credit for Interdisciplinary Studies 218 or 220. Open to first-year students. Offered with varying frequency. B. Fra-Molinero.
Concentrations
SPAN 323. Gendered Experiences in the Américas Borderlands.This course reviews cultural productions of the gendered experiences of people's border crossings throughout the Américas. Students become acquainted with testimonies, film, photography, fictional narrative, and poetry as well as government reports on human trafficking and slave labor. Readings are in Spanish and English. All discussions and written assignments are in Spanish. Prerequisite(s): one Spanish 200-level course. Not open to students who have received credit for Spanish 223. Offered with varying frequency. C. Aburto Guzmán.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

AN/SP 340. Indigenismo versus Indigenous Voices in Latin American Literature.This course contrasts the mode of representation of indigenous people in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Latin American literature known as indigenismo—which considers the role assumed by the mestizo and white writers as spokespersons/translators for the Indians—with representations offered by the Indians themselves in the contemporary era. Indigenista literary production is linked to the state's policies of exclusion of the Indians in postcolonial Latin America. The increasing power that indigenous movements have gained since the 1970s in their struggle for autonomy, self-determination, and the defense of their land and cultures has challenged the very essence of the Latin American nation-states and discourses about the Indians. Conducted in English. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 215 or 216. Enrollment limited to 15. Offered with varying frequency. M. Ortiz.
SPAN 348. Culturas de prostesta.At different times and in different countries, many Hispanic writers, filmmakers and other artists have felt compelled to create works that confront various types of social injustice. These range from the effects of imperialism to political repression, and often address issues of race, sexuality, gender, and class. In this course students analyze such "texts" within their respective social, political, and historical contexts. Prerequisite(s): one Spanish 200-level course. Not open to students who have received credit for Spanish 245. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 25. Offered with varying frequency. F. López.
Concentrations
SPAN 360. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study per semester. Normally offered every semester. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 362. Culture in Franco Spain.A study of Spanish history and political ideas from 1936 to the present, starting with historical information about the civil war and an analysis of the rhetoric of both sides. The Franco period is examined through texts of "high culture" (poetry, drama, and the novel) and "popular culture" (films, songs, and newspaper clippings) that express supposedly opposing ideologies. Prerequisite(s): one 200-level Spanish course. Not open to students who have received credit for Spanish 262. Open to first-year students. Offered with varying frequency. F. López.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 366. Fantastic Hispanic Cinema.This course explores the genres of horror and fantasy in recent Spanish-language films by directors from Mexico, Chile, Argentina, Spain, and the United States. It considers how these works represent the supernatural, the diabolical, evil violence, fear, paranoia, and magic; create, perpetuate, and subvert categories of gender, class, race, and sexuality; and adapt and participate in key literary and cinematic genres such as the Gothic, parody, adventure, family drama, magical realism, and science fiction. Prerequisite(s): one 200-level Spanish course. Not open to students who have received credit for Spanish 266. Enrollment limited to 20. Offered with varying frequency. D. George.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 368. Galdós and Spanish Society in the Nineteenth Century.This course introduces students to the writings of Benito Pérez Galdós (1843–1920) and his particular vision of late nineteenth-century Spain. Like Cervantes before him, Galdós was an acute observer of his times, and his novels, plays, and essays capture and respond to the social, political, and aesthetic concerns that defined Spanish society at the threshold of the twentieth century. Course readings take account of the variety of literary genres Galdós cultivated throughout his career and are engaged in light of such issues as gender, national identity, religion, history versus fiction, and the social versus aesthetic function of literary works of art. Prerequisite(s): one 200-level Spanish course. Not open to students who have received credit for Spanish 268. Enrollment limited to 20. Offered with varying frequency. D. George.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 441. Cervantes.A careful reading and a comprehensive formal and thematic study of Don Quijote. Careful consideration is given to various pieces of Cervantine scholarship. The effects of Don Quijote on the genre of the novel are examined. Prerequisite(s): one 200-level literature course in Spanish. Not open to students who have received credit for Spanish 341. Normally offered every other year. B. Fra-Molinero.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 442. Hybrid Cultures: Latin American Intersections.Latin America is a space of intersections where cultures meet and/or crash. Concepts and experiences used to define, locate, and represent these cultures to each other are continuously modified at the crossings. This course aims to take literary products (novels, essays, short stories, and films) as a cross-section of this phenomenon. Each text identifies multiple oppositions that converge violently, merely scar the individual, or craft a new prism by which we can read the dynamics taking place in these intersections. Prerequisite(s): one course beyond Spanish 208. Not open to students who have received credit for Spanish 342. Enrollment limited to 20. Offered with varying frequency. C. Aburto Guzmán.