background

Classical and Medieval Studies

Professors Jones (History), Corrie (Art and Visual Culture), and O'Higgins (Classical and Medieval Studies); Associate Professors Imber (Classical and Medieval Studies; co-chair), Maurizio (Classical and Medieval Studies), Baker (Religious Studies), and Federico (English); Visiting Assistant Professor Lexton (English); Senior Lecturer Walker (Classical and Medieval Studies; co-chair); Lecturers Hayward (Classical and Medieval Studies), Bigelow (History), and Larson (Religious Studies)

The Program in Classical and Medieval Studies combines a uniquely interdisciplinary study of cultural history with an emphasis on empowering students themselves to read and assess texts in the relevant ancient languages. The program is distinctive in linking the study of classical antiquity with that of the medieval worlds and distinctive in its geographic scope. It embraces as classical antiquity the ancient Mediterranean as a whole, including North Africa, Crete, and Sicily, as well as the many cultures that composed "Greece" and "Rome." The medieval world includes Islamic and Viking civilizations as well as the great cathedral builders of northern Europe and the full extent of the Byzantine Empire and its border states. Students are encouraged to study abroad in selected programs in order to appreciate the material aspects of these diverse cultures. The program aims to be truly interdisciplinary, integrating the perspectives of history, literature, philosophy, religion, the environmental sciences, art, architecture, archaeology, and other material culture.

More information on the classical and medieval studies program is available on the website (www.bates.edu/CMS.xml).

Major Requirements. Within this interdisciplinary major students may elect to concentrate in either classical studies or medieval studies. The major requires twelve courses, and may include a Short Term course.

1) Two of the following courses: Classical and Medieval Studies/History 100, 102, 106, 108, 109; Art and Visual Culture/Classical and Medieval Studies 252.

2) Four courses in Latin or four courses in Greek to be taken at Bates or through other authorized College programs.

3) Five additional courses selected from classical and medieval studies and the list below. First-Year Seminars taught by the faculty in classical and medieval studies may count toward the major, with the approval of the chair.

4) A one-semester senior thesis, Classical and Medieval Studies 457 or 458. Thesis advisors are chosen by the chair of the program in consultation with the students, according to thesis subject.

Pass/Fail Grading Option. Pass/fail grading may not be elected for the ancient language courses required for the major.

Additional Courses

The following courses, described under their departmental listings, may be applied to the major.

AN/RE 225. Gods, Heroes, Magic, and Mysteries: Religion in Ancient Greece.

REL 242. History of Christian Thought II: The Emergence of Modernity.

SPAN 240. Loco amor/buen amor.

Courses

CM/HI 100. Introduction to the Ancient World.This course introduces the Greco-Roman world, and serves as a useful basis for 200- and 300-level courses in classical civilization. Within a general chronological framework students consider the ancient world under a series of headings: religion, philosophy, art, education, literature, social life, politics, and law. The survey begins with Bronze Age Crete and Mycenae and ends with the first century B.C.E., as Rome makes its presence felt in the Mediterranean and moves toward empire. Enrollment limited to 60. (European.) (Premodern.) [W2] D. O'Higgins. Concentrations

CM/HI 102. Medieval Europe.Far from being an "enormous hiccup" in human progress, the medieval centuries (circa 350–1350) marked the full emergence of Islamic, Byzantine, and West European civilizations. These powerful medieval cultures shape our present. The central theme of this introductory survey course is the genesis and development of a distinct Western European medieval civilization including its social, economic, political, and cultural aspects. Important topics include the devolution of the Roman Empire; the Christianization of the West; the origins of the Byzantine world; the rise of Islam; and the history of medieval women. Enrollment limited to 48. (European.) (Premodern.) Normally offered every year. M. Jones. Concentrations

CM/HI 106. Greek Civilization.This course considers 1) the archaic civilization of Homer, a poet celebrating the heroes of an aristocratic and personal world; 2) the classical civilization of Aeschylus, Sophocles, Aristophanes, and Phidias, the dramatists and sculptor of a democratic and political Athens; 3) the synthesis of Plato, celebrating the hero Socrates and attempting to preserve and promote aristocratic values in a political world. (European.) (Premodern.) Normally offered every year. J. Cole. Concentrations

