background

Biology

Professors: Thomas, Baker, and Ambrose; Associate Professors Kinsman (chair), Abrahamsen, Kleckner, Sommer, and Bavis; Visiting Assistant Professors Richards and Kahlenberg; Lecturers Palin and Barry

Biology is the study of living systems and how they interact with the nonliving world and with one another. It is a discipline that bridges the physical and social sciences. Students who major in biology become familiar with all levels of biological organization from molecules to ecosystems, and gain practical experience in both laboratory and field studies. More information on the biology department is available on the Web site (www.bates.edu/BIO.xml).

Major Requirements. 1) Chemistry 107A or Chemistry/Environmental Studies 107B; and Chemistry 108A or Chemistry/Environmental Studies 108B; and either Chemistry 218 or Biology 244. The organic chemistry option (Chemistry 217-218) is strongly recommended for students interested in attending graduate school, and required for those planning to apply to medical school programs. Prospective majors are strongly encouraged to complete Chemistry 107A or Chemistry/Environmental Studies 107B and Chemistry 108A or Chemistry/Environmental Studies 108B in the first year.

2) At least ten courses in biology, of which a minimum of eight must be taken from the Bates faculty. Eight of the ten courses must be advanced courses (200-level and above, or the equivalent). Two introductory courses (100-level, s20-s28) may be applied toward the major, as long as at least one has a full laboratory component (designated below in course descriptions by "[L]"). Chemistry 125 and designated first-year seminars (see below under General Education) may be used in place of a 100-level biology course. No more than two Short Term courses may be applied toward the major.

The ten biology courses must include:

a) Three biology core courses (Biology 101, 242, and 270). Majors are strongly encouraged to complete these courses by the end of the sophomore year; they must be completed prior to the beginning of the senior year. Biology 242 and 270 have prerequisites.

b) Additional advanced courses (electives) to complete the ten courses required. The advanced courses may not include Biology 244 if Biology 244 is used to complete requirement 1) above, and may include no more than three research, junior seminar, or thesis credits from among the following biology courses: 360, 457, 458, 460, 470 through 478, and s50, and no more than one Short Term course (s30-level and above). Chemistry 321, Chemistry 322, or Psychology 363 may be substituted for one advanced course in satisfying the requirements of the major.

c) Completion of a capstone experience that includes either two of the following: Biology 457, 458, 460, 470, 471, 472, 473, 474, 475, 476, 477 (a research-intensive Short Term course may be substituted with prior departmental approval); or, with prior approval, Biology 460 plus a service-learning project. With prior departmental approval, a semester-long research experience in certain approved programs, such as those offered at The Jackson Laboratory or Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, combined with Biology 460, may serve to fulfill the capstone experience.

Excluding one 100-level biology course, and the three biology core courses (Biology 101, 242, and 270), students wishing to double-major in biology and biological chemistry, environmental studies, or neuroscience may apply only one biology course (or substitute course such as Chemistry 321 or 322, or Psychology 355 or 363) used for the biological chemistry requirements, the environmental studies requirements, and/or the neuroscience requirements toward the requirements for a major in biology.

3) Completion of the comprehensive examination requirement. The comprehensive examination requirement must be fulfilled by a satisfactory performance on the departmental comprehensive exam given once during the winter semester of the senior year, or by achieving a score corresponding to the fiftieth percentile or better on the Graduate Record Exam Subject Test in Biology. The GRE option must be fulfilled by the December test date of the senior year; students are encouraged to take this test early.

Planning for the Major. Prospective majors are urged to discuss course selection and scheduling with a member of the department in the first year, particularly if use of Advanced Placement credits or participation in an off-campus study program is anticipated. It is essential to take Chemistry 107 and Chemistry 108 in the first year. The department strongly encourages students to complete the required core courses before the end of their sophomore year to allow scheduling flexibility later. Completion of the core courses prior to the beginning of the senior year is required. The department also strongly advises that electives be chosen in close consultation with faculty to ensure breadth of knowledge within biology (from molecules and cells to organisms and ecosystems). Students may apply to include in the major a one-semester biology research internship at The Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine, or Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York. Alternatively, students who study abroad may apply up to two courses toward the major as electives if the courses are appropriate and pre-approved by the chair.

Pass/Fail Grading Option. Pass/fail grading may be elected for courses applied toward the major except for: Biology 101, 242, 270, and all 400-level courses.

General Education Information for the Class of 2010. Any two courses may serve as a department-designated set, provided that at least one has a full laboratory component. First-Year Seminar 243, 282, 311, and the following courses may serve as partial fulfillment of the natural science requirement as part of a set or as a third course: s21, s22, s23, s24, s25, s27, s30, s32, s33, s34, s35, s36, s37, s38, s39, and s44. Courses that may serve as a course with a full laboratory component are designated below, in course descriptions by "[L]." The quantitative requirement can be satisfied by completing biology courses designated below by "[Q]." Advanced Placement, International Baccalaureate, or A-Level credit awarded by the department may not be used toward fulfillment of any General Education requirements.

