Environmental Studies

Professors Wenzel (Chemistry), Costlow (Environmental Studies), Smedley (Physics), and Lewis (Economics); Associate Professors Sommer (Biology, chair) and Ewing (Environmental Studies); Assistant Professor Pieck (Environmental Studies); Visiting Instructor Gahl; Lecturers Parrish (Environmental Studies) and Beck (Environmental Studies)

Environmental studies encompasses a broad range of issues that arise from the interaction of humans with the natural world. To understand these issues, students must think across and beyond existing disciplinary boundaries. The environmental studies major provides a framework for students to examine how humans experience, investigate, and interact with their natural environment. The curriculum includes, first, an interdisciplinary core that encourages students to explore the social, aesthetic, ethical, scientific, and technical aspects of environmental questions, and second, a disciplinary-based major concentration that allows students to approach these questions with more focused knowledge and methodological tools. More information on the environmental studies program including the course requirements for each major concentration is available on the website (www.bates.edu/ENVR.xml).

Major Requirements. Students majoring in environmental studies must fulfill core requirements of five courses, a major concentration, a one- or two-semester thesis, and a 200-hour internship. Students may apply designated Short Term courses toward fulfilling their major requirements. It is recommended that students complete Environmental Studies 203, 204, and 205 as early as possible, preferably within their first two years. These courses are not open to seniors.

Students should note that there may be flexibility in requirements due to changes in the curriculum.

In addition to 203, 204, and 205, the environmental studies committee recommends that all students interested in environmental studies take a related course in biology, chemistry, physics, or geology during their first year. Chemistry/Environmental Studies 107B and 108B are designed specifically for students interested in environmental studies, and both are required for students choosing a major or concentration in the natural sciences.

Students interested in environmental education are advised to take a minor or General Education concentration in education in addition to their major in environmental studies. Students are encouraged to consider study abroad. However, the program reserves the right to restrict study abroad to one semester.

Core Requirements.
1) The following courses are required of all majors:

ENVR 203. Scientific Approaches to Environmental Issues.
ENVR 204. Environment and Society.
ENVR 205. Environment and Culture.
ENVR 417. Community-Engaged Research in Environmental Studies.
ENVR 457, 458. Senior Seminar and Thesis.

2) Each student must take at least one course from the following list, although there are restrictions depending on the student's major concentration. Students should consult the environmental studies website for information on which courses fulfill each concentration.

ENVR 227. Catastrophe and Hope.
ENVR 240. Water and Watersheds.
AN/ES 242. Environment, Human Rights, and Indigenous Peoples.
ENVR 310. Soils.
ENVR 334. The Question of the Animal.
AN/ES 337. Social Movements, NGOs, and the Environment.

The Major Concentration. Major concentrations focus on a particular aspect of environmental studies. Students interested in environmental studies should consult the program's website or a member of the environmental studies committee for more information regarding the content of these major concentrations. The major concentrations are:

Ecology.
The Environment and Human Culture.
Environmental Chemistry.
Environmental Economics.
Environmental Ethics.
Environmental Geology.
Environment in the Literary and Visual Arts.
Global Environment and Social Change.
Health.
Physics.
Regional Perspectives on Environment and Society.

The Thesis. All students must complete a one- or two-semester thesis. Theses must build in some significant way upon the courses that students take as part of their major concentration. Students write proposals for thesis in the winter semester of the junior year.

The Internship. Every student must complete a 200-hour internship in an environmentally oriented organization by the end of the fall semester of their senior year. Internships at academic research organizations, those requiring only physical labor, and those at summer camps are generally unacceptable.

Pass/Fail Grading Option. Pass/fail grading may not be elected for courses applied toward the major.

