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Chemistry

Professors Wenzel, Lawson, and Austin (chair); Associate Professors Côté, Schlax, and Koviach-Côté; Visiting Assistant Professor Henry



Chemistry deals with phenomena that affect nearly every aspect of our lives and environment. A liberal education in this scientific and technological age should include some exposure to the theories, laws, applications, and potential of this science.

The chemistry curriculum is sufficiently flexible to allow students with career interests in areas such as the health professions, law, business, and education to design a major program suitable to their goals. Students interested in careers in chemistry or biochemistry will find sufficient chemistry electives to provide a strong background for work in graduate school, industry, or other positions requiring a strong foundation in chemistry. A major in biological chemistry has been developed in conjunction with the biology department, and is described in a separate section of the Catalog. The department and its curriculum are approved by the American Chemical Society (ACS), and an ACS-certified major is offered. More information on the chemistry department and the major is available on the Web site (www.bates.edu/CHEM.xml).

Major Requirements. The requirements for chemistry majors include core courses, elective courses, and senior research and seminar.

Core Courses.
All of the following: 107A or 107B, 108A or 108B, 212, 215, 217, 218, 301.

302 or 310.

s37 or s42.

Elective Courses. When satisfying the following elective requirements, two restrictions apply. First, students may not use one course to serve as both a core course and an elective. Second, independent study courses (360 or s50) cannot be used to satisfy elective requirements. The selection of electives depends on whether s37 or s42 is taken as a core course:

If s37 is taken as a core course, then the elective requirements are:
a) either 321 or s42
or
b) two 200-level or 300-level chemistry courses, at least one of which must be 223, 313, 316, or 325.

If s42 is taken as a core course, then the elective requirements are:
a) either 321 or s37
or
b) two 200-level or 300-level chemistry courses, at least one of which must be 223, 302, 310, or 316.

Course selections depend upon the goals and interests of the student. All students preparing for graduate study or for a position in the chemical industry should take Chemistry 223, 316, and any other advanced courses in their specific area of interest. Courses in mathematics and physics are prerequisites for some of the advanced courses in chemistry.

Senior Research and Seminar. The written thesis required of all majors may be either a laboratory thesis or a library thesis. Students doing a laboratory thesis may register for Chemistry 457, 458, or both, while students doing a library project may register for Chemistry 457 or 458. Students pursuing honors register for both 457 and 458. The senior research and seminar courses include participation in the department's seminar program. Each major is required to deliver two presentations during the senior year.

Pass/Fail Grading Option. Pass/fail grading may not be elected for courses applied toward the major.

Minor. Students may complete a minor in chemistry by taking seven chemistry courses that include 107A or 107B, 108A or 108B, and five upper-level chemistry courses or departmentally designated courses, at least one of which must be a 300-level course, s37, or s42. Independent study courses (360 or s50) cannot be used to satisfy minor requirements.

Students majoring in biological chemistry may not apply the upper-level chemistry courses taken to fulfill that major (217, 218, 302, 310, 321, 322) toward the minor in chemistry.

Only departmentally designated cross-listed courses may be applied toward the minor.

Pass/Fail Grading Option. Pass/fail grading may not be elected for courses counting toward the minor.

General Education Information for the Class of 2010. The following courses may serve as a department-designated set: 107A-108A, 107A-108B, 107B-108A, 107B-108B, 107A-125, 107B-125, 107A-s21, 107B-s21. The following courses may serve as partial fulfillment of the natural science requirement as a third course: 125, 199, s21, s22, s23, s28, s32, and s33. The quantitative requirement may be satisfied through any course except 132, s21, or s28. Advanced Placement, International Baccalaureate, or A-Level credit awarded by the department/program may not be used toward fulfillment of any General Education requirements.