CM/HI 108. Roman Civilization: The Republic.In this course students explore the civilization and history of ancient Rome from the foundation of the Republic around 510 B.C.E. until its collapse in civil war and its transformation into a monarchy under Julius Caesar and his nephew, Octavian. Each week the class convenes for lectures devoted to the political, social, and cultural history of the Republic. In addition, students meet once a week to discuss in detail primary sources for the period. Not open to students who have received credit for Classical and Medieval Studies/History 107. Enrollment limited to 60. (European.) (Premodern.) M. Imber. Concentrations

CM/HI 109. Roman Civilization: The Empire.In this course students examine the civilization and history of ancient Rome from the Principate, the monarchy established by Octavian in 27 B.C.E., until the end of Justinian's dynasty at the beginning of the seventh century of the Common Era. Each week the class convenes for lectures devoted to the political, social, and cultural history of the Empire. In addition, students meet once a week to discuss in detail primary sources for the period. Recommended background: Classical and Medieval Studies/History 107. Enrollment limited to 60. (European.) (Premodern.) M. Imber. Concentrations

CM/EN 111. The Lord of the Rings in Context.This course examines J. R. R. Tolkien's Lord of the Rings trilogy in a variety of contexts, including its sources, inspirations, uses, and audiences. Particular attention is paid to Tolkien's creative process and academic background, along with a focus on how Tolkien's books and Peter Jackson's films reinforce each other as modern cultural phenomena. Enrollment limited to 50. [W1] S. Federico. Concentrations

CM/EN 121D. The Many Lives of King Arthur.King Arthur is called the "once and future king," but this malleable, mythic figure in some sense always lives in the present time. Approaching Arthur as an idea as much as a man, students analyze the ways in which the Arthur story has been adapted for different literary, social, and political purposes according to the needs and desires of its changing audience. They explore the features of the Arthurian legend which make it universally compelling, including feudal loyalty and kinship, women and marriage, questing and adventure, magic and monsters, violence and warfare, and consider the fierce debate over Arthur's historical and mythical origins. Enrollment limited to 25. S. Federico. Concentrations

INDS 130. Food in Ancient Greece and Rome. Participants in this course study food in ancient Greece and Rome: the history of the food supply for agrarian and urban populations; malnutrition, its probable impact on ancient economies, and its uneven impact on populations; famine; the symbolism of the heroic banquet—a division of the sacrificial animal among ranked members of society, and between men and gods; cuisine and delicacies of the rich; forbidden food; the respective roles of men and women in food production, and their unequal access to food supply; dietary transgression; and sacred food. Cross-listed in classical and medieval studies, history, and women and gender studies. Not open to students who have received credit for Classical and Medieval Studies s28. Enrollment limited to 60. (European.) (Premodern.) D. O'Higgins. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

CMS 200. Ancient Comedy and Satire.Students read (in translation) the comic poets and satirists of Greece and Rome and investigate the nature and social context of ancient humor, satire, and invective. Authors include Homer, Hesiod, Archilochus, Semonides, Aristophanes, Menander, Terence, Horace, Seneca, and Petronius. Recommended background: Classical and Medieval Studies 100. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 60. [W2] D. O'Higgins. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

CMS 202. Greek Tragedy.This course introduces students to fifth-century Athenian tragedies in English translation. The plays form the primary focus of the course, but there are many related topics of discussion: the origin of tragedy and its religious significance, its political context and content, tragedy's audience and affective power, tragedy's self-conscious relationship with epic and lyric. Students also read and discuss a representative selection of modern criticism on Greek tragedy. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 60. [W2] H. Walker. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

CM/HI 203. Great Wars of Greek Antiquity.Much of the perennial appeal of the history of the Persian Wars and the Peloponnesian War lies in storied confrontations of East and West, empire and freedom, rise and fall, folly and intelligence, war and peace, victory and defeat. More of the interest for the reflective student lies in the critical use of the classical sources, especially Herodotus and Thucydides, and in the necessary qualification of those too-simple polarities, East/West, empire/freedom, rise/fall, folly/intelligence, war/peace, victory/defeat, and, of course, good/bad. Enrollment limited to 40. (European.) (Premodern.) J. R. Cole. Concentrations

CM/WS 204. Gender and the Body in Ancient Greece.How did people in ancient Greece think about the categories of male and female? How did these categories intersect with others, such as social status, age, and ethnicity? This course considers issues of gender in archaic and classical Greece and looks at how Greek men and women thought about the body, sexuality, and "transgressive" behavior and individuals. Students analyze literary texts (in translation) as well as medical, religious, and legal evidence—inscriptional and textual—and modern scholarship. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 35. D. O'Higgins. Concentrations