Courses

BIO 101. Organismal Biology.An introduction to the biology of plants and animals with an emphasis on the evolution of structure, function, and diversity within these groups. The inquiry-based, collaborative laboratory studies introduce students to fundamental principles of form and function in the organismal world, the quantitative analysis of data, scientific writing, and utilizing the primary literature. This course is intended to serve as the entry point for all life science majors including biology, biological chemistry, neuroscience, and environmental studies (science concentration). [S] [L] [Q] Normally offered every year. Staff. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

BIO 103. Sensory Biology.This course examines the biology of sensation in humans and other organisms. It focuses on the chemical (taste, smell) and mechanical (touch, hearing) senses, and includes other topics such as electroreception in fish, magnetoreception in migrating animals, and vision in vertebrates and invertebrates. Laboratory exercises examine our own senses (why, for example, do peppers seem hotter to some humans than others?), as well as those of other organisms, such as aversive behaviors to chemical or tactile stimuli in invertebrates, and reaction to touch in carnivorous plants. Enrollment limited to 40. [S] [L] N. Kleckner. Concentrations

BIO 108. Cancer.In this course, students examine the biological basis of cancer, including the role of oncogenes and tumor suppressors in regulating how the cell divides, how environmental agents and viruses can induce DNA mutations leading to cancerous growth, and the genetic basis of certain predispositions of inherited cancers. Students also examine how cancer treatments (radiation, chemotherapy drugs) work to kill cancerous cells. Finally, they explore emerging technologies that are developing new targeted cancer therapies, based on understanding the basic biological processes of cell division and blood vessel growth. Enrollment limited to 40. [S] S. Richards. Concentrations

BIO 109. Conserving Biodiversity.Biologists have been increasingly alarmed by the accelerating loss of animal and plant species from nature. This introductory course in biological conservation explores what we mean by biodiversity, how it is being lost, and what is being done to preserve it. Students examine historical and current patterns of extinction of earth's fauna and flora, and learn about the types of human activities and natural phenomena that threaten species' survival. Through lecture, discussion, and classroom exercises, the human issues that are integrally involved in conservation are considered in conjunction with the ecology of declining species. Enrollment limited to 40. [S] Staff. Concentrations

BI/GE 112. Oceanography.An integrated, interdisciplinary overview of the chemistry, physics, geology, and biology of the world's oceans. Topics include chemical and physical properties of sea water, ocean circulation, evolution of ocean basins, coastal geomorphology, the distribution and abundance of organisms in the major marine communities, the status of the world's most important fisheries, and the role of the ocean in the global carbon cycle. The course may include weekend field trips. Not open to students who have received credit for Biology/Geology 113. Not open to students who have received credit for BI/GE 113. Enrollment limited to 40. [S] [L] [Q] W. Ambrose. Concentrations

BI/GE 113. Marine Science.An integrated, interdisciplinary overview of the chemistry, physics, geology, and biology of the world's oceans. Topics include chemical and physical properties of sea water, ocean circulation, evolution of the ocean basins, coastal geomorphology, the distribtution and abundance of organisms in the major marine communities, the status of the world's major fisheries, and the role of the ocean in the global carbon cycle. Lectures are supplemented by demonstrations and occasional laboratory exercises, though the course does not fulfill the General Education laboratory requirement. Not open to students who have received credit for Biology/Geology 112. Not open to students who have received credit for BI/GE 112. Enrollment limited to 40. [S] [Q] W. Ambrose. Concentrations

BIO 114. Extreme Physiology.Physiology, the study of how organisms function, has benefited tremendously from studies of amazing animals doing amazing things. How do bar-headed geese fly over the top of Mount Everest when humans struggle to reach the summit? How do fish withstand body temperatures below the freezing point of water? This course explores how animals work under extreme environmental conditions and what this reveals about human physiology in health and disease. Enrollment limited to 40. [S] R. Bavis. Concentrations

BIO 118. Bugs in the System.Insects—numerous, ubiquitous, diverse, and uniquely equipped—strongly influence ecosystem processes and human health, culture, and history. This course introduces insects' biology and diversity and explores insects' ecological roles and consequent impacts on human affairs. Selected topics—such as medical entomology, typhus and war, silk in history, twentieth-century popular culture, and the politics of pesticides—illustrate how insect-human interactions contribute to social history in ways both obvious and obscure. Not open to students who have received credit for Biology s22. Enrollment limited to 40. [S] [L] S. Kinsman. Concentrations

AN/BI 119. Human Reproduction: Biology and Evolution.Reproduction is among the most basic and fascinating of human biological functions. This course explores the physiological mechanisms that underlie this process. Topics include sexual differentiation, testicular and ovarian function, pregnancy, fetal development, childbirth, lactation, contraception, infertility, aging, and mating and parenting strategies. An evolutionary perspective is adopted to ask why we reproduce the way we do and why aspects of human reproduction appear unique among primates. Why is giving birth so difficult for humans? Why are men often attracted to younger women? Why do women live so long after menopause? Not open to students who have received credit for Biology 119. Enrollment limited to 40. [S] S. Kahlenberg. Concentrations