Courses
CHEM 105. Energy.Energy is everything. Every biological organism needs energy for its functions, from the most basic to the most complex. Human societies depend on external energy sources for transportation, commerce, and agriculture. Understanding what energy is, how we generate it, and how we use it is important for every citizen. This course explores energy with a particular emphasis on how energy and chemistry are related. Not open to students who have received credit for Physics 106. J. Henry.
Concentrations
CHEM 107A. Atomic and Molecular Structure.Fundamental concepts underlying the structure and behavior of matter are developed. Major topics include states of matter, atomic structure, periodicity, and bonding. This course, or its equivalent, is a prerequisite for all advanced courses in chemistry. Laboratory: three hours per week. Not open to students who have received credit for CH/ES 107B. Enrollment limited to 60 per section. [S] [L] [Q] Normally offered every year. J. Henry, P. Schlax, R. Austin.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CH/ES 107B. Chemical Structure and Its Importance in the Environment.Fundamentals of atomic and molecular structure are developed with particular attention to how they relate to substances of interest in the environment. Periodicity, bonding, states of matter, and intermolecular forces are covered. The laboratory (three hours per week) involves a semester-long group investigation of a topic of environmental significance. Not open to students who have received credit for Chemistry 107A. Enrollment limited to 60 per section. [S] [L] [Q] Normally offered every year. T. Wenzel.
Concentrations
CHEM 108A. Chemical Reactivity.A continuation of Chemistry 107A. Major topics include thermodynamics, kinetics, equilibrium, acid/base behavior, and electrochemistry. Laboratory: three hours per week. Prerequisite(s): Chemistry 107A or Chemistry/Environmental Studies 107B. Not open to students who have received credit for CH/ES 108B. Enrollment limited to 60 per section. [S] [L] [Q] Normally offered every year. T. Lawson, P. Schlax.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CH/ES 108B. Chemical Reactivity in Environmental Systems.A continuation of Chemistry/Environmental Studies 107B. Major topics include thermodynamics, kinetics, equilibrium, acid/base chemistry, and electrochemistry. Biogeochemical cycles provide examples for course topics. The laboratory (three hours per week) analyzes the chemistry of marine environments. Prerequisite(s): Chemistry 107A or Chemistry/Environmental Studies 107B. Not open to students who have received credit for Chemistry 108A. Enrollment limited to 60. [S] [L] [Q] Normally offered every year. R. Austin.
Concentrations
BI/CH 122. Structure and Function of DNA, RNA, and Proteins. How does a virus or a bacterial cell develop drug resistance? How does a colony of fruit flies adapt to living in a new environment? Changes in the sequences and/or shapes of DNA, RNA, and proteins can alter their physical and chemical properties, influencing the survival of an organism in an environment. This course introduces the physical and chemical properties of these important molecules and their roles in the Central Dogma of molecular biology. Examples of molecular evolution and adaptation in a variety of biological systems are studied. Enrollment limited to 40. [S] P. Schlax.
Concentrations
CHEM 125. Bioenergetics.Living organisms require nutrients extracted from the environment to support the chemical reactions necessary for all life processes including development, growth, motion, and reproduction. Maintaining the chemical reactions that allow the web of life to continue to exist on Earth demands a continuous input of energy. This course examines the flow of energy from the sun into the biosphere through plants and into animals, with a focus on humans. Through the use of a combination of learning techniques, including research and oral presentations, problem solving, and group discussions, the chemistry behind this energy flow is explored, as are the ways in which energy is used by living organisms. Recommended background: high school chemistry. Enrollment limited to 30. [S] [Q] T. Lawson.
Concentrations
CHEM 212. Separation Science.A study of some of the most universally used methods and techniques of chemical separation. Both theory and applications are covered. Topics include chemical equilibrium, liquid-liquid extraction, gas and liquid chromatography, and electrophoresis. Laboratory: three hours per week. Prerequisite(s): Chemistry 108A or Chemistry/Environmental Studies 108B. [S] [L] [Q] Normally offered every year. T. Wenzel.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM 215. Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry.A study of the wide-ranging aspects of inorganic chemistry. The use of periodic trends and fundamental principles of inorganic chemistry to systematize the descriptive chemistry of the elements is explored. Topics include reaction mechanisms in inorganic chemistry, ligand field theory, and solid state chemistry. Applications of inorganic chemistry to biochemistry, environmental chemistry, and geochemistry are also considered. Prerequisite(s): Chemistry 108A or Chemistry/Environmental Studies 108B. [S] Normally offered every year. R. Austin.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM 217. Organic Chemistry I.An introduction to organic chemistry. Topics include bonding, structure, stereochemistry, and nomenclature; reactions of alkanes, alkenes, alkylhalides, alkynes, and radicals; and spectroscopic methods. Laboratory: three hours per week. Prerequisite(s): Chemistry 108A or Chemistry/Environmental Studies 108B. Enrollment limited to 72. [S] [L] Normally offered every year. J. Koviach-Côté.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM 218. Organic Chemistry II.A continuation of Chemistry 217. The reactions of alcohols, ethers, carbonyl compounds, and aromatics are studied from both a mechanistic and a synthetic point of view. Laboratory: three hours per week. Prerequisite(s): Chemistry 217. Enrollment limited to 72. [S] [L] Normally offered every year. J. Koviach-Côté.