CMS 205. Two Thousand Years of Classical Myth.Using Ovid's Metamorphoses as a foundation, this course traces (in English) some of the many versions of Greco-Roman myths through medieval, Renaissance, and modern times, in Europe and the Americas, primarily in literary reworkings, but including some examples from art and music as well. Reading portions of Ovid in the original language is encouraged for students with one or more years of Latin. Not open to students who have received credit for Classical and Medieval Studies s18. Enrollment limited to 30. T. Hayward. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

CM/EN 206. Chaucer.Reading and interpretation of Chaucer's major works, including The Canterbury Tales. All works are read in Middle English. Prerequisite(s): one 100-level English course. Not open to students who have received credit for English 206. Enrollment limited to 25. (Pre-1800.) [W2] Normally offered every year. S. Federico. Concentrations

CM/HI 207. The Roman World and Roman Britain.The Roman Empire is famous for its decline and fall. Stretching from the Euphrates to the Atlantic, however, this remarkable multiethnic empire persisted for 500 years. Its story is a fascinating example of what Theodore Mommsen tagged the moral problem of "the struggle of necessity and liberty." This course is a study of the unifying and fragmenting forces at work on the social, economic, and political structures of the Roman imperial world. Key themes include the western provinces and Roman Britain, the effects of Romanization on conquered peoples, and the rise of Christianity. The survey begins with the reign of Augustus and concludes with the barbarian invasions of the fifth century. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. (European.) (Premodern.) M. Jones. Concentrations

INDS 208. Introduction to Medieval Archaeology.The Middle Ages were a time of major cultural changes that laid the groundwork for Northwest Europe's emergence as a global center of political and economic power in subsequent centuries. However, many aspects of life in the period from 1000 to 1500 C.E. were unrecorded in contemporary documents and art, and archaeology has become an important tool for recovering that information. This course introduces the interdisciplinary methods and the findings of archaeological studies of topics including medieval urban and rural lifeways, health, commerce, religion, social hierarchy, warfare, and the effects of global climate change. Cross-listed in anthropology, classical and medieval studies, environmental studies, and history. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. (Premodern.) G. Bigelow. Concentrations

CM/HI 209. Vikings.The Vikings were the most feared and perhaps misunderstood people of their day. Savage raiders branded as the Antichrist by their Christian victims, the Vikings were also the most successful traders and explorers of the early Middle Ages. The Viking Age lasted for three centuries (800–1100 C.E.), and the Vikings' world stretched from Russia to North America. Study of the myth and reality of Viking culture involves materials drawn from history, archaeology, mythology, and literature. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. (European.) (Premodern.) M. Jones. Concentrations

CM/RE 218. Greek and Roman Myths.Did the Greeks and Romans believe their myths about winged horses, goddesses, and golden apples? How are myths related to the religious, political, and social world of Greece and Rome? This course examines Greek and Roman myths from a variety of theoretical perspectives in order to understand their meaning in the ancient world and their enduring influence in Western literature and art. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 60. L. Maurizio. Concentrations

CM/RE 236. Introduction to the New Testament.Readings in the New Testament and related Greek and early Christian literature. Studies of the gospels include investigation into the nature of the early Jesus movement and Jesus' place in the Judaism of his day, the interpretation of Jesus' teaching in the context of Roman-occupied Palestine, and the growth of the Jesus tradition in the early Church. Topics such as the diversity of ideas about salvation, influence of Greco-Roman religious thought, the place of women in the early Church, the break between Christianity and Judaism, and the formation of the early Church in its first century are covered in the study of the New Testament epistles (emphasis on the apostle Paul's epistles) and the book of Revelation. Not open to students who have received credit for Religious Studies 236. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. C. Baker. Concentrations

CM/RE 238. Inventing Judaism in Antiquity.The millennium between 500 B.C.E. and 500 C.E. saw the gradual invention of a culture that has come to be known as Judaism. This course introduces the significant historical events and texts that were part of this cultural process, as well as the daily practices, institutions, ideologies, and movements associated with it. The approach is both historical and thematic with close reading of archaeological and written sources including texts from the Dead Sea Scrolls, New Testament (substantially authored by Jews), later Hebrew Bible and Apocrypha, Philo, Josephus, and the early rabbinic corpus. Topics include biblical interpretation; creation, adaptation, and transmission of traditions; identity and self-definition; accommodation and resistance; sectarianism and the invention of Jewish and Christian orthodoxies; theories about messiahs, afterlife, and a world-to-come. Not open to students who have received credit for Religious Studies 238. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. C. Baker. Concentrations

