Environmental Studies

Professors Wenzel (Chemistry), Costlow (Environmental Studies), and Lewis (Economics); Associate Professors Sommer (Biology, chair) and Ewing (Environmental Studies); Assistant Professors Skinner (Environmental Studies) and Pieck (Environmental Studies); Lecturer Parrish (Environmental Studies)

Environmental studies encompasses a broad range of issues that arise from the interaction of humans with the natural world. To understand these issues, students must think across and beyond existing disciplinary boundaries. The environmental studies major provides a framework for students to examine how humans experience, investigate, and interact with their natural environment. The curriculum includes, first, an interdisciplinary core that encourages students to explore the social, aesthetic, ethical, scientific, and technical aspects of environmental questions, and second, a disciplinary-based major concentration that allows students to approach these questions with more focused knowledge and methodological tools. More information on the environmental studies program including the course requirements for each major concentration is available on the website (www.bates.edu/ENVR.xml).

Major Requirements. Students majoring in environmental studies must fulfill core requirements of five courses, a major concentration, a one- or two-semester thesis, and a 200-hour internship. Students may apply designated Short Term courses toward fulfilling their major requirements. It is recommended that students complete Environmental Studies 203, 204, and 205 as early as possible, preferably within their first two years. These courses are not open to seniors.

Students should note that there may be flexibility in requirements due to changes in the curriculum.

In addition to 203, 204, and 205, the environmental studies committee recommends that all students interested in environmental studies take a related course in biology, chemistry, physics, or geology during their first year. Chemistry/Environmental Studies 107B and 108B are designed specifically for students interested in environmental studies, and both are required for students choosing a major or concentration in the natural sciences.

Students interested in environmental education are advised to take a minor or General Education concentration in education in addition to their major in environmental studies. Students are encouraged to consider study abroad. However, the program reserves the right to restrict study abroad to one semester.

Core Requirements.
1) The following courses are required of all majors:

ENVR 203. Scientific Approaches to Environmental Issues.
ENVR 204. Environment and Society.
ENVR 205. Environment and Culture.
ENVR 417. Community-Engaged Research in Environmental Studies.
ENVR 457, 458. Senior Seminar and Thesis.

2) Each student must take at least one course from the following list, although there are restrictions depending on the student's major concentration. Students should consult the Environmental Studies website for information on which courses fulfill each concentration.

ENVR 227. Catastrophe and Hope.
ENVR 240. Water and Watersheds.
AN/ES 242. Environment, Human Rights, and Indigenous Peoples.
ENVR 310. Soils.
ENVR 334. The Question of the Animal.
AN/ES 337. Social Movements, NGOs, and the Environment.

The Major Concentration. Major concentrations focus on a particular aspect of environmental studies. Students interested in environmental studies should consult the program's website or a member of the environmental studies committee for more information regarding the content of these major concentrations. The major concentrations are:

Ecology.
The Environment and Human Culture.
Environmental Chemistry.
Environmental Economics.
Environmental Ethics.
Environmental Geology.
Environment in the Literary and Visual Arts.
Global Environment and Social Change.
Health.
Regional Perspectives on Environment and Society.

The Thesis. All students must complete a one- or two-semester thesis. Theses must build in some significant way upon the courses that students take as part of their major concentration. Students write proposals for thesis in the winter semester of the junior year.

The Internship. Every student must complete a 200-hour internship in an environmentally oriented organization off the Bates campus by the end of the fall semester of their senior year. Internships at academic research organizations, those requiring only physical labor, and those at summer camps are generally unacceptable.

Pass/Fail Grading Option. Pass/fail grading may not be elected for courses applied toward the major.

Courses

CH/ES 107B. Chemical Structure and Its Importance in the Environment.

Fundamentals of atomic and molecular structure are developed with particular attention to how they relate to substances of interest in the environment. Periodicity, bonding, states of matter, and intermolecular forces are covered. The laboratory (three hours per week) involves a semester-long group investigation of a topic of environmental significance. Not open to students who have received credit for Chemistry 107A. Enrollment limited to 60. [S] [L] [Q] Normally offered every year. T. Wenzel.
Concentrations

CH/ES 108B. Chemical Reactivity in Environmental Systems.