BIO 120. Toxins.Issues and potential problems related to toxic materials are reported almost daily by the mass media. Misunderstandings raised by the reports are often due to a lack of basic knowledge about toxicology. This course introduces basic principles of toxicology by discussing topics such as the Woburn, Massachusetts, leukemia cluster and trichloroethylene groundwater contamination that was publicized by A Civil Action. The course focuses on the principles essential to assessing risks chemicals pose to humans, but students also consider the impacts of chemicals on organisms at the population, community, and ecosystem levels. Not open to students who have received credit for First-Year Seminars 377. Enrollment limited to 40. [S] [L] R. Sommer. Concentrations

BI/CH 122. Structure and Function of DNA, RNA, and Proteins. How does a virus or a bacterial cell develop drug resistance? How does a colony of fruit flies adapt to living in a new environment? Changes in the sequences and/or shapes of DNA, RNA, and proteins can alter their physical and chemical properties, influencing the survival of an organism in an environment. This course introduces the physical and chemical properties of these important molecules and their roles in the Central Dogma of molecular biology. Examples of molecular evolution and adaptation in a variety of biological systems are studied. Enrollment limited to 40. [S] P. Schlax. Concentrations

BIO 124. Plants and Human Affairs.A survey of economically and historically important plants, with emphasis on aspects of agronomy, forestry, plant biochemistry, and ethnobotany. Plant products studied include perfumes, spices, medicinals, fermentation products, oils, rubber, textiles, wood, sugar, cereals, and legumes. Not open to students who have received credit for Biology s20. Enrollment limited to 40. [S] [L] R. Thomas. Concentrations

BIO 127. Emerging and Reemerging Infections across the Globe.Emerging infections are those that are newly described, appear in different geographic regions, or move into new host populations. Reemerging infections are those that were controlled in the past but are again of concern. In this course students examine the biology of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other organisms that cause these infections as well as the mechanisms by which they produce disease. Consideration is given to transmission patterns, treatments, and prevention. Topics may include infections of global concern such as malaria, tapeworms, dengue fever, HIV-AIDS, polio and other childhood diseases, cholera, and tuberculosis. Not open to students who have received credit for Biology s28. Not open to students who have received credit for First-Year Seminars 236. Enrollment limited to 40. [S] K. Palin. Concentrations

BIO 135. Biology of World Health and Disease.This course examines five types of disease, considering for each the Western biomedical perspective and a perspective from at least one of the many other systems of medicine from around the world. Students consider infectious disease, noncommunicable diseases, environmental health, nutritional diseases, and stress-derived diseases. They learn the physiological, cellular, and genetic mechanisms that underlie the disease, and that form the basis of therapy, from a biomedical perspective. They also consider how traditional Chinese medicine, Ayurveda, naturopathy, and other medical systems understand, categorize, diagnose, and treat these conditions. Enrollment limited to 40. [S] P. Baker. Concentrations

BIO 158. Evolutionary Biology.Evolution is the great unifying theory in biology. It is the context into which all other biological subjects fit. The course examines various aspects of evolution, including the origin of life, the major events in the evolution of life on Earth, the processes that result in evolutionary change, the nature of the fossil record, the history of evolutionary theories, and creationist objections to these theories. Not open to students who have received credit for Biology 258. Enrollment limited to 40. [S] R. Barry. Concentrations

BIO 211. Marine Invertebrates.A survey of the varieties, morphology, development, evolution, and behavior of invertebrates with an emphasis on marine animals. Laboratory work includes the study, through dissection and experiment, of representative organisms. The course includes field trips to local marine habitats. Prerequisite(s): 101. Enrollment limited to 14 per section. [S] [L] W. Ambrose. Concentrations

BIO 221. Plant and Fungal Diversity.A survey of fungi, plant-like protists and monerans, algae, bryophytes, ferns and fern allies, gymnosperms, and angiosperms. Lecture, laboratory, and field studies emphasize diversity in morphology, physiology, evolution, ecology, and human uses. Prerequisite(s): Biology 101. Not open to students who have received credit for Biology 121. Open to first-year students. [S] [L] [Q] R. Thomas. Concentrations

BIO 242. Cellular and Molecular Biology.A view of life at the cellular and molecular levels. Topics include cellular energetics, membrane phenomena, genetics, and molecular biology. Laboratory studies include enzymology, bacterial transformation, the light reactions of photosynthesis, Mendelian genetics, bioinformatics and DNA analysis using gel electrophoresis and polymerase chain reaction. Quantitative analysis of data and peer-reviewed scientific writing are emphasized. This course is required for the biology, biological chemistry, and neuroscience majors. Prerequisite(s): Biology 101 and Chemistry 108A or Environmental Studies/Chemistry 108B. Not open to students who have received credit for Biology s42. Enrollment limited to 60. [S] [L] [Q] [W2] Normally offered every year. Staff. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