CM/RE 240. History of Christianity I: Conflict, Self-Definition, and Dominance.This course is a study of the convictions, controversies, and conflicts by which an egalitarian Jewish revitalization movement in Palestine became a worldwide religion. Students follow Christianity's development from martyrdom and persecution to a state-sponsored religion of the Roman Empire, from internal heresy and schism to the "One Great Holy and Apostolic Catholic Church." Special attention is given to regional diversity and the changing place of women in the church. Not open to students who have received credit for Religious Studies 241. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. C. Baker. Concentrations

AV/CM 241. The Art of Islam.Art of the Islamic world from its roots in the ancient Near East to the flowering of Safavid Persia and Mughal India in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries. Developments are traced through architecture, painting, ceramics, textiles, and metalwork. Consideration is given to the continuity of the Near Eastern artistic tradition and Islamic art in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 50. [W2] R. Corrie. Concentrations

AV/CM 251. The Age of the Cathedrals.An investigation of medieval architecture from the Early Christian era to the end of the Gothic period in Europe, including Russia and the Byzantine East. Emphasis is placed on the development of Christian architecture and the emergence of the Gothic cathedral in the context of European political and social history before 1500. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 49. [W2] R. Corrie. Concentrations

AV/CM 252. Art of the Middle Ages.In Europe from the Early Christian era to the end of the Gothic age, from 300 to 1450 C.E., precious objects, manuscripts, wall paintings, and stained glass were produced in great quantities. The course traces the development of these and other media, including tapestry and sculpture. The roles of liturgy, theology, and technological and social changes are stressed. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 50. [W2] R. Corrie. Concentrations

CM/HI 253. Introduction to Roman Law.This course introduces students to the Roman legal system, as a process, a source of substantive law, and the origin of a particular kind of reasoning in the West. The course concentrates on a specific area of Roman law: either delict (akin to torts in the American legal system), family law, or criminal law. Teaching is mainly by the case law method used in law schools. Students spend a third of their time preparing for and participating in a mock trial that concludes the course. Recommended background: Classical and Medieval Studies 108 or 109. Enrollment limited to 40. (Premodern.) M. Imber. Concentrations

CM/EN 257. Literature of Dissent, 1350–1420.This course examines literary texts engaged with the dramatic social and political upheavals which transformed late medieval England. Authors such as Chaucer, Langland, and Gower witnessed the ravages of the Black Death, the Hundred Years War, the Peasants' Revolt of 1381, the tyranny and deposition of Richard II, and religious repression. Students explore how these writers and others walked the fine line between offering topical commentary and avoiding radicalism in the context of plague, rebellion, war, usurpation, treason, heresy, and outlawry. They consider what forms that literary protest took and ask whether literature itself became a symbol of dissent. Finally, students investigate the implications of "the literature of dissent" as a category for the Middle Ages and for our own time. Prerequisite(s): one 100-level English course. Enrollment limited to 25. (Pre-1800.) One-time offering. R. Lexton. Concentrations

AV/CM 265. Florence to Bruges: The Early Renaissance in Europe.This course investigates the art and architecture of Northern and Southern Europe between 1250 and 1450. Students analyze the impact of theology, liturgy, social change, urbanism, gender, and social class on visual culture. Artists considered include Cimabue, Duccio, Giotto, Fra Angelico, Donatello, Brunelleschi, Jan van Eyck, and Rogier van der Weyden. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. [W2] R. Corrie. Concentrations

CM/RE 268. Religion and Politics in Three Medieval Traditions.This course compares three conceptions of the relationship between religion and politics in three medieval traditions —Judaism, Christianity, and Islam—through a careful examination of representatives from each: Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon /Maimonides, Thomas Aquinas, and Ibn Rushd/Averro√ęs. Drawing on recent work in the field of comparative religious ethics, this course utilizes tools and techniques from comparative study of religion to illuminate the intersection or religion and politics in its varied complexity. Enrollment limited to 40. Staff. Concentrations

CM/PL 271. Ancient Greek Philosophy.A study of the basic philosophical ideas underlying Western thought as these are expressed in the writings of the Pre-Socratics, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. Greek thought is discussed in its historical and social context, with indications of how important Greek ideas were developed in later centuries. Not open to students who have received credit for Philosophy 271. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. Normally offered every year. S. Stark. Concentrations

CMS 360. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study per semester. Normally offered every semester. Staff. Interdisciplinary Programs.