A continuation of Chemistry/Environmental Studies 107B. Major topics include thermodynamics, kinetics, equilibrium, acid/base chemistry, and electrochemistry. Examples for course topics are drawn from aquatic chemistry and the chemistry of environmental health. The laboratory (three hours per week) analyzes the chemistry of marine environments. Prerequisite(s): Chemistry 107A or Chemistry/Environmental Studies 107B. Not open to students who have received credit for Chemistry 108A. Enrollment limited to 60. [S] [L] [Q] Normally offered every year. R. Austin.
Concentrations

EN/ES 201. African and Diasporic Ecological Literature.

While it has always been part of global culture and politics, Africa is now recognized as a continent of import in a most necessary global conversation about ecological change. This course examines ecological influences on literature by Anglophone authors of African descent. The study of the aesthetic and cultural imprint of individual authors is informed by readings that detail broader issues affecting ecological perceptions in human groups. Students also examine interpretations of human biodiversity that have contributed to the neglect of African and African diasporic artistic and philosophic perspectives on ecological issues. Prerequisite(s): one 100-level English course. Recommended background: course(s) in African American studies and/or environmental studies. Enrollment limited to 25. Normally offered every year. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ENVR 203. Scientific Approaches to Environmental Issues.

An introduction to central concepts in environmental science—the function and interrelationship of physical, chemical, and biological systems—through the study of specific environmental issues. The laboratory links field studies of environmental systems to the scientific concepts and tools environmental scientists use. This course serves as the foundation for further study of environmental science at Bates. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. [S] [L] [Q] Normally offered every year. H. Ewing.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ENVR 204. Environment and Society.

Environmental issues rarely have only physical dimensions. They most often also have social and political aspects. This course familiarizes students with some of the major social scientific contributions to understanding how and why environmental problems arise, how they are defined, and how different groups are affected by and respond to them. The course first outlines the contemporary world system in which environmental debates take place and then identifies drivers of environmental change. Students then apply these ideas to a variety of ongoing environmental controversies, including climate change, oil dependency, agriculture, urbanization, biodiversity conservation, pollution, and environmental justice. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every year. S. Pieck.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ENVR 205. Environment and Culture.

The course explores dynamics between natural environments and human cultures. Methods in environmental and cultural studies inform case studies drawn from animist cultures, creation stories, the wilderness concept, Romantic and transcendentalist writings, ecofeminism, urbanism, and art on and of the landscape. Additional topics include media environments, disaster narratives, food culture, the question of the animal and environmental justice. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every year. Staff.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ES/GR 207. The End of the World.

A persistent belief in the end of the world has haunted people since the beginnings of Christianity. The apocalypse, Christ's second coming, represents but one of many scenarios. Natural disaster, such as precipitated the extinction of the dinosaurs, is a more science-based scenario. A politically inspired scenario is the fear of nuclear annihilation. More recently, the specter of a posthuman world has increasingly come forward. All these scenarios employ a radical rhetoric of ultimate ending. What do they hope to achieve through its use? This course proposes a historical and analytical investigation of these four end-of-the-world scenarios. Students examine cultural productions such as films, novels, popular science publications, as well as religious and philosophical works. Recommended background: one course in environmental studies, literature, or religion. One-time offering. D. Sweet.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

INDS 208. Introduction to Medieval Archeology.

The Middle Ages were a time of major cultural changes that laid the groundwork for Northwest Europe's emergence as a global center of political and economic power in subsequent centuries. However, many aspects of life in the period from 1000 to 1500 C.E. were unrecorded in contemporary documents and art, and archeology has become an important tool for recovering that information. This course introduces the interdisciplinary methods and the findings of archeological studies of topics including medieval urban and rural lifeways, health, commerce, religion, social hierarchy, warfare, and the effects of global climate change. Cross-listed in anthropology, classical and medieval studies, environmental studies, and history. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. (Premodern.) Offered with varying frequency. G. Bigelow.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

INDS 211. Environmental Perspectives on U.S. History.