Courses
CH/ES 107B. Chemical Structure and Its Importance in the Environment.Fundamentals of atomic and molecular structure are developed with particular attention to how they relate to substances of interest in the environment. Periodicity, bonding, states of matter, and intermolecular forces are covered. The laboratory (three hours per week) involves a semester-long group investigation of a topic of environmental significance. Not open to students who have received credit for Chemistry 107A or First-Year Seminars 398. Enrollment limited to 60. [S] [L] [Q] Normally offered every year. T. Wenzel.
Concentrations
CH/ES 108B. Chemical Reactivity in Environmental Systems.A continuation of Chemistry/Environmental Studies 107B. Major topics include thermodynamics, kinetics, equilibrium, acid/base chemistry, and electrochemistry. Examples for course topics are drawn from aquatic chemistry and the chemistry of environmental health. The laboratory (three hours per week) analyzes the chemistry of marine environments. Prerequisite(s): Chemistry 107A, Chemistry/Environmental Studies 107B, or First-Year Seminar 398. Not open to students who have received credit for Chemistry 108A. Enrollment limited to 60. [S] [L] [Q] Normally offered every year. R. Austin.
Concentrations
ENVR 203. Scientific Approaches to Environmental Issues.An introduction to central concepts in environmental science—the function and interrelationship of physical, chemical, and biological systems—through the study of specific environmental issues. The laboratory links field studies of environmental systems to the scientific concepts and tools environmental scientists use. This course serves as the foundation for further study of environmental science at Bates. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. [S] [L] [Q] Normally offered every year. H. Ewing.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ENVR 204. Environment and Society.Environmental issues rarely have only physical dimensions. They most often also have social and political aspects. This course familiarizes students with some of the major social scientific contributions to understanding how and why environmental problems arise, how they are defined, and how different groups are affected by and respond to them. The course first outlines the contemporary world system in which environmental debates take place and then identifies drivers of environmental change. Students then apply these ideas to a variety of ongoing environmental controversies, including climate change, oil dependency, agriculture, urbanization, biodiversity conservation, pollution, and environmental justice. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every year. S. Pieck.
Interdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ENVR 205. Environment and Culture.What is nature? This course takes on that question in the spirit of broad, creative inquiry associated with the humanities. Students consider environmental, social, and cultural factors that shape how individuals and communities experience the "natural;" the role of nature in contemporary advertising and in environmental art; how animals function in evolving understandings of what is natural and what it means to be human; the role of pastoral and wilderness in shaping American visions of "'the way life should be," the role of artists, writers, and filmmakers in re-imagining human lives in place; and the complex intersections of technology and the natural. Readings and films draw on a variety of different cultural traditions, both within the United States and elsewhere, with significant focus on Lewiston, Maine, and understandings of the "local." Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every year. J. Costlow.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

INDS 208. Introduction to Medieval Archaeology.The Middle Ages were a time of major cultural changes that laid the groundwork for Northwest Europe's emergence as a global center of political and economic power in subsequent centuries. However, many aspects of life in the period from 1000 to 1500 C.E. were unrecorded in contemporary documents and art, and archaeology has become an important tool for recovering that information. This course introduces the interdisciplinary methods and the findings of archaeological studies of topics including medieval urban and rural lifeways, health, commerce, religion, social hierarchy, warfare, and the effects of global climate change. Cross-listed in anthropology, classical and medieval studies, environmental studies, and history. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. (Premodern.) G. Bigelow.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