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM 223. Analytical Spectroscopy and Electrochemistry.Spectroscopic and electrochemical methods employed in chemical analysis are discussed. Topics include ultraviolet, visible, infrared, and atomic spectroscopy; and potentiometric and voltametric methods of analysis. Prerequisite(s): Chemistry 108A or Chemistry/Environmental Studies 108B. [S] T. Wenzel.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM 240. Materials Chemistry.Increasingly chemistry is used to enhance or alter the physical properties of solid state materials. Chemistry has enabled technological advances in areas as diverse as textiles, computing, and medicine. This course introduces students to crystalline and amorphous solids, surface and polymer chemistry, and materials characterization. It also covers applications of materials chemistry and certain specialized laboratory techniques. Prerequisite(s): Chemistry 107A or Chemistry/Environmental Studies 107B, Chemistry 108A or Chemistry/Environmental Studies 108B, Chemistry 217, and Physics 107. J. Henry.
Concentrations
CHEM 301. Quantum Chemistry.Major topics include quantum mechanics, atomic and molecular structure, and spectroscopy. Prerequisite(s): Chemistry 108A or Chemistry/Environmental Studies 108B, Mathematics 105 and 106, and Physics 107. Corequisite(s): Physics 108 and Mathematics 205. [S] [Q] Normally offered every year. J. Henry.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM 302. Statistical Thermodynamics.Major topics include statistical mechanics and chemical thermodynamics. Prerequisite(s): Chemistry 108A or Chemistry/Environmental Studies 108B, Mathematics 105 and 106. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): Physics 107. Alternates with Chemistry 310. [S] [Q] J. Henry.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM 306. Electrons in Solids.A study of the electronic properties of solid materials. Subjects include the application of quantum theory to simple models of crystalline solids, the chemical and optical properties of solids, the impact of surfaces on material behavior, and quantum confinement. Prerequisite(s): Chemistry 206 or 301. [S] [Q] M. Côté.
Concentrations
CHEM 310. Biophysical Chemistry.This course is an overview of physical chemical principles and techniques used in understanding the properties, interactions, and functions of biological molecules. Thermodynamic, kinetic, and statistical mechanical principles are applied to understanding macromolecular assembly processes (i.e., assembly of viruses or ribosomes) and macromolecular interactions involved in gene expression and regulation, DNA replication, and other biological processes. Techniques used in studying protein folding, RNA folding, and enzyme kinetics are presented. Prerequisite(s): Chemistry 108A or Chemistry/Environmental Studies 108B, Physics 107, Mathematics 105 and 106. Alternates with Chemistry 302. [S] [Q] P. Schlax.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM 313. Spectroscopic Determination of Molecular Structure.In this course the utilization of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectral data for structural analysis is developed. Particular attention is given to the interpretation of proton, carbon-13, and two-dimensional NMR spectra, and to the interpretation of fragmentation patterns in electron-impact mass spectrometry. Theoretical and instrumental aspects of modern NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry are covered. Prerequisite(s): Chemistry 218. [S] T. Wenzel.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM 316. Advanced Topics in Inorganic Chemistry.A study of selected advanced topics in inorganic chemistry. Emphasis is placed on the application of group theory to the elucidation of electronic structure. Selected topics may also include bioinorganic chemistry, inorganic materials, and inorganic reaction mechanisms. Opportunities for critical reading of the current literature are also presented. Prerequisite(s): Chemistry 215 or 301. [S] R. Austin.
Concentrations
CHEM 321. Biological Chemistry I.An introduction to biologically important molecules and macromolecular assemblies. Topics discussed include the structure and chemistry of proteins; the mechanisms and kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed reactions; and the structure, chemistry, and functions of carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and biological membranes. Laboratory: three hours per week. Prerequisite(s): Chemistry 218. Recommended background: Biology 242 or s42. Enrollment limited to 26. [S] [L] [Q] Normally offered every year. T. Lawson, P. Schlax.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM 322. Biological Chemistry II.A survey of the major metabolic processes in living cells. Topics discussed include protein synthesis, DNA replication and gene expression, the global organization of metabolic pathways, carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism, biological oxidation, reduction and energy production, and the metabolism of nitrogen-containing compounds. Special attention is given to the mechanisms by which metabolic processes are regulated. Laboratory: three hours per week. Prerequisite(s): Chemistry 321. [S] [L] [Q] Normally offered every year. T. Lawson.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM 325. Organic Synthesis.A study of important organic reactions with emphasis on structure, stereochemistry, mechanism, and synthesis. Prerequisite(s): Chemistry 218. [S] J. Koviach-Côté.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM 360. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study per semester. Normally offered every semester. Staff.
Concentrations
CHEM 457. Senior Research and Seminar.A laboratory or library research study in an area of interest under the supervision of a member of the department. Each senior major delivers two presentations on his or her research. Students register for Chemistry 457 in the fall semester and for Chemistry 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both Chemistry 457 and 458. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