BIO 244. Biostatistics.A course in the use of both descriptive and inferential statistics in the biological sciences, including such topics as types of data, population structure, probability distributions, common types of statistical inference (t-, F-, and chi-square tests), correlation and regression, analysis of variance, and an introduction to nonparametric statistics. Prerequisite(s): one college biology course. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 50. [S] [Q] Normally offered every year. R. Barry. Concentrations

AN/BI 248. The Primates.Humans belong to a fascinating and diverse mammalian order, the Primates. This course introduces primate biology in order to foster an understanding about what it means to be a primate and to highlight how humans are similar to and different from our primate kin. Topics include taxonomy, evolutionary history, biogeography, morphology, life history, ecology, behavior, and cognition. Because many primate species are now facing extinction, largely due to human activities, current threats to primates and conservation strategies are also discussed. Prerequisite(s): Biology 101 or 158 or Anthropology 104. Not open to students who have received credit for Biology 248. Enrollment limited to 40. [S] S. Kahlenberg. Concentrations

BI/MA 255A. Mathematical Models in Biology.Mathematical models are increasingly important throughout the life sciences. This course provides an introduction to deterministic and statistical models in biology. Examples are chosen from a variety of biological and medical fields such as ecology, molecular evolution, and infectious disease. Computers are used extensively for modeling and for analyzing data. Prerequisite(s): Mathematics 105. Not open to students who have received credit for Biology/Mathematics 155. Not open to students who have received credit for BI/MA 155. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. B. Shulman. Concentrations

BIO 260. Environmental Toxicology.Environmental toxicology is the study of the impacts of pollutants upon organisms and the structure and function of ecological systems. It draws from a variety of disciplines, including ecology, chemistry, organismal and developmental biology, genetics, epidemiology, and mathematics. This course provides an overview of the field by discussing toxicant introduction, movement, distribution, and fate in the environment; toxicant sites and mechanisms of action in organisms and ecosystems; and toxicant impact upon organisms and ecosystems. Basics of toxicity testing design and analysis are an important part of the laboratory. Prerequisite(s): Chemistry 108A and Biology 101; or Chemistry/Environmental Studies 108B and Biology 101; or Environmental Studies 203. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 24. [S] [L] R. Sommer. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

BIO 265. Invasive Plant Ecology.Species transported and established beyond their original range may become invasive, changing the distribution and abundance of local species, and altering the composition, structure, and dynamics of local communities. This course uses knowledge of the ecology of plants—including individual adaptations and abilities; population dynamics; community patterns and dynamics; life history and reproduction; and interactions with mutualists, competitors, and herbivores—to recognize and evaluate the patterns and causes of invasive plant species' effects on communities and ecosystems. Discussions of research literature emphasize the mechanisms of effects; field laboratories emphasize identification, assessment in common and rare local community types, and management planning. Some Saturday field trip laboratories are required. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: Biology 101, 109, 121, 124, 201, or Environmental Studies 203. Enrollment limited to 12. [S] [L] S. Kinsman. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

BIO 268. Entomology.A study of insects, the largest group of animals. Lectures and laboratories emphasize insect morphology and physiology, evolution and classification, as well as behavior, ecology, and experimental research. Selected topics may include flight, development and hormones, variations in life cycles and reproductive modes, courtship and parental care, and evolution of mutualisms, defense, and social behavior. Certain laboratories are scheduled as weekend afternoon field trips. In addition, one overnight museum field trip may be scheduled. Prerequisite(s): Biology 101, 114, or 118. Enrollment limited to 14 per section. [S] [L] S. Kinsman. Concentrations

BIO 270. Ecology and Evolution.An introduction to ecological and evolutionary patterns, principles, and processes. Topics include life history and adaptation, speciation, mechanisms of evolution, population dynamics and interactions, community structure, and ecosystem processes. Laboratories include experimental investigations of several levels of biological organization using cooperative lab groups. Prerequisite(s): Biology 101. [S] [L] [Q] [W2] Normally offered every year. Staff. Concentrations

BI/NS 308. Neurobiology.The course is an introduction to the molecular and cellular principles of neurobiology and the organization of neurons into networks. Also included are the topics of developmental and synaptic plasticity, and the role invertebrate systems have played in our understanding of these processes. Laboratories include electrical recordings from nerve cells, computer simulation and modeling, and the use of molecular techniques in neurobiology. Prerequisite(s): Biology 242. Enrollment limited to 12 per section. [S] [L] [Q] Normally offered every year. N. Kleckner. Concentrations

BIO 311. Comparative Anatomy of the Chordates.An introduction to the comparative anatomy of the vertebrates and their kin, with laboratory study of both sharks and mammals. Prerequisite(s): Biology 101. Enrollment limited to 18. [S] [L] R. Barry. Concentrations