This course explores the relationship between the North American environment and the development and expansion of the United States. Because Americans' efforts (both intentional and not) to define and shape the environment were rooted in their own struggles for power, environmental history offers an important perspective on the nation's social history. Specific topics include Europeans', Africans', and Indians' competing efforts to shape the colonial environment; the impact and changing understanding of disease; the relationship between industrial environments and political power; and the development of environmental movements. Cross-listed in American cultural studies, environmental studies, and history. Not open to students who have received credit for Environmental Studies/History 211. Not open to students who have received credit for ES/HI 211. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. (United States.) J. Hall.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ENVR 213. Reading the Watershed: Nature and Place in Literature.

Environmental thinkers from Gary Snyder to Wendell Berry have linked environmental responsiveness to localness and an intimate knowledge of place and home. What role does literature, oral and written, play in producing, recording, and transmitting such knowledge? How are nature and the landscape around us remembered, imagined, shaped, mourned, and possibly protected by the stories, songs, and poems that humans create? In what ways do writers assign personal or spiritual significance to the landscape? This course uses Northern New England and the watershed of the Androscoggin as a base to investigate these questions. Readings include stories from Abenaki oral literature, poems, and stories by contemporary local writers, as well as other selected American writers who have given a strong voice to regionalism in their work. Open to first-year students. S. Strong.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ES/PL 214. Environmental Ethics.

A study of selected issues in environmental ethics, including questions about population growth, resource consumption, pollution, the responsibilities of corporations, environmental justice, animal rights, biodiversity, and moral concern for the natural world. The course explores debates currently taking place among environmental thinkers regarding our moral obligations to other persons, to future generations, to other animals, and to ecosystems and the Earth itself. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. T. Tracy.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ES/RU 216. Nature in Russian Culture.

How does a given culture understand and represent its relationship to the specific geography of its place in the world? This course explores the cultural landscape of Russia through a broad range of literary works, visual images, and ethnographic studies. Students examine some of the following issues: the relationship between geography and national identity; the political uses of cultural landscape; the interaction of agriculture, official religion, and traditional belief in peasant culture; and the role of class and revolutionary reimaginings of nature in the Soviet era. Conducted in English. Not open to students who have received credit for Environmental Studies/Russian 314. Open to first-year students. [W2] J. Costlow.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ES/GE 217. Mapping and GIS.

Geographical information systems (GIS) are computer-based systems for geographical data presentation and analysis. They allow rapid development of high-quality maps, and enable sophisticated examination of spatial patterns and interrelationships. In this course students learn the principles of GIS through extensive computer use of ArcGIS (ESRI). Geological and environmental projects introduce students to cartography, common sources of geographic data, methods for collecting novel spatial data, and data quality. Finally, students learn to extend the capabilities of GIS software to tackle more advanced spatial analysis tasks by completing an independent project. Lectures supplement the laboratory component of the course. Prerequisite: one 200-level course in environmental studies or one 100-level course in geology. Not open to students who have received credit for Environmental Studies 217. Enrollment limited to 20. [S] [L] [Q] J. Eusden, C. Parrish.
Concentrations

INDS 219. Environmental Archeology.

Over the past two hundred years archeologists, scientists, and humanists in many disciplines have worked together to understand the interactions of past human populations with the physical world, including plants, animals, landscapes, and climates. This course outlines the methods and theories used by archeologists, geologists, biologists, physicists, chemists, and historians in reconstructing past economies and ecologies in diverse areas of the globe. The course also discusses how archeology contributes to our understanding of contemporary environmental issues such as rapid climate change, shrinking biodiversity, and sustainable use of resources. Cross-listed in anthropology, environmental studies, and history. Recommended background: Anthropology 103. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. (Premodern.) Normally offered every year. G. Bigelow.
Concentrations

ENVR 227. Catastrophes and Hope.

Disaster narratives can be both documentary and cautionary, attempting to describe what seems beyond human imagination. Such narratives may serve as dire warnings, offer glimpses of hope, spur us to change our lives, or scare us into denial. This course explores examples of disaster narratives from twentieth-century Russia and the contemporary United States, considering the emotional, aesthetic, and civic function of discourses of disaster. In particular, students consider imaginations of disaster at the end of the cold war and in contemporary discussions of climate change. Offered with varying frequency. J. Costlow.