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 444. Contemporary Spanish Women Writers.This course uses gender as the main category of analysis. Students explore the impact of gender conventions on the psychological and social dimensions of womanhood by focusing on the detailed textual analysis of novels, plays, short stories and poems. Authors may include Rosa Montero, Cristina Fernández Cubas, Esther Tusquets, Consuelo García, Carmen Gómez Ojea, and Soledad Puértolas. Prerequsisite(s): one course beyond Spanish 208. Not open to students who have received credit for Spanish 344. Instructor permission is required. Normally offered every other year. F. López.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 445. Twentieth-Century Spanish Drama.A study of the evolution of political ideas and social values in Spain in the twentieth century through an examination of several plays. Interconnected and parallel sociocultural realities are analyzed along with different dramatic tendencies: from "poetic" to social-realist to avant-garde theaters. Authors may include Lorca, Mihura, Buero Vallejo, Sastre, Nieva, Martín Recuerda, and Arrabal. Prerequisite(s): one 200-level literature course in Spanish. Not open to students who have received credit for Spanish 345. Offered with varying frequency. F. López.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 447. Guerra Civil or the Good Fight?.The Spanish Civil War is not only an important historical landmark, but also the main theme of a myriad of literary and filmic narratives produced since the establishment of democracy in Spain. The increasing popularity of fictional representations of this armed conflict, its political antecedent (Segunda República), and its consequence (el régimen de Francisco Franco), seems to point to a cultural need in democratic Spain—the need for origins. What is the role of these narratives? What do they say about the roots of Spanish democratic traditions? How do they negotiate conflict? What type of Spain do they propose? Prerequisite(s): one course beyond Spanish 208. Not open to students who have received credit for Spanish 347. Enrollment limited to 15. Offered with varying frequency. F. López.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 449. Identity Discourses in Contemporary Latin America.This course examines Latin American intellectuals' responses to contemporary issues that directly affect regional identities. Readings include essays and fictional narratives that address (but are not limited to) topics such as modernity versus postmodernity in Latin America, neoliberalism and "pink" left ideologies, mega- and edge-city tensions, transculturation, and migration. Prerequisite(s): History 181, Politics 249, or one Spanish course beyond Spanish 208. Not open to students who have received credit for Spanish 349. Offered with varying frequency. C. Aburto Guzmán.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 454. Revolución en el cine.The late 1960s is recognized as a period of diverse and ill-fated revolutions and revolutionaries. From the 1967 assassination of Che Guevara to the 1968 invasion of Prague onward, film has been used to represent heroes, martyrs, and the circumstances surrounding these events. More recently, a variety of cinematographers have produced films as acts of dissidence, presenting a counter-discourse to the hegemonic collage of prevailing capitalistic values. In this course students examine film as a tool of revolutionary negotiation. They analyze the transformation and regional adaptations of representations of dissidence since the 1960s, and they look at early revolutionary creativity within the genre as well as the social functions adopted by Third Cinema. Prerequisite(s): one Spanish course beyond Spanish 208. Not open to students who have received credit for Spanish 354. Offered with varying frequency. D. George, C. Aburto Guzmán.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 457. Senior Thesis.Research leading to writing of the senior thesis. Students participate in a limited number of group meetings, plus individual conferences. Students register for Spanish 457 in the fall semester and for Spanish 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both Spanish 457 and 458. A detailed outline and bibliography must be approved by the department. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
SPAN 457, 458. Senior Thesis.Research leading to writing of the senior thesis. Students participate in a limited number of group meetings, plus individual conferences. Students register for Spanish 457 in the fall semester and for Spanish 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both Spanish 457 and 458. A detailed outline and bibliography must be approved by the department. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
SPAN 458. Senior Thesis.Research leading to writing of the senior thesis. Students participate in a limited number of group meetings, plus individual conferences. Students register for Spanish 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both Spanish 457 and 458. A detailed outline and bibliography must be approved by the department. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
SPAN 465. Special Topics.Designed for the small seminar group of students who may have particular interests in areas of study that go beyond the regular course offerings. Periodic conferences and papers are required. Not open to students who have received credit for Spanish 365. Instructor permission is required. Staff.