INDS 211. Environmental Perspectives on U.S. History.This course explores the relationship between the North American environment and the development and expansion of the United States. Because Americans' efforts (both intentional and not) to define and shape the environment were rooted in their own struggles for power, environmental history offers an important perspective on the nation's social history. Specific topics include Europeans', Africans', and Indians' competing efforts to shape the colonial environment; the impact and changing understanding of disease; the relationship between industrial environments and political power; and the development of environmental movements. Cross-listed in American cultural studies, environmental studies, and history. Not open to students who have received credit for Environmental Studies/History 211. Not open to students who have received credit for ES/HI 211. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. (United States.) J. Hall.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ES/PL 214. Environmental Ethics.A study of selected issues in environmental ethics, including questions about population growth, resource consumption, pollution, the responsibilities of corporations, environmental justice, animal rights, biodiversity, and moral concern for the natural world. The course explores debates currently taking place among environmental thinkers regarding our moral obligations to other persons, to future generations, to other animals, and to ecosystems and the Earth itself. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. T. Tracy.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ES/RU 216. Nature in Russian Culture.How does a given culture understand and represent its relationship to the specific geography of its place in the world? This course explores the cultural landscape of Russia through a broad range of literary works, visual images, and ethnographic studies. Students examine some of the following issues: the relationship between geography and national identity; the political uses of cultural landscape; the interaction of agriculture, official religion, and traditional belief in peasant culture; and the role of class and revolutionary reimaginings of nature in the Soviet era. Conducted in English. Open to first-year students. [W2] J. Costlow.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ES/GE 217. Mapping and GIS.Geographical information systems (GIS) are computer-based systems for geographical data presentation and analysis. They allow rapid development of high-quality maps, and enable sophisticated examination of spatial patterns and interrelationships. In this course students learn the principles of GIS through extensive computer use of ArcGIS (ESRI). Geological and environmental projects introduce students to cartography, common sources of geographic data, methods for collecting novel spatial data, and data quality. Finally, students learn to extend the capabilities of GIS software to tackle more advanced spatial analysis tasks by completing an independent project. Lectures supplement the laboratory component of the course. Prerequisite: one 200-level course in environmental studies or one 100-level course in geology. Not open to students who have received credit for Environmental Studies 220. Enrollment limited to 20. [S] [L] [Q] C. Parrish, J. Eusden.
Concentrations
INDS 219. Environmental Archaeology.Over the past two hundred years archaeologists, scientists, and humanists in many disciplines have worked together to understand the interactions of past human populations with the physical world, including plants, animals, landscapes, and climates. This course outlines the methods and theories used by archaeologists, geologists, biologists, physicists, chemists, and historians in reconstructing past economies and ecologies in diverse areas of the globe. The course also discusses how archaeology contributes to our understanding of contemporary environmental issues such as rapid climate change, shrinking biodiversity, and sustainable use of resources. Cross-listed in anthropology, environmental studies, and history. Recommended background: Anthropology 103. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. (Premodern.) Normally offered every year. G. Bigelow.
Concentrations
ENVR 220. GIS across the Curriculum.Geographical information systems (GIS) are computer-based systems for analyzing spatially located data. They allow rapid development of high-quality maps and enable sophisticated examination of spatial patterns and interrelationships. In this course students learn the principles of GIS through extensive computer use of ArcGIS (ESRI). Modules from across the curriculum introduce students to spatial data by exploring common data sources, data collection methods, data quality, and data presentation methods. Finally, students learn to extend their capabilities by tackling more advanced spatial analysis tasks while completing an independent project. Not open to students who have received credit for Environmental Studies 217. Enrollment limited to 20. [S] [Q] M. Duvall, C. Parrish.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ES/GE 226. Hydrogeology.Hydrogeology is the study of the movement and interaction of underground fluids within rocks and sediments. This course uses hydrogeology as a disciplinary framework for learning about groundwater processes, contamination, supply, use, and management. Students engage in practical applications of hydrogeology via discussions, guest lectures, research projects, problem sets, and hands-on experience. Students learn field and laboratory methods for determining and analyzing groundwater flow, contamination, and aquifer properties by working at local sites of interest in central Maine. Prerequisite(s): Environmental Studies 203 or one 100-level geology course. Enrollment limited to 22. B. Johnson.
Concentrations
ENVR 227. Catastrophes and Hope.Disaster narratives can be both documentary and cautionary, attempting to describe what seems beyond human imagination. Such narratives may serve as dire warnings, offer glimpses of hope, spur us to change our lives, or scare us into denial. This course explores examples of disaster narratives from various cultures and time periods, considering the emotional, aesthetic, and civic function of discourses of disaster. In addition, students consider imaginations of disaster at the end of the cold war and in contemporary discussions of climate change. J. Costlow.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