Concentrations
CHEM 457, 458. Senior Research and Seminar.A laboratory or library research study in an area of interest under the supervision of a member of the department. Each senior major delivers two presentations on his or her research. Students register for Chemistry 457 in the fall semester and for Chemistry 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both Chemistry 457 and 458. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
Concentrations
CHEM 458. Senior Research and Seminar.A laboratory or library research study in an area of interest under the supervision of a member of the department. Each senior major delivers two presentations on his or her research. Students register for Chemistry 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both Chemistry 457 and 458. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
Concentrations
Short Term Courses
CHEM s21. Biotechnology: Life Science for Citizens.A nonscientist's introduction to the science of the biotechnology revolution. Topics include the basic biology and chemistry of cells, the biochemistry of gene expression, the development and applications of recombinant DNA and related technologies, and the structure and functioning of the biotechnology research establishment in the United States. Weekly laboratory exercises include a DNA cloning project. Not open to majors in chemistry, biological chemistry, or biology. Enrollment limited to 18. [S] [L] T. Lawson, P. Schlax.
Concentrations
CHEM s25. Science Meets Art: Loudspeaker Design and Construction.Hands-on experience in the science and art of designing, building, and testing audio loudspeakers serves as a practical introduction to the concepts of waves and resonance. Students purchase parts and materials to build loudspeakers of their own design, which they then keep. Students with either technical or nontechnical backgrounds are equally welcome. Enrollment limited to 8. [L] [Q] M. Côté.
Concentrations
CH/PH s28. Digital Signals.Digitized signals are playing an increasing role in scientific measurements, telecommunications, and consumer electronics. While it is often claimed that "the future is digital," there are trade-offs and limitations associated with any signal processing technique. This course exposes students to the realities of analog and digital data acquisition, basic forms of signal processing, and their application to scientific measurements and to consumer electronics, including audio. Hands-on experience is gained by constructing simple electronic circuits and creating signal acquisition and manipulation software. No previous electronics or computer programming experience is necessary. Recommended background: Mathematics 105. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 15. [Q] M. Côté.
Concentrations
CHEM s32. Practical Genomics and Bioinformatics.Genomics is the emerging science of studying genes and gene function as dynamic, coordinated systems. Bioinformatics refers to the development of methods for storing, retrieving, analyzing, and integrating biological molecule sequence data. These new branches of science have become both possible and necessary because of the recent and extremely rapid accumulation of DNA sequence data that has resulted from technological advances in biochemistry and molecular biology. This course explores the methods by which these data are collected, including cloning techniques, sequencing procedures, and methods for monitoring gene expression. Students sequence and analyze the expression of a gene from a marine organism. Students live and work for two weeks at the Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory. Prerequisite(s): any 100-level biology or chemistry course. Enrollment limited to 16. [S] [L] T. Lawson.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM s37. Advanced Chemical Measurement Laboratory.The use of spectroscopic methods to probe atomic and molecular structure, and to identify, characterize, and quantify chemical species is examined. Measurements of thermodynamic and kinetic parameters describing chemical reactions are performed. Theoretical and experimental aspects of several techniques including nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, and UV-visible spectroscopy are covered. Prerequisite(s): Chemistry 301, 302, or 310. Not open to students who have received credit for Chemistry 332. Enrollment limited to 30. [S] [L] [Q] P. Schlax.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM s38. Energy and Sustainability.Energy is everything. Every biological organism needs energy for its functions, from the most basic to the most complex. Human societies depend on external energy sources for transportation, commerce, and agriculture. Understanding what energy is, how we generate it and how we use it is important for every citizen. This course explores energy with a particular emphasis on how humans generate energy (including fossil fuels, nuclear, solar, and wind), how that energy is distributed, and how there systems could be improved. Prerequisite(s): Chemistry 107A and 108A, Chemistry/Environmental Studies 107B and 108B, or Physics 107 and 108. J. Henry.
Concentrations
CHEM s42. Chemical Synthesis and Reactivity.Multi-step synthesis, reactivity, and characterization of complex inorganic and organic molecules. Working independently, students carry out week-long experiments designed to introduce important techniques in modern organic and inorganic chemistry. Concepts covered include stereoselective reactions, air sensitive syntheses, and purification techniques. In addition, students gain hands-on experience with a wide variety of instrumentation used for compound characterization. Emphasis is placed on proper techniques in laboratory work, safety, waste handling, and communicating experimental approaches and results. Prerequisite(s): Chemistry 215 and 218. Enrollment limited to 15. [S] [L] R. Austin, J. Koviach-Côté.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM s50. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study during a Short Term. Normally offered every year. Staff.
Concentrations