AV/CM 376. Seminar in Medieval and Renaissance Art.This seminar examines the visual culture of Europe and the Mediterranean basin in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. In different years the seminar focuses on specific subjects, which may include manuscript illumination, regional architecture, Crusader art, and medieval urbanism. Concentrations

AV/CM 376C. Siena: Art and Social Memory.At the height of its power Siena, Italy, bankrolled much of Europe and from 1250 to 1450 produced images that influenced painting from England to the Islamic world. Studying the work of Sienese artists including Duccio, Simone Martini, and the Lorenzetti, this course investigates the ties between visual culture (including sculpture and architecture) and politics, economics, religion, urban structure, and social identity. Recommended background: at least one 200-level course in the history of art and visual culture or the equivalent, or a course in medieval or Renaissance history. Enrollment limited to 15. [W2] R. Corrie. Concentrations

CM/HI 390D. Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.Edward Gibbon's classic Decline and Fall is the most famous work of history written in English. This course uses it as an introduction to the problem of the collapse of complex, premodern societies and specifically the end of the Roman West. Changing historical explanations for the fall of Rome are a microcosm of Western historiography. Students also explore basic questions on the nature of history and historians. Enrollment limited to 15. Instructor permission is required. (European.) (Premodern.) [W2] M. Jones. Concentrations

CM/HI 390I. Anglo-Saxon England.This seminar concentrates on Dark Age Britain (circa 400–800 C.E.). This period is a mystery wrapped in an enigma. Ignorance and obscurity offer one advantage to students: the sources are so few that they may be explored in a single semester. The course is designed to present typical kinds of early medieval evidence (saints' lives, chronicles, annals, charters, poetry, genealogy, archaeology), introduce students to their potentials and difficulties, and then set a series of problems that requires application of these materials to gain an answer. Enrollment limited to 15. Instructor permission is required. (European.) (Premodern.) [W2] M. Jones. Concentrations

CM/HI 390J. Law and Society in Ancient Rome.This research seminar introduces students to the range of academic skills necessary to conduct research and write scholarly papers on topics in ancient Roman law. In addition to considering the actual substance and procedures of Roman law, students explore different methodologies that consider Roman law and the relationship of Roman law to the historical and social contexts in which Roman law evolved. Prerequisite(s): Classical and Medieval Studies/History 100, 102, 108, or 109. Enrollment limited to 15. [W2] M. Imber. Concentrations

CM/EN 395E. Medieval Romance.Romance was the most popular literary genre of the later Middle Ages. Originating in France in the twelfth century, this highly adaptable form quickly became an international phenomenon, with numerous examples found across Europe and the British Isles. Many romances tell tales of amorous exploits, exotic travels, and quests for knowledge; the celebration of chivalric ideals is a central theme. But many of these tales seem to question and sometimes undermine the very ideals they otherwise espouse: courtly love mingles with sexual adventurism, for instance, and loyalty to one's lord often results in alienation or death. Students read a selection of romances from France and Britain (all texts are in modern English translation or manageable Middle English) with an eye toward how they variously articulate and deconstruct the notion of chivalry. Prerequisite(s): one English course. Enrollment limited to 15. Instructor permission is required. (Pre-1800.) [W2] S. Federico. Concentrations

CM/EN 395H. Medieval Chivalry.This course examines the many vocabularies of chivalry that arose during the Western High Middle Ages (1100-1500), a period of profound cultural change. In response to shifts in marriage and property customs, the papal schism, the Black Death, social rebellions, and civil wars, texts produced in the age of chivalry feature pointed representations of aristocrats and peasants, courtly ladies and prostitutes, crusaders and heathens, not to mention tournaments, treason, weaponry, and outlawry. These timely and sensitive topics appear in such varied genres as romances, court poetry, courtesy literature, letters, legal documents, city charters, and conduct books. Enrollment limited to 15. Instructor permission is required. (Pre-1800.) [W2] S. Federico. Concentrations

CM/EN 395R. Gender Issues in Medieval Literature.The most popular forms of literature in the Middle Ages, including chivalric epic, courtly romance, hagiography, and fabliaux, work from specific assumptions regarding normative gender roles. The qualities of a perfect knight, for example, include certain types of gendered behavior, including casual promiscuity with women and an appetite for violence with men. This course examines literary representations of medieval gender roles in relation both to their origins (often in Church teachings) and their manifestations in the social world. Students read a number of late medieval poems, prose treatises, and excerpts from legal and theological documents. Readings are in manageable Middle English or in Modern English translation. Prerequisite(s): one English course. Enrollment limited to 15. Instructor permission is required. (Pre-1800.) [W2] S. Federico. Concentrations

CMS 457. Senior Thesis.Required of all majors. The research and writing of an extended essay in classical and medieval studies, following the established practices of the field, under the guidance of a supervisor in the classical and medieval studies program. Students register for Classical and Medieval Studies 457 in the fall semester and for Classical and Medieval Studies 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both Classical and Medieval Studies 457 and 458. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff. Interdisciplinary Programs.