SPAN 490F. La diaspora afrohispanica.The 500-year presence of Afrodescendants in the Spanish-speaking world has produced a significant body of literature by blacks and about blacks. Spanish America was the main destination of the African diaspora. Afro-Hispanic writers attest to the struggle for freedom and the abolition of slavery. Their literature shows how the participation of blacks in the wars of Latin American independence was a struggle for their emancipation. Afro-Hispanic writers in Spain, the Americas, and Africa use their art and ideas to address the postnational migrations of the twenty-first century, a diaspora that has not ceased. This course is conducted in Spanish but meets jointly, once a week, in English, with African American Studies 390F. Prerequisite(s): one Spanish course beyond Spanish 208. Not open to students who have received credit for African American Studies 390F or Spanish 390F. Offered with varying frequency. B. Fra-Molinero.
Concentrations
Short Term Courses
SPAN s29. Cinema in Spain.This unit traces the evolution of Spanish cinema from the introduction of the cinematógrafo in 1896 to the Oscar-winning films of Trueba and Almódovar of the 1990s. The study of cinema as popular entertainment, political propaganda, and as a medium for intellectual experimentation and social and political contestation draws attention to the role those working in the film industry, or at its margins, have played in shaping Spanish culture and society in the twentieth century. Particular attention is given to film genre and narrative technique, and to such theoretical concepts as national cinema, studio systems, the auteur, and gender and sexuality. Recommended background: Spanish 202. Offered with varying frequency. D. George.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN s30. Escritura creativa: Cuento.This unit combines reading and intensive writing. Students read carefully selected short stories in order to gain an understanding of the genre and to apply what they learn to their own craft. The focus is on the fundamentals of short fiction writing: structure, plot, voice, point of view, description, and dialogue. Class meetings follow a workshop format, with writing exercises, class discussions, and in-depth critique of students' writing. Prerequisite(s): one Spanish course beyond Spanish 208. Enrollment limited to 15. Offered with varying frequency. F. López.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN s31. The Spain of Pedro Almodóvar.The films of Pedro Almodóvar dating from 1980 to 2006 consistently present a Spanish society in which the local and the global interconnect in complex ways. Through a hybrid genre that incorporates elements of comedy, melodrama, and thriller, Almodóvar offers a view of Spain in which individual and collective identities are permeable and continuously shaped and reshaped by global and local influences. Almodóvar's films are the primary objects of analysis in this unit. Readings on the films' historical and cultural contexts complement students' understanding of Spain through Almodóvar's work. Recommended background: Spanish 362. Prerequisite(s): one 200-level literature course in Spanish or Spanish 208. Offered with varying frequency. F. López.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN s33. The Spanish Civil War.Few other conflicts in recent history have captured the imagination of so many artists as the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939). The clash that tore apart Spain's Second Republic has inspired writers, artists, and filmmakers over six decades to reflect on the horrors of war and the role of art in achieving peace and social change. This unit explores the range and evolution of these artistic responses produced in Spain and abroad from the years of conflict, through the Franco dictatorship, to recent processes of democratic transition and European integration. Discussions of texts by Neruda, Vallejo, Machado, Picasso, Arrabal, Buero Vallejo, Patino, Rivas, Saura, and Cercas, among others, are engaged in light of historical context and theoretical questions of fiction vs. history, memory, aesthetic vs. social functions of art, trauma, and exile. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 208. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. Offered with varying frequency. D. George.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN s50. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study during a Short Term. Normally offered every year. Staff.