INDS 228. Caring for Creation: Physics, Religion, and the Environment.

This course considers scientific and religious accounts of the origin of the universe, examines the relations between these accounts, and explores the way they shape our deepest attitudes toward the natural world. Topics of discussion include the biblical Creation stories, contemporary scientific cosmology, the interplay between these scientific and religious ideas, and the roles they both can play in forming a response to environmental problems. Cross-listed in environmental studies, physics, and religious studies. Enrollment limited to 40. [S] J. Smedley, T. Tracy.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ENVR 240. Water and Watersheds.

Where does water go and what does it do? Humans across the globe extract, enjoy, use, waste, and conserve water and hence affect its distribution, movement, and quality. In this course students follow water from atmosphere to land to aquatic systems, emphasizing the controls on the movement and chemistry of water. They investigate not only the need of organisms for water but also the ways in which organisms, including humans, influence the distribution and chemistry of water. Some class meetings involve field and lab work. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: Environmental Studies 203; Chemistry 107A or Chemistry/Environmental Studies 107B and Geology 103; Chemistry 107A or Chemistry/Environmental Studies 107B and Biology 101 or 112. Recommended background: Chemistry 107A and 108A, or Chemistry/Environmental Studies 107B and 108B. Enrollment limited to 30. [S] H. Ewing.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

AN/ES 242. Environment, Human Rights, and Indigenous Peoples.

For decades environmentalists have used the image of the "ecological native" in their critique of industrialization while indigenous activists have framed their struggles for land rights and self-determination in environmental terms. Why and how have environmental and indigenous concerns merged? How are these connections used strategically? This course examines the struggles of the world's indigenous peoples in the context of an accelerating ecological crisis. Topics include Western ideas of indigenous people, indigenous self-representation, indigenous relations to modern nation-states, the World Bank and the United Nations, and the impacts of oil and mining, bio-prospecting, and biodiversity conservation. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: Anthropology 101, Anthropology/Environmental Studies 337, Environmental Studies 204, or Politics 250. Enrollment limited to 30. Normally offered every year. S. Pieck.
Concentrations

ENVR 310. Soils.

Depending on one's point of view, soils are geological units, ecosystems, the foundation of plant life, a place for microbes to live, building material, or just dirt. This course takes a scientific perspective and explores the genesis of soils, their distribution and characteristics, and their interaction with plants. Field studies emphasize description of soils, inferences about soil formation, and placement within a landscape context. Labs investigate the chemistry of soils and their role in forestry and agriculture. Prerequisite(s): Environmental Studies 203; or one chemistry set (Chemistry 107A-108A or Chemistry/Environmental Studies 107B-108B) and one 200-level biology or geology course. Recommended background: one 200-level geology course. [S] [L] H. Ewing.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ENVR 334. The Question of the Animal.

Who are the animals to us? Beasts of burden, holy asses, laboratory surrogates, Aesopian figures for our political disputes, Pavlovian responders and creatures who in their suffering are moral beings, too, animals', place within the history of human thought and culture has been central, deeply contradictory, and perennially implicated in our understandings of what it means to be human. This course explores the role of animals in human life and thought, drawing on readings from literature, cultural history, ethology, and ethics. Readings and class discussions consider the roles of animals in highly diverse cultures and historical eras. Enrollment limited to 18. [W2] Staff.
Interdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

AN/ES 337. Social Movements, NGOs, and the Environment.

As emerging transnational actors, social movements and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) challenge state-centered paradigms with regard to environmental and other issues. But why do environmental movements arise in the first place? Do NGOs necessarily "do environmental good"? What solutions to the environment/development quandary do these forms of activism offer? The course first locates the context for NGOs and social movements within neoliberal globalization and the resource conflicts that emerge from its processes. Students consider topics and case studies in developed and developing countries, using them as a lens through which to understand the complexities of social and environmental change. Prerequisite(s): Anthropology 101 or Environmental Studies 204. Enrollment limited to 20. [W2] Normally offered every year. S. Pieck.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ENVR 360. Independent Study.

Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study per semester. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every semester. Staff.
Interdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ENVR 365. Special Topics.

Offered occasionally on subjects of special interest. Staff.