BIO 313. Marine Ecology.An examination of the complex ecological interactions that structure marine systems. Habitats studied include intertidal, estuary, coral reef, deep sea, salt marsh, and pelagic. Laboratories include work in local marine communities and require occasional weekend trips. Prerequisite(s): Biology 270. Enrollment limited to 12 per laboratory section. [S] [L] [Q] W. Ambrose. Concentrations

BIO 314. Virology.A lecture and seminar examination of the molecular biology of viruses, including viroids and bacteriophages. Topics include viral infection and replication cycles, morphology, oncogenesis, and virus-host interactions. Viruses of epidemiologic and biotechnologic importance are emphasized. Prerequisite(s): Biology 242. Enrollment limited to 30. [S] L. Abrahamsen. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

BIO 315. Bacteriology.A survey of the structure and physiology of bacteria, emphasizing adaptations of these organisms to specific environmental niches. Particular attention is given to organisms of medical, ecological, or industrial interest. Prerequisite(s): Biology 242. Enrollment limited to 25. [S] [L] [Q] Normally offered every year. L. Abrahamsen. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

BIO 320. Pharmacology.Pharmacology is the study of the actions and effects of drugs within a living organism. It studies all drugs, whether they are illegal, legal, prescription, or over-the-counter. This course places an emphasis on treatment of illness and disease in mammals and presents mechanisms of action, and therapeutic uses and toxicities of important drugs, including medications that affect the peripheral nervous system, cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal tract, endocrine system, reproductive system, and agents used to treat cancer. Prerequisite(s): Biology 242. Recommended background: Biology 337 and Chemistry 218. [S] R. Sommer. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

BIO 323. Forest Ecology.Study of terrestrial plants' population dynamics, community patterns, and adaptations to physical and biological environments, with an emphasis on Northern New England. Topics may include alpine and subalpine vegetation of Mount Washington, rare coastal communities, adaptations to selected wetland conditions, plant-animal interactions, reproduction and demography, forest disturbance dynamics, and plant community patterns. Field trip learning is essential; some Saturday field trips are required. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: Biology 101, 124, Environmental Studies 203, 240, or 310. Recommended background: Biology 270. Enrollment limited to 12. [S] [L] S. Kinsman. Concentrations

BIO 330. Advanced Genetics.A lecture and laboratory exploration of the principles of inheritance. Topics include viral, bacterial, and human genetics, population genetics, the genetics of model organisms, and genomics. Readings include papers from the classic and current primary literature. Prerequisite(s): Biology 242. Enrollment limited to 16. [L] S. Richards. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

BIO 331. Molecular Biology.A laboratory and lecture introduction to the molecular biology of genes and chromosomes. The course emphasizes current research about gene structure and function, experimental techniques, and eukaryotic genetics. Prerequisite(s): Biology 242. [S] [L] Normally offered every year. S. Richards. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

BIO 335. Avian Biology.Birds are among the most conspicuous animals in the environment, occupying terrestrial and aquatic niches from the tropics to the poles. This course examines the origin and diversification of birds and explores avian morphology, physiology, and behavior in an ecological and evolutionary context. Topics include flight, communication, feeding, migration, and reproduction. The course includes a laboratory and requires three Saturday field trips. Prerequisite(s): Biology 270. Enrollment limited to 12. [S] [L] R. Bavis. Concentrations

BIO 337. Animal Physiology.The major physiological processes of animals, including digestion, circulation, respiration, excretion, locomotion, and both neural and hormonal regulation. Examples are drawn from several species and include a consideration of the cellular basis of organ-system function. Prerequisite(s): Biology 242. Enrollment limited to 12 per laboratory section. [S] [L] [Q] Normally offered every year. R. Bavis. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

BIO 338. Drug Actions on the Nervous System.This course focuses on the biochemistry and physiology of neural tissues. An emphasis is placed on neurotransmitter systems, and on drugs thought to act on these systems. The relationships between the actions of drugs at molecular, cellular, and behavioral levels are also discussed. Prerequisite(s): Biology 242. Recommended background: Neuroscience/Psychology 200, 363, or Biology/Neuroscience 308. [S] N. Kleckner. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

BIO 340. Introduction to Epidemiology.Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of disease, injuries, and health within populations. This course examines the frequencies and types of illnesses and injuries within various groups and the multiple factors that influence their distribution. Students consider infectious, chronic, emerging, and reemerging diseases of historical and current importance. Models and preventions are discussed. Prerequisite(s): Biology 242. Enrollment limited to 30. [S] K. Palin. Concentrations

AN/BI 348. Primate Behavior.Monkeys and apes are regularly featured in nature documentaries and their behavioral antics inspire awe and amusement in zoo visitors around the globe. This course focuses on wild primates and uses an evolutionary approach to understand why these animals behave as they do. Because primates are among the most social of animals, understanding social behavior is emphasized. Some topics include social organization and mating systems, foraging behavior, reproductive strategies, competition and cooperation, behavioral development, parenting, communication, and cognition. Laboratories emphasize field and analytical methods for conducting observational research. The course includes at least one Saturday field trip. Prerequisite(s): Biology 270. Not open to students who have received credit for Biology 348. Enrollment limited to 24. [S] [L] S. Kahlenberg. Concentrations