CMS 457, 458. Senior Thesis.Required of all majors. The research and writing of an extended essay in classical and medieval studies, following the established practices of the field, under the guidance of a supervisor in the classical and medieval studies program. Students register for Classical and Medieval Studies 457 in the fall semester and for Classical and Medieval Studies 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both Classical and Medieval Studies 457 and 458. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff. Interdisciplinary Programs.

CMS 458. Senior Thesis.Required of all majors. The research and writing of an extended essay in classical and medieval studies, following the established practices of the field, under the guidance of a supervisor in the classical and medieval studies program. Students register for Classical and Medieval Studies 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both Classical and Medieval Studies 457 and 458. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.

Short Term Courses

CM/RE s15. Lost and Rejected Gospels.Discoveries of "apocryphal gospels" — some only in the last few years — have uncovered lost traditions and beliefs of the early church, illuminating the complex process by which early medieval orthodox Christianity emerged from earlier diversity. Early Christians held widely divergent views of Jesus, the apostles, and other early leaders—traditions that were lost in the emerging orthodoxy. Who were these early leaders? How did they come to be perceived so differently? Why were so many of these ideas suppressed? Readings consist of several apocryphal gospels, including those of Thomas, Peter, Judas, and Mary, and several canonical Gospels for comparison. Staff. Concentrations

CMS s17. Readings in the Odyssey of Homer.The Odyssey has proved an inspiring and inexhaustible text over the centuries. This course explores the poem in detail, examining its cultural and literary context and considering modern approaches to this most enigmatic text. The course is taught in English, but students who have completed one or more years of ancient Greek are encouraged to read sections in Greek, and learn how to "perform" the poetry. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 15. Staff. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

AV/CM s23. Ancient Egypt: Abydos to Meroe.This course surveys the art and architecture of ancient Egypt, with attention given to topics including women in ancient Egypt, the Kingdom of Kush, and the ancient Near East. The history of archaeology and current developments in Egyptian archaeology are also considered. Some day trips are planned. Not open to students who have received credit for Art and Visual Culture/Classical and Medieval Studies 232. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. [W2] R. Corrie. Concentrations

INDS s24. Shetland Islands: Archaeological Field Course.The main element of this unit is the excavation of a late medieval/early modern farmstead at Brow, Shetland (Scotland). Early settlement in Shetland was on the margin of successful medieval colonization of the North Atlantic. The Brow site is a revealing "laboratory" in which to explore the interaction of climate change and human settlement in a fragile coastal zone. A series of field trips in mainland Scotland place the Brow excavation in the wider context of settlement, environment, archaeology, and the history of Scotland and the North Atlantic. Recommended background: courses in medieval history or archaeology. Cross-listed in classical and medieval studies, environmental studies, and history. Enrollment limited to 10. Instructor permission is required. (Premodern.) M. Jones. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

CM/EN s33. Screening the Middle Ages.This course examines cinematic representations of the Middle Ages, focusing especially on the cultural energies that produce certain visions of the past. The films offer an opportunity to reflect on how our various modern designs on (and desires for) the medieval illuminate the present as much as they animate the past. Students read selections from medieval history and poetry (in translation or manageable Middle English) in conjunction with daily viewings and written assignments; secondary readings are drawn from modern and postmodern film criticism and theory. Enrollment limited to 30. S. Federico. Concentrations

CMS s50. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study during a Short Term. Normally offered every year. Staff. Interdisciplinary Programs.

Greek
Latin

Greek and Latin

The study of Greek and Latin language is an important component of the major in classical and medieval studies. Ancient languages are the royal road to a complicated and vital past which, for better or worse, still haunts our present. In addition, the study of Greek and Latin language has practical and professional benefits. Graduate programs in English and modern languages, for example, frequently require reading knowledge of either Greek or Latin, and professional programs in law and medicine often favor applicants who have studied an ancient language. Studying either Greek or Latin not only offers insight into English vocabulary but also leads to understanding how languages work and hence to improving one's own writing skills and logical thinking.