ENVR 417. Community-Engaged Research in Environmental Studies.

Students apply methods and skills developed within their subdisciplinary concentrations to an interdisciplinary semester-long project. Projects include work with previously identified community partners and may vary from year to year. Students evaluate literature, participate in discussions, complete written reports, and give oral presentations. Aesthetic and cultural perspectives on the environment, ethics and social justice, and scientific and quantitative approaches to environmental issues are incorporated into the project. The course deals explicitly with ethnicity, race, gender, and/or class within the context of the selected theme. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: American Cultural Studies/English 395C; Anthropology s10; Art and Visual Culture 283; Art and Visual Culture/Women and Gender Studies 287; Biology 242, 244; Chemistry 212; Economics 250; English 243, 295; English/Women and Gender Studies 395L; Environmental Studies 200, 240, 300, 310; Environmental Studies/Geology 217; History s40; Interdisciplinary Studies 250; Politics s49; Psychology 218; or Sociology 205. Normally offered every year. Staff.

ENVR 457. Senior Thesis.

This course involves research for and writing of the senior thesis, under the direction of a faculty advisor, and participation in a weekly seminar with other environmental studies seniors under the supervision of an environmental studies faculty member. The seminar supplements students' one-on-one work with their advisor and provides a space for students to learn about each other's work. Guidelines for the thesis are published on the program website and are available from the program chair. Students register for Environmental Studies 457 in the fall semester and for Environmental Studies 458 in the winter semester. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
Interdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ENVR 457, 458. Senior Thesis.

This course involves research for and writing of the senior thesis, under the direction of a faculty advisor, and participation in a weekly seminar with other environmental studies seniors under the supervision of an environmental studies faculty member. The seminar supplements students' one-on-one work with their advisor and provides a space for students to learn about each other's work. Guidelines for the thesis are published on the program website and are available from the program chair. Students register for Environmental Studies 457 in the fall semester and for Environmental Studies 458 in the winter semester. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
Interdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ENVR 458. Senior Thesis.

This course involves research for and writing of the senior thesis, under the direction of a faculty advisor, and participation in a weekly seminar with other environmental studies seniors under the supervision of an environmental studies faculty member. The seminar supplements students' one-on-one work with their advisor and provides a space for students to learn about each other's work. Guidelines for the thesis are published on the program website and are available from the program chair. Students register for Environmental Studies 457 in the fall semester and for Environmental Studies 458 in the winter semester. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
Interdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

Short Term Courses

AV/ES s15. Photographing the Landscape.

The course provides a context for studying and analyzing images of the landscape by viewing and discussing historic and contemporary landscape photographs. Questions considered include the role of the sublime in current landscape photography, beauty as a strategy for persuasion, perceptions of "natural" versus "artificial," and contemporary approaches in trying to affect environmental change. Students explore the depiction of the landscape by producing their own work, using "pinhole," black-and-white film, or digital photography. Recommended background: Art and Visual Culture 218 or 219. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 12. Normally offered every other year. E. Morris.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

INDS s17. Wake Up!.

The course weds academic inquiry with a rigorous experiential journey to self-awareness, nature, and social engagement. It pursues four interrelated avenues of inquiry: small seminar examination of texts to provide historical, cultural, and philosophical context (German literature, New England transcendentalism, native peoples, Zen and engaged Buddhism, deep ecology); outdoor experiential activities; a week-long meditation retreat; and a week in the wilderness. Papers in response to readings, journalling, and a student-designed project are required. Two weeks are spent off campus. Cross-listed in environmental studies, German, and religious studies. Conducted in English. Enrollment limited to 12. Instructor permission is required. D. Sweet.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ES/RU s20. Environment and Culture in Russia.

This course introduces a broad range of environmental issues in contemporary Russia and invites students to consider those issues in cultural and historical context. Students spend three and one-half weeks at different locations in European Russia and the Urals, visiting sites ranging from privatized farms and peasant markets to industrial centers and conservation areas. A period of intensive preparation at Bates is followed by visits and conversations in Russia that acquaint students with ecologists, activists, governmental officials, and ordinary Russian citizens. Recommended background: one course in Russian studies or environmental studies. Enrollment limited to 12. Instructor permission is required. J. Costlow.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ENVR s23. Sustainable Food.