BIO 351. Immunology.The immune system is studied as an example of the body's chemical communication networks and as one mechanism for memory. Topics include production of an immune response, immune surveillance in the maintenance of health, the effects of psychological and environmental factors on the immune system and on health, and the effects of immune dysfunctions (autoimmune diseases and immune deficiencies including AIDS). The course emphasizes the human immune system but briefly covers comparative immunology. Prerequisite(s): Biology 242. Enrollment limited to 30. [S] [L] Normally offered every year. P. Baker. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

BIO 360. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study per semester. Normally offered every semester. Staff. Concentrations

BIO 365. Special Topics.Offered at irregular intervals by a faculty member in an area of contemporary interest. Concentrations

BIO 365E. Regional Ecology.This seminar uses fundamentals of biogeography, plant ecology, conservation biology, and the study of place to examine historical ecology and current conditions of selected North American terrestrial ecoregions. Students investigate natural community patterns and their causes, historical natural history, current research on community dynamics and species interactions, roles of fire and invasive species, old-growth remnants, human-caused changes, and restoration approaches. Global and regional conservation priorities are reviewed. Prerequisite(s): Biology 270 or Environmental Studies 203 or 310. Enrollment limited to 12. S. Kinsman. Concentrations

BIO 365F. Topics in Cell Biology.This course considers current topics in cell biology by examining how our knowledge has progressed from a hypothesis to current work. For example, the fluid mosaic model of membranes was hypothesized several decades ago. Students examine the progress of our knowledge, culminating with our current understanding of the importance of lipid rafts for cell signaling. Other topics may include nuclear transport regulation; the cytoskeleton, signaling, and motion; the multiple roles of GTP binding proteins; structure, function and X-ray crystallography; and visualizing cell components. The seminar features reading of the primary literature and student-designed projects and presentations. Prerequisite(s): Biology 242. N. Kleckner. Concentrations

BIO 380. Plant Physiology.A study of organismal and cellular functions important in the life of green plants. Topics include mineral nutrition, water relations, metabolism, and regulatory processes. Prerequisite(s): Biology 242. Enrollment limited to 20. [S] [L] [Q] R. Thomas. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

BIO 457. Senior Thesis.Permission of the department and the thesis advisor are required. Students register for Biology 457 in the fall semester and/or for Biology 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both Biology 457 and 458. Instructor permission is required. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff. Concentrations

BIO 457, 458. Senior Thesis.Permission of the department and the thesis advisor are required. Students register for Biology 457 in the fall semester and/or for Biology 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both Biology 457 and 458. Instructor permission is required. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff. Concentrations

BIO 458. Senior Thesis.Permission of the department and the thesis advisor are required. Students register for Biology 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both Biology 457 and 458. Instructor permission is required. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff. Concentrations

BIO 460. Junior Seminar.Reading original biological literature is an essential skill for biology majors. Focusing on the topics addressed by invited speakers for the semester's biology seminar program, students review articles, write analyses, and contribute oral presentations in a small group format. Students attend afternoon and/or evening seminars and discuss the content, context, and presentation of original investigations. Prerequisite(s): Biology 101, 242, and 270. One of these courses may be taken concurrently, only by permission of the instructor. Enrollment limited to 20. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff. Concentrations

BIO 470. Seminar and Research in Ecology.Laboratory, field, or library study of a current research topic in experimental ecology. A topic is selected with reference to the research interests of the instructor. Prerequisite(s): Biology 270. Enrollment limited to 6. Instructor permission is required. [S] [L] S. Kinsman. Concentrations

BIO 471. Seminar and Research in Experimental Botany.Laboratory, field, or library study of a current research topic in experimental botany. A topic is selected with reference to the research interests of the instructor. Enrollment limited to 6. Instructor permission is required. [S] [L] [W3] R. Thomas. Concentrations

BIO 472. Seminar and Research in Physiology.Laboratory or library study of a current research topic in animal physiology. A topic is selected with reference to the research interests of the instructor. Recommended background: Biology 337. Enrollment limited to 6. Instructor permission is required. [S] [L] [Q] [W3] R. Bavis. Concentrations

BIO 473. Seminar and Research in Cell Biology.Laboratory and library study of a current research topic in the experimental study of biology at the cellular level. A topic is selected with reference to the research interests of the instructor. Recommended background: Biology 242. Enrollment limited to 6. Instructor permission is required. [W3] Staff. Concentrations

BIO 474. Seminar and Research in Marine Ecology.Laboratory, field, and library study of advanced topics in marine ecology. Topics are selected in relation to research interests of the instructor and students. Prerequisite(s): Biology 244 and 270. Recommended background: Biology 211. Enrollment limited to 6. Instructor permission is required. [S] [L] [Q] [W3] W. Ambrose. Concentrations