Courses at the 200 and 300 levels have been created for second-, third-, and fourth-year students. Students who have had only one year of college-level Greek or Latin at Bates or the equivalent at another institution should register for the 200-level course. All other students should register for the 300-level course. During some semesters, second-year students may meet separately from upper-division students. In other semesters, students meet collectively for two of three classes per week and divide into smaller groups to accommodate their individual needs. All courses focus on improving language skills (developing vocabulary, increasing reading comprehension, and learning meter if appropriate) as well as exploring the historical context of the author(s) studied.

Minor. A minor in Greek or Latin requires a minimum of six courses in Greek or Latin and one course in translation chosen from the following: Classical and Medieval Studies/History 100, 102, 106, 108; Art and Visual Culture/Classical and Medieval Studies 252. A student may petition to have up to three comparable courses, completed at institutions either in the United States or abroad, apply toward the minor. Majors in classical and medieval studies may pursue a minor only in the ancient language not used to fulfill their major requirements.

Greek Courses

Courses

GRK 101. Elementary Ancient Greek.The objective of the course is to begin a study of classical Greek as a foundation for upper-level reading courses. It covers the basics of grammar, syntax, and vocabulary building. Students learn to read Greek sentences and passages and to translate from English into Greek. During the early stage much learning by rote of forms and rules is necessary, but students find that Greek is a structured and beautiful language, and the pleasure of reading "in the original" is inestimable. Normally offered every year. D. O'Higgins, Staff. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

GRK 101-102. Elementary Ancient Greek.The objective of the course is to begin a study of classical Greek as a foundation for upper-level reading courses. It covers the basics of grammar, syntax, and vocabulary building. Students learn to read Greek sentences and passages and to translate from English into Greek. During the early stage much learning by rote of forms and rules is necessary, but students find that Greek is a structured and beautiful language, and the pleasure of reading "in the original" is inestimable. Normally offered every year. D. O'Higgins, Staff. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

GRK 102. Elementary Ancient Greek.The objective of the course is to begin a study of classical Greek as a foundation for upper-level reading courses. It covers the basics of grammar, syntax, and vocabulary building. Students learn to read Greek sentences and passages and to translate from English into Greek. During the early stage much learning by rote of forms and rules is necessary, but students find that Greek is a structured and beautiful language, and the pleasure of reading "in the original" is inestimable. Normally offered every year. Staff. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

GRK 201. Classical Prose.Called the "age of enlightenment," classical Greece witnessed the invention of democracy, philosophy, and medicine, to name but a few. Students read Plato, Thucydides, Demosthenes, or Lysias in order to understand how and why the Greeks created these disciplines and institutions. Prerequisite(s): Greek 101 and 102. Open to first-year students. Staff. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

GRK 202. Classical Poetry.From Oedipus' self-blinding to the trial of a cheese grater, Athenian tragedies and comedies portray the human condition and the Athenian political world. Students read the works of the comedians, Aristophanes and Menander, and the tragic poets, Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, who dramatized and satirized the human condition. Prerequisite(s): Greek 101 and 102. Open to first-year students. Staff. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

GRK 203. Prose about Archaic Greece.As the population exploded in archaic Greece, so did political, social, religious, and cultural institutions. The Persians invaded Greece, the Olympics were inaugurated, tyrants were overthrown, and law courts invented. Students examine these momentous events in archaic authors such as Herodotus and Antiphon or in later writers such as Plutarch and Pausanias. Prerequisite(s): Greek 101 and 102. Open to first-year students. Staff. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

GRK 204. Poetry from Archaic Greece.Homer sang about Troy's destruction and Odysseus' travels; Hesiod, about the birth of gods and his cheating brother. Sappho praised the power of Aphrodite; Alcaeus, the power of wine. Students explore how the poets in archaic Greece sang about their lives and their world. Prerequisite(s): Greek 101 and 102. Open to first-year students. Staff. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

GRK 301. Classical Prose: Advanced.This course covers the same material as Greek 201 but is designed for students who have completed two or more years of college-level Greek. Open to first-year students. Staff. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

GRK 302. Classical Poetry: Advanced.This course covers the same material as Greek 202 but is designed for students who have completed two or more years of college-level Greek. Open to first-year students. Staff. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

GRK 303. Prose about Archaic Greece: Advanced.This course covers the same material as Greek 203 but is designed for students who have completed two or more years of college-level Greek. Open to first-year students. Staff. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

GRK 304. Poetry from Archaic Greece: Advanced.This course covers the same material as Greek 204 but is designed for students who have completed two or more years of college-level Greek. Open to first-year students. Staff. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

GRK 360. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study per semester. Normally offered every semester. Staff. Interdisciplinary Programs.