INDS 228. Caring for Creation: Physics, Religion, and the Environment.This course considers scientific and religious accounts of the origin of the universe, examines the relations between these accounts, and explores the way they shape our deepest attitudes toward the natural world. Topics of discussion include the biblical Creation stories, contemporary scientific cosmology, the interplay between these scientific and religious ideas, and the roles they both can play in forming a response to environmental problems. Cross-listed in environmental studies, physics, and religious studies. Enrollment limited to 40. [S] J. Smedley, T. Tracy.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ENVR 240. Water and Watersheds.Where does water go and what does it do? Humans across the globe extract, enjoy, use, waste, and conserve water and hence affect its distribution, movement, and quality. In this course students follow water from atmosphere to land to aquatic systems, emphasizing the controls on the movement and chemistry of water. They investigate not only the need of organisms for water but also the ways in which organisms, including humans, influence the distribution and chemistry of water. Some class meetings involve field and lab work. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: Environmental Studies 203; Chemistry 107A, Chemistry/Environmental Studies 107B, or First-Year Seminar 398, and Geology 103; Chemistry 107A, Chemistry/Environmental Studies 107B, or First-Year Seminar 398, and Biology 190 or Biology/Geology 112. Recommended background: Chemistry 107A, Chemistry/Environmental Studies 107B, or First Year Seminar 398 and Chemistry 108A or Chemistry/Environmental Studies 108B. Enrollment limited to 30. [S] H. Ewing.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

AN/ES 242. Environment, Human Rights, and Indigenous Peoples.For decades environmentalists have used the image of the "ecological native" in their critique of industrialization while indigenous activists have framed their struggles for land rights and self-determination in environmental terms. Why and how have environmental and indigenous concerns merged? How are these connections used strategically? This course examines the struggles of the world's indigenous peoples in the context of an accelerating ecological crisis. Topics include Western ideas of indigenous people, indigenous self-representation, indigenous relations to modern nation-states and the United Nations, and the impacts of oil and mining, bio-prospecting, biodiversity conservation and climate change. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: Anthropology 101, Anthropology/Environmental Studies 337, Environmental Studies 204, or Politics 250. Enrollment limited to 30. S. Pieck.
Concentrations
ENVR 246. Conservation Biology.Conservation biology incorporates biology, policy, and ethics, among other disciplines. This course introduces and analyzes conservation theory with emphasis on the biological aspects of conservation biology, but also exploring its interdisciplinary nature. Students examine conservation at many scales, including the conservation of populations, their genetic diversity, and the biodiversity of habitats. Applied aspects of conservation and sustainable development are illustrated through case studies and simulations. This course is a combination of discussion and applied methods. Prerequisite(s): one course in biology or Environmental Studies 203. Enrollment limited to 40. One-time offering. M. Gahl.
ENVR 247. Freshwater Ecology.This course is an introduction to aquatic ecology and field research methods. Students explore the communities that inhabit Maine¿s freshwater systems, including streams, rivers, lakes, and ponds, and the linkages among these systems. By the end of the course they will have discussed and conducted applied fieldwork on autotrophic (algae and plant) communities, zooplankton, invertebrate, amphibian, and fish communities, community organization, physical structure and geomorphology, sediment and nutrient transport, water chemistry and discharge, and disturbance. This course combines lectures and considerable fieldwork. Fieldwork introduces students to a variety of aquatic ecosystems and species as well as sampling procedures and equipment commonly used in ecological research, monitoring efforts, and informed management. This course includes weekly field trips to local freshwater habitats. Field trips usually take place during scheduled class time, however, some Saturday or evening laboratories are required. Prerequisite(s): Biology 190 or 270 or Environmental Studies 203 or 204. Recommended background: Chemistry 107A or Chemistry/Environmental Studies 107B and Chemistry 108A or Chemistry/Environmental Studies 108B. Enrollment limited to 18. One-time offering. M. Gahl.
ENVR 310. Soils.Depending on one's point of view, soils are geological units, ecosystems, the foundation of plant life, a place for microbes to live, building material, or just dirt. This course takes a scientific perspective and explores the genesis of soils, their distribution and characteristics, and their interaction with plants. Field studies emphasize description of soils, inferences about soil formation, and placement within a landscape context. Labs investigate the chemistry of soils and their role in forestry and agriculture. Prerequisite(s): Environmental Studies 203; or one chemistry set (Chemistry 107A, Chemistry/Environmental Studies 107B, or First-Year SEminar 398 and Chemistry 108A or Chemistry/Environmental Studies 108B one 200-level biology or geology course. Recommended background: one 200-level geology course. [S] [L] H. Ewing.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