BIO 475. Seminar and Research in Environmental Toxicology.Laboratory and library study of a current research topic in environmental toxicology. Topics are selected in relation to research interests of the instructor and students. Recommended background: Biology 242. Enrollment limited to 6. Instructor permission is required. [S] [L] [W3] R. Sommer. Concentrations

BIO 476. Seminar and Research in Neurobiology.Laboratory or library study of a current research topic in molecular or cellular neurobiology. A topic is selected in reference to the research interests of the instructor. Prerequisite(s): Biology 242 or s42. Enrollment limited to 6. Instructor permission is required. [S] [L] [W3] N. Kleckner. Concentrations

BIO 477. Seminar and Research in Microbiology.Laboratory and library study of a current research topic in microbiology or immunology. Topics are selected with reference to the research interests of the instructor and students. Prerequisite(s): Biology 242 and Biology 315. Enrollment limited to 6. [S] [L] [Q] [W3] Staff. Concentrations

BIO 478. Seminar and Research in Molecular Genetics.Laboratory and library study of a current research topic in molecular biology and genetics. Topics are selected with reference to the research interests of the instructor. Prerequisite(s): Biology 242. Enrollment limited to 6. Instructor permission is required. S. Richards. Concentrations

Short Term Courses

BIO s20. Economic Botany.A study of the relationship between people and plants that explores the countless ways humans employ plants for food, spice, drugs, textiles, paper, shelter, perfume, rubber, and more. Class discussion, laboratory exercises, and field trips help elucidate the cultural uses of plants, the origins of specific useful plants, necessary processing techniques, and the strategies for sustainable uses of plant resources. Not open to students who have received credit for Biology 124. Enrollment limited to 20. [S] [L] R. Thomas. Concentrations

BIO s21. Forensic Science.Forensics is the utilization and application of scientific information to criminal and civil law. The field of forensics utilizes a number of scientific disciplines including cell biology, molecular biology, genetics, entomology, chemistry, physics, anatomy, biochemistry, geology, and botany. Through lectures, readings, field trips, and discussions, students acquire the knowledge necessary to perform many field and laboratory techniques used by crime-scene analysts. Students then use critical thinking and analytical skills to process mock crime scenes, perform the appropriate laboratory tests, and present their findings and conclusions to their peers. Can they solve the case? Enrollment limited to 20. [S] [L] S. Richards. Concentrations

BIO s22. The Insect World.Insects—the most numerous and diverse animals—critically influence ecosystems and history. What are the designs and adaptations of these tiny creatures? How do they live nearly everywhere, and how do their obscure lifestyles so strongly influence human lives? This course introduces insects' design and function, explores their lifestyle diversity, identifies their roles in ecosystems, and traces their influences on human health and enterprises. Films, demonstrations, and field trips supplement classroom learning. At least one overnight field trip may be scheduled. Enrollment limited to 20. [S] [L] S. Kinsman. Concentrations

BIO s23. Understanding Cancer.As a cause of mortality in the Western world, cancer is second only to cardiovascular disease. What causes cancer? How is cancer diagnosed and classified? How do flaws in fundamental biological processes drive cancerous growth? What are current therapeutic options and potential new treatments in the fight against cancer? These questions are explored in the classroom and the laboratory. Not open to students who have received credit for Biology 108. Enrollment limited to 40. [S] [L] R. Sommer. Concentrations

BIO s24. Experimental Biology.This course introduces students to how scientific knowledge is produced. In the unique setting of the Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory, an internationally known research facility, students design and carry out lab and field research projects. Students learn the fundamentals of data collection, interpretation, and presentation. Through discussions and attendance at formal scientific seminars, students also consider the nature and social value of the scientific process. Enrollment limited to 16. Instructor permission is required. [S] [L] P. Baker, L. Abrahamsen. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

BIO s25. Microbes and Everyday Life.Microorganisms, most so small that we cannot see them without microscopes, run the world in which we live. They recycle elements and nutrients, play a role in wastewater treatment, cause disease and keep us healthy, produce some of our food and many of our pharmaceutical products, and much more. Through readings, discussions, field trips, and laboratory investigations, students explore the remarkable diversity in habitats and metabolic activities exhibited by the microbial world we encounter every day. Not open to students who have received credit for Biology 127. Enrollment limited to 25. [S] [L] K. Palin. Concentrations

BIO s29. Nature Photography.A study of photographic techniques used by biologists in the field and laboratory, with emphasis on close-up photography of plants and animals. Additional areas covered include landscape and aerial photography, photomicrography, and preparation of photographs for lectures or publication. Required: access to a 35mm or digital single-lens reflex camera. Recommended background: one course in biology at the 100 level. There is a materials fee of $120.00 per student. Enrollment limited to 15. Instructor permission is required. R. Thomas. Concentrations