Latin Courses

Courses

LATN 101. Elementary Latin.A humanistic introduction to classical Latin vocabulary, forms, and syntax, with special emphasis on reading the actual words of ancient authors. Relations to English grammar and etymology are stressed. The course concentrates on Latin-English translation, with some English-Latin composition. Latin 101 is not open to students with two or more years of Latin in secondary school. Normally offered every year. M. Imber. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

LATN 101-102. Elementary Latin.A humanistic introduction to classical Latin vocabulary, forms, and syntax, with special emphasis on reading the actual words of ancient authors. Relations to English grammar and etymology are stressed. The course concentrates on Latin-English translation, with some English-Latin composition. Latin 101 is not open to students with two or more years of Latin in secondary school. Normally offered every year. M. Imber. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

LATN 102. Elementary Latin.A humanistic introduction to classical Latin vocabulary, forms, and syntax, with special emphasis on reading the actual words of ancient authors. Relations to English grammar and etymology are stressed. Concentration on Latin-English translation, with some English-Latin composition. Latin 101 is not open to students with two or more years of Latin in secondary school. Normally offered every year. Staff. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

LATN 201. Prose of the Empire.The persecution of Christians, the eruption of Mount Vesuvius, and Nero's fiddle are topics of the diverse literature of the Roman Empire. Students read letters, philosophical treatises, histories, and novels from the likes of Tacitus, Seneca, Pliny, and Suetonius. Prerequisite(s): Latin 101 and 102. Open to first-year students. Staff. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

LATN 202. Poetry of the Empire.From Ovid's fables of women turning into trees to Lucan's descriptions of battles and Seneca's drama of Thyestes who feasts on his sons, the tumultuous events of the Roman Empire find strange expression in the poets who could not write openly about the cruelties of their emperors. Students read the works of Ovid, Seneca, Lucan, Statius, and Martial. Open to first-year students. Staff. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

LATN 203. Republican Prose.The Roman Republic was imagined to be the result of fratricide and rape. Caesar crossed the Rubicon and Cicero's hands and ears were cut off and then hung in the Forum. The course explores the social, political, and religious foundations as well as the violence of the Roman Republic through the eyes of authors such as Livy, Cato, Cicero, Sallust, and Caesar. Prerequisite(s): Latin 101 and 102. Open to first-year students. Staff. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

LATN 204. Republican Poetry.Why do slaves always have the leading roles in Roman comedy? Was Aeneas pious or power-hungry? Did Lesbia really have 300 lovers? The Roman Republic was explained, celebrated, criticized, and ignored in the works of its poets. The course answers why and how through a study of such writers as Plautus, Catullus, Virgil, and Horace. Prerequisite(s): Latin 101 and 102. Open to first-year students. Staff. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

LATN 301. Prose of the Empire: Advanced.This course covers the same material as Latin 201 but is designed for students who have completed two or more years of college-level Latin. Open to first-year students. Staff. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

LATN 302. Poetry of the Empire: Advanced.This course covers the same material as Latin 202 but is designed for students who have completed two or more years of college-level Latin. Open to first-year students. Staff. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

LATN 303. Republican Prose: Advanced.This course covers the same material as Latin 203 but is designed for students who have completed two or more years of college-level Latin. Open to first-year students. Staff. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

LATN 304. Republican Poetry: Advanced.This course covers the same material as Latin 204 but is designed for students who have completed two or more years of college-level Latin. Open to first-year students. Staff. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

LATN 360. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study per semester. Normally offered every semester. Staff. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

LATN 365. Special Topics.Designed for the small seminar group of students who may have particular interests in areas of study that go beyond the regular course offerings. Periodic conferences and papers are required. Instructor permission is required. Interdisciplinary Programs.

Short Term Courses

LATN s30. Medieval Latin.An intensive introduction to reading medieval Latin, from early to late periods in several genres. Prerequisite(s): Latin 102. Enrollment limited to 30. Instructor permission is required. T. Hayward.

LATN s50. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study during a Short Term. Normally offered every year. Staff. Interdisciplinary Programs.