This course introduces students to the terminology, concepts, and ethics of sustainable food. Sustainable food is produced, transported, and eaten in a way that meets our present needs while ensuring future generations can enjoy this type of food. Conventional and alternative food production, marketing, and consumption systems are contrasted. Weekly student discussions focus on recent sustainable food literature. Three field trips provide an opportunity for students to learn more about sustainable food systems, integrate concepts, and provide data for projects. Student projects develop a multi-criteria decision analysis tool to compare the relative economic, environmental, and cultural sustainability of a food of their choice. Enrollment limited to 15. Staff.

ENVR s28. Contemporary Maine Environmental Issues.

This field research course gives students an opportunity to explore important local environmental issues and to begin the development of social science field research skills. Student research focuses on identifying relevant stakeholders and describing relations between stakeholders in terms of a specific environmental issue. Examples of relevant issues include, but are not limited to, urban planning and sprawl, wildlife management, impacts of recreational use, water quality, and brownfields redevelopment. During the first week the course introduces students to topics and research methods. Student groups then undertake research under the supervision of the instructor. Research results and methodological lessons learned occupy the last week. Prerequisite(s): Environmental Studies 204. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 15. Instructor permission is required. Staff.
Interdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

EC/ES s30. Visualizing Environmental Justice Using GIS.

This course offers experience with spatial environmental and economic analysis by using geographical information systems technology (GIS) to explore case studies on environmental and social change. Topics in environmental justice such as hazardous waste facility sitings, urban density, poverty, disaster management, and others are examined. Students use mapping technology and available data sources including census and landuse data to learn to apply visual technology for economic analysis. They study how the visualization and presentation of data can inform economic decision making and policy making. Prerequisite(s): Economics 101 or 103 and 250. Enrollment limited to 20. L. Lewis.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

EC/ES s33. Valuation of Human-Altered Ecosystems.

How is the value of an ecosystem altered by human development? Answering this question requires an understanding of both economics and ecosystem structure and function. In this interdisciplinary course, students explore the structure and function of ecosystems before and after human modification and the relationship of these characteristics to their economic value. Students focus on river systems in Maine from source to sea. This course involves many day trips and two longer trips off campus. Prerequisite(s): Environmental Studies 203 or Economics 222. Enrollment limited to 12. Instructor permission is required. H. Ewing, L. Lewis.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ES/GE s37. Introduction to Hydrogeology.

Hydrogeology is the study of the interactions between water and earth materials and processes. This course uses hydrogeology as a disciplinary framework for learning about groundwater processes, contamination, supply, use, and management. Students are engaged in class research projects along the Maine coast and within the Androscoggin River basin. Field and laboratory methods are learned in the context of these projects for determining groundwater flow and aquifer properties, collecting samples, and analyzing water quality. The final research project is both written and presented to the College community. Prerequisite(s): any 100-level geology course or Environmental Studies 203. Enrollment limited to 16. [S] [L] [Q] B. Johnson.
Concentrations

ENVR s38. Field Methods in Environmental Science.

Evaluating environmental problems often requires the collection of air, water, or soil samples from field sites. Knowing how to gather information and samples and how to be sure that they help address the questions at hand is challenging. In this course, students consider approaches for matching sampling design to study objectives, dealing with spatial and temporal heterogeneity in field materials, utilizing previously published approaches, insuring utility of data, and replication of studies. Students design and carry out their own study utilizing approaches learned in class. A one-week stay off campus at a field site may be required. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: Biology 101, 125, Biology/Geology 112; Chemistry 107A, 107B; Environmental Studies 203; or Geology 103. Recommended background: a second of the prerequisite courses. Enrollment limited to 18. [L] H. Ewing.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ENVR s46. Internship in Environmental Studies.

Projects may include hands-on conservation work, environmental education, environmental research, political advocacy, environmental law, or other areas related to environmental questions. Specific arrangement and prior approval of the Committee on Environmental Studies is required. Instructor permission is required. Normally offered every year. Staff.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ENVR s50. Independent Study.

Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study during a Short Term. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every year. Staff.