INDS 321. Afroambiente: Writing a Black Environment.This course studies the response of black writers and intellectuals of the Spanish-speaking world to issues related to the natural environment. In three countries, Ecuador, Puerto Rico, and Equatorial Guinea, modernity has brought serious challenges to notions of economic progress, human rights, and national sovereignty, as well as individual and communal identity. Course materials include written texts from local newspapers and magazines, as well as other sources of information such as Internet sites that discuss issues related to the environment and the arts. Prerequisite(s): one 200-level Spanish literature course. Cross-listed in African American studies, environmental studies, and Spanish. Not open to students who have received credit for Interdisciplinary Studies 320. B. Fra-Molinero.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ENVR 334. The Question of the Animal.Who are the animals to us? Beasts of burden, holy asses, laboratory surrogates, Aesopian figures for our political disputes, Pavlovian responders and creatures who in their suffering are moral beings, too, animals' place within the history of human thought and culture has been central, deeply contradictory, and perennially implicated in our understandings of what it means to be human. This course explores the role of animals in human life and thought, drawing on readings from literature, cultural history, ethology, and ethics. Readings and class discussions consider the roles of animals in highly diverse cultures and historical eras. Enrollment limited to 18. [W2] J. Costlow.
Interdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

AN/ES 337. Social Movements, NGOs, and the Environment.As emerging transnational actors, social movements and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) challenge state-centered paradigms with regard to environmental and other issues. But why do environmental movements arise in the first place? Do NGOs necessarily "do environmental good"? What solutions to the environment/development quandary do these forms of activism offer? The course first locates the context for NGOs and social movements within neoliberal globalization and the resource conflicts that emerge from its processes. Students consider topics and case studies in developed and developing countries, using them as a lens through which to understand the complexities of social and environmental change. Prerequisite(s): Anthropology 101 or Environmental Studies 204 and one additional course in anthropology or environmental studies. Enrollment limited to 20. [W2] Normally offered every year. S. Pieck.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ENVR 350. Environmental Justice in the Americas.This course explores issues of environmental justice in the western hemisphere by focusing on how lines of difference—especially race, class and gender—mediate people's relationships to each other and to the natural world. How do power relations shape differential access to and control over resources? What makes people more or less vulnerable to environmental changes? The course applies critical social theory to case studies from across the Americas to explore how political, economic, and cultural forces shape environmental inequalities, and how, in trying to address those inequalities, various groups challenge and broaden the assumptions and practices of modern environmentalism. Prerequisite(s): Environmental Studies 204 and any course in AfricanAmerican studies, American cultural studies, women and gender studies, or Latin American history and politics. Enrollment limited to 15. S. Pieck.
ENVR 360. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study per semester. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every semester. Staff.
Interdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ENVR 365. Special Topics.Offered occasionally on subjects of special interest. Staff.