BIO s30. Animal Behavior.A study of the behavioral adaptations of animals within an evolutionary context. Topics include the genetics and development of behavior, perception, activity rhythms, communication, learning, reproductive behavior, mating systems, behavioral ecology, feeding behavior, predator avoidance, social behavior, and methodology and statistical analysis. Morphological, physiological, and ecological constraints on behavior are discussed. Students observe animals in their natural environments. Prerequisite(s): Biology 101. Enrollment limited to 12. [S] R. Barry. Concentrations

BIO s32. Experimental Marine Ecology.A survey of marine animals and plants, and their relationships with each other and with their environment. Students learn to identify marine flora and fauna and carry out research projects. Recommended background: Biology 211 or 270. Enrollment limited to 8. Instructor permission is required. [S] [L] [Q] Staff. Concentrations

BIO s33. Phenotypic Plasticity.The ability of organisms to express different morphological, physiological, and behavioral traits in different environments has emerged as a key principle in modern biology. This course explores the proximate physiological basis of this phenotypic plasticity. Other topics include the genetic basis and evolution of phenotypic plasticity, as well as the roles of plasticity in health and disease. Examples are drawn from both animal and plant studies. The course is organized around discussion of the primary scientific literature and research projects selected with reference to research interests of the instructor. Prerequisite(s): Biology 101. Recommended background: Biology 270. Enrollment limited to 8. Instructor permission is required. [S] [L] [Q] R. Bavis. Concentrations

BIO s34. Electron Microscopy.An introduction to the principles of electron optics with emphasis on biological applications. Topics covered in classroom and laboratory activities and on field trips include use of the scanning electron microscope, use of associated X-ray dispersive and cytochemical techniques, preparation of specimens for scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and interpretation of data. Special interest topics are chosen by students for independent research projects. Prerequisite(s): Biology 242. Recommended background: Biology 101. Not open to students who have received credit for Biology 341. Enrollment limited to 8. [S] [L] R. Thomas. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

BIO s35. Experimental Toxicogenomics.Students learn principles and techniques of toxicology, genomics, and developmental biology. Drawing on primary literature, students form hypotheses about organ systems and genes that are likely targets of developmental arsenic exposure. They test their hypotheses using a zebrafish model system. Laboratory techniques that monitor normal zebrafish development and assess gene expression are integral to the laboratory research component of the course. Students live and work for two weeks at the Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory. Prerequisite(s): any 100-level biology or chemistry course. Enrollment limited to 16. [S] [L] R. Sommer. Concentrations

BIO s36. Mammalogy.Students study the structure, taxonomy, behavior, ecology, evolution, and public health significance of mammals, and history of the science of mammalogy. Laboratory and field exercises emphasize anatomy, identification, capture techniques, habitat analysis, home-range estimation, and habitat characterization. Several day-long and overnight field trips are planned. Prerequisite(s): Biology 101. Recommended background: Biology 244. Enrollment limited to 18. [S] [L] [Q] R. Barry. Concentrations

BIO s38. Conserving the Great Apes.The great apes—orangutans, gorillas, bonobos, and chimpanzees—are humankind's closest relatives in the animal kingdom. Great apes are also among the most threatened mammals on earth. It has been estimated that unless something drastic is done, great apes will be extinct in the wild within our lifetime. Through lectures, readings, films, and discussion, students examine great ape behavior and ecology to provide theoretical background for understanding why these animals are facing extinction. Current threats to great apes and their tropical forest habitat are considered along with the efficacy of and challenges facing ongoing conservation efforts. Prerequisite(s): Anthropology/Biology 248 or 348, Biology 250, or Environmental Studies 204. Enrollment limited to 20. S. Kahlenberg. Concentrations

BIO s39. Community-Based Research in Biology.In this course students investigate topics with biological significance of importance to the local community. Using the scientific method and the principles of community-based research, students participate as a group in collaborative research with a community partner to address a topic of biological interest and concern. The topic of study is selected relative to the interests of the instructor and the community partner. Research areas may include, but are not limited to, environmental microbiology, toxicology, public health, medicine, and science education. This course requires extensive work in the local community. Prerequisite(s): Biology 242 or s42. Enrollment limited to 8. [S] [L] [Q] K. Palin. Concentrations

BIO s44. Experimental Neuro/Physiology.A study of contemporary research techniques in the fields of neurobiology, physiology, and pharmacology. Topics may include the pharmacology of recombinant neurotransmitter receptors or the physiology and pharmacology of invertebrate neurons. This course requires extensive laboratory work in independent projects. Prerequisite(s): Biology 242. Enrollment limited to 12. Instructor permission is required. [S] [L] N. Kleckner. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

BIO s46. Internship in the Natural Sciences.Off-campus participation by qualified students as team members in an experimental research program 35-40 hours per week. Internships require departmental approval via application. Application to the department must be made by the end of January, prior to Short Term registration. More information is available on the department's Web page. Interns are supervised by a staff member. Enrollment limited to 15. Instructor permission is required. Normally offered every year. Staff. Concentrations

BIO s50. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study during a Short Term. Normally offered every year. Staff. Concentrations