ES/HI 390M. Maine: Environment and History.This course introduces students to Maine history from its beginnings to the twentieth century, emphasizing the state¿s most pervasive theme, the environment. From aboriginal people to European colonists, different people have relied on the state¿s natural resources. Indeed, the environment shaped Maine¿s most prevalent industries. By the twentieth century, Maine emerged as a popular vacation destination, causing many to reflect on conservation efforts. This seminar explores the significance of locality in understanding the interaction between the environment and different people through time. Students develop a deeper sense of place in our community. Enrollment limited to 15. One-time offering. M. Pawling.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ENVR 417. Community-Engaged Research in Environmental Studies.Students apply methods and skills developed within their subdisciplinary concentrations to an interdisciplinary semester-long project. Projects include work with previously identified community partners and may vary from year to year. Students evaluate literature, participate in discussions, complete written reports, and give oral presentations. Aesthetic and cultural perspectives on the environment, ethics and social justice, and scientific and quantitative approaches to environmental issues are incorporated into the project. The course deals explicitly with ethnicity, race, gender, and/or class within the context of the selected theme. Prerequisite(s): Environment 203, 204, 205, and one of the following: American Cultural Studies/English 395C; Anthropology s10; Art and Visual Culture 283; Art and Visual Culture/Women and Gender Studies 287; Biology 242, 244; Chemistry 212; Economics 250; English 243, 295; English/Women and Gender Studies 395L; Environmental Studies 220, 240, 310; Environmental Studies/Geology 217; Environmental Studies/Philosophy 214, History s40; Interdisciplinary Studies 250; Politics s49; Psychology 218; Rhetoric 257; or Sociology 205. Normally offered every year. Staff.
ENVR 457. Senior Thesis.This course involves research for and writing of the senior thesis, under the direction of a faculty advisor, and participation in a weekly seminar with other environmental studies seniors under the supervision of an environmental studies faculty member. The seminar supplements students' one-on-one work with their advisor and provides a space for students to learn about each other's work. Guidelines for the thesis are published on the program website and are available from the program chair. Students register for Environmental Studies 457 in the fall semester and for Environmental Studies 458 in the winter semester. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
Interdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ENVR 457, 458. Senior Thesis.This course involves research for and writing of the senior thesis, under the direction of a faculty advisor, and participation in a weekly seminar with other environmental studies seniors under the supervision of an environmental studies faculty member. The seminar supplements students' one-on-one work with their advisor and provides a space for students to learn about each other's work. Guidelines for the thesis are published on the program website and are available from the program chair. Students register for Environmental Studies 457 in the fall semester and for Environmental Studies 458 in the winter semester. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
Interdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ENVR 458. Senior Thesis.This course involves research for and writing of the senior thesis, under the direction of a faculty advisor, and participation in a weekly seminar with other environmental studies seniors under the supervision of an environmental studies faculty member. The seminar supplements students' one-on-one work with their advisor and provides a space for students to learn about each other's work. Guidelines for the thesis are published on the program website and are available from the program chair. Students register for Environmental Studies 457 in the fall semester and for Environmental Studies 458 in the winter semester. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
Interdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

Short Term Courses
AV/ES s15. Photographing the Landscape.The course provides a context for studying and analyzing images of the landscape by viewing and discussing historic and contemporary landscape photographs. Questions considered include the role of the sublime in current landscape photography, beauty as a strategy for persuasion, perceptions of "natural" versus "artificial," and contemporary approaches in trying to affect environmental change. Students explore the depiction of the landscape by producing their own work, using "pinhole," black-and-white film, or digital photography. Recommended background: Art and Visual Culture 218 or 219. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 12. E. Morris.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ENVR s22. Environmental Leadership.Traditional ideas of leadership tend to conjure images of people with exceptional abilities who are heads of states, corporations, and movements. An alternative model supports leadership as a social construct that emerges as people begin to make sense of their everyday experiences (What role do I play in shaping the world around me?) and deemphasizes personal traits (Do I have what it takes to be a leader?). This course explores current environmental issues in Maine through the lens of leadership. Students consider what it means to be a leader and how to facilitate change, build agreement, develop and communicate a vision, and plan strategically. The course provides students with practical skills for environmental leadership, an understanding of leadership styles, and the opportunity to develop confidence in their ability to take effective action. Enrollment limited to 30. One-time offering. J. Rosenbach.
ENVR s23. Sustainable Food.This course introduces students to the terminology, concepts, and ethics of sustainable food. Sustainable food is produced, transported, and eaten in a way that meets our present needs while ensuring future generations can enjoy this type of food. Conventional and alternative food production, marketing, and consumption systems are contrasted. Weekly student discussions focus on recent sustainable food literature. Three field trips provide an opportunity for students to learn more about sustainable food systems, integrate concepts, and provide data for projects. Student projects develop a multi-criteria decision analysis tool to compare the relative economic, environmental, and cultural sustainability of a food of their choice. Enrollment limited to 15. Staff.
INDS s24. Shetland Islands: Archaeological Field Course.The main element of this unit is the excavation of a late medieval/early modern farmstead at Brow, Shetland (Scotland). Early settlement in Shetland was on the margin of successful medieval colonization of the North Atlantic. The Brow site is a revealing "laboratory" in which to explore the interaction of climate change and human settlement in a fragile coastal zone. A series of field trips in mainland Scotland place the Brow excavation in the wider context of settlement, environment, archaeology, and the history of Scotland and the North Atlantic. Recommended background: courses in medieval history or archaeology. Cross-listed in classical and medieval studies, environmental studies, and history. Enrollment limited to 10. Instructor permission is required. (Premodern.) M. Jones.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

EC/ES s30. Visualizing Environmental Justice Using GIS.This course offers experience with spatial environmental and economic analysis by using geographical information systems technology (GIS) to explore case studies on environmental and social change. Topics in environmental justice such as hazardous waste facility sitings, urban density, poverty, disaster management, and others are examined. Students use mapping technology and available data sources including census and landuse data to learn to apply visual technology for economic analysis. They study how the visualization and presentation of data can inform economic decision making and policy making. Prerequisite(s): Economics 101 or 103 and 250. Enrollment limited to 20. L. Lewis.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

EC/ES s33. Valuation of Human-Altered Ecosystems.How is the value of an ecosystem altered by human development? Answering this question requires an understanding of both economics and ecosystem structure and function. In this interdisciplinary course, students explore the structure and function of ecosystems before and after human modification and the relationship of these characteristics to their economic value. Students focus on river systems in Maine from source to sea. This course involves many day trips and two longer trips off campus. Prerequisite(s): Environmental Studies 203 or Economics 222. Enrollment limited to 12. Instructor permission is required. H. Ewing, L. Lewis.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ENVR s38. Field Methods in Environmental Science.Evaluating environmental problems often requires the collection of air, water, or soil samples from field sites. Knowing how to gather information and samples and how to be sure that they help address the questions at hand is challenging. In this course, students consider approaches for matching sampling design to study objectives, dealing with spatial and temporal heterogeneity in field materials, utilizing previously published approaches, insuring utility of data, and replication of studies. Students design and carry out their own study utilizing approaches learned in class. A one-week stay off campus at a field site may be required. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: Biology 101, 125, Biology/Geology 112; Chemistry 107A, Chemistry/Environmental Studies 107B, or First-Year Semniar 398; Environmental Studies 203; or Geology 103. Recommended background: a second of the prerequisite courses. Enrollment limited to 18. [L] H. Ewing.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ENVR s46. Internship in Environmental Studies.Projects may include hands-on conservation work, environmental education, environmental research, political advocacy, environmental law, or other areas related to environmental questions. Specific arrangement and prior approval of the Committee on Environmental Studies is required. Instructor permission is required. Normally offered every year. C. Parrish.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ENVR s50. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study during a Short Term. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every year. Staff.