background

Politics

Professors Corlett and Richter; Associate Professors MacLeod, Hill, Baughman, and Ásgeirsdóttir (chair); Assistant Professors Pérez-Armendáriz, Aslan, and Engel; Lecturer Scheideman

The major in politics offers students the opportunity to examine politics from a variety of theoretical, cultural, and methodological perspectives. By raising fundamental questions about politics, courses encourage students to reflect carefully about the behaviors, institutions, ideologies, and dynamics of political life. Students are asked to reexamine their commonsense assumptions regarding politics, and to learn to think and write critically about political questions. As the study of politics is inherently multicultural and multidisciplinary, courses stress the importance of the diversity of the political experience, including a global range of cultural issues that address the roles of race, class, ethnicity, sexuality, and gender in political life. More information on the politics department is available on the website (www.bates.edu/PLTC.xml).

Major Requirements. Students majoring in politics must complete eleven courses including:

1) Five courses in a politics major concentration (see "Politics Major Concentrations" below), which shall include:

a) no more than one 100-level course;
b) at least one 300-level seminar, and;
c) senior thesis (457 or 458) on a topic related to the politics major concentration.

2) Three courses in politics not listed among the courses in the politics major concentration. These courses must be taken from at least two different concentrations.

3) s49 (Political Inquiry), which must be taken in the sophomore or junior year and is a prerequisite for the senior thesis (457 or 458).

4) Two other courses in any politics major concentration.

All of the above requirements are subject to the following stipulations:

Students may count no more than two 100-level courses total toward the major.

Students may count no more than two Short Term courses, including s49,
toward the major.

A first-year seminar may count toward the politics major if and only if it is taught
by a member of the politics faculty.

Students may not count internships or transferred courses toward the major
concentration.

Subject to the approval of the department chair, students may receive credit for up to two relevant off-campus courses. To receive approval, students must provide evidence of the content of the course and of the work completed. Non-Bates courses may count toward requirements 2) or 4) above. Requirements 1) and 3) must be completed with Bates courses.

Subject to the approval of the department chair, transfer students may receive credit for up to four courses toward the major taken prior to their arrival at Bates, and must take at least seven courses in the major on the Bates campus. The seven courses shall include s49, a 300-level seminar in the concentration, and senior thesis (457 or 458).

Politics Major Concentrations. Students declaring a politics major must declare a concentration within the major in one of the five approved major concentrations, listed below (see also "Major Requirements" above). The courses that fulfill each major concentration can be found on the department website. In addition, the major concentrations fulfilled by a course appear in parentheses at the end of the course catalog description. The major concentrations are:

Institutional Politics (IP): Formal organizations with written rules such as political and electoral institutions, nongovernmental organizations, and international organizations.

Identities and Interests (IDIN): Politics, power relations, and movements embedded in and constructed through issues such as ethnicity, nationality, gender, race, sexuality, religion, kinship, class, and political affiliation.

Political Economy (PLEC): Interactions of political and economic institutions and organizations, among states, within states, and across ethnic or national boundaries.

Philosophical, Literary, and Legal Studies (PLL): Close study of texts in political philosophy and contemporary theory, literature and other cultural productions, and legal cases and interpretations.

Governance and Conflict: Global politics (GOCO); conflict resolution; issues of legitimacy, civil strife, peace, and war.

Declaring a Major in Politics. To declare a major in politics, the student must complete both the College's process on Garnet Gateway and the department's major declaration form, which is available on the politics department website. The student must meet first with the department chair, who assigns the major advisor, and then with the major advisor to discuss the contents of the politics declaration form.

A new form must be completed and approved by the department chair and major advisor if the student's major concentration changes.

Pass/Fail Grading Option. Pass/fail grading may be elected for one course applied toward the major. This course must be below the 300 level and may not be s49..

Courses
INDS 100. African Perspectives on Justice, Human Rights, and Renewal.This team-taught course introduces students to some of the cultural beliefs, values, and experiences shaping contemporary Africa. Students focus on the impact of climatic, cultural, and geopolitical diversity as well as how the politics of ethnicity, religion, age, race, and gender influence daily life. The course forges students' critical capacity to resist simplistic popular understandings and works to refocus their attention on distinctively "African perspectives." Case studies vary year to year. Students design a research project to augment their knowledge about a specific issue within a particular region. This course is primarily for first- and second-year students with little critical knowledge of Africa and serves as the introduction to the General Education Concentration Considering Africa (C022). Cross-listed in anthropology, French, and politics. Enrollment limited to 40. (Governance and Conflict.) (Identities and Interests.) Normally offered every year. A. Dauge-Roth, E. Eames, L. Hill.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 115. American Political Institutions and Processes.An introductory description and analysis of American governmental and political institutions and processes, with particular focus upon the conditions and strategies for political decision making. Enrollment limited to 40. (Identities and Interests.) (Institutional Politics.) Normally offered every year. J. Baughman.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

PLTC 121. Moral Questions and Political Choice.The world is growing smaller, and life in a global context involves making decisions about controversial political questions. On what basis do we make these decisions? What is the right way to think about questions of poverty, violence, women's roles, or human rights, and how do we know? This course explores the moral questions embedded in discussions of political change. Students read a diverse range of theoretical, historical, and fictional materials to think about questions of human nature, proper human interactions, justice, freedom, responsibility, and potentiality. The objective is to better understand the moral and political questions involved in citizenship in a global world. Enrollment limited to 40. (Governance and Conflict.) (Identities and Interests.) A. MacLeod.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 122. Government and Politics in Global Perspective.Can we create democracies by establishing new political constitutions? Are Islam and democracy compatible? Is democracy in danger in Western Europe? Are post-communist countries becoming authoritarian again? Is presidentialism or the unmet promise of economic reforms the root of Latin America's political ills? Typical responses to these questions are ill-informed and therefore erroneous. Students learn the concepts, theories, and methods that serve to make evidence-based claims about the core debates in global politics. Enrollment limited to 40. (Governance and Conflict.) (Institutional Politics.) Normally offered every year. C. Pérez-Armendáriz.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 125. States and Markets.Given the current debate over globalization, questions about the relationship between states and markets—domestic and global—have become increasingly contested. With that in mind, the course examines how the relationship between states and markets has changed over the past two centuries, exploring such questions as: What is a state? What is a market? How do markets constrain the state? To what extent can the state rein in market forces? How has the relationship between states and markets changed over time? Do states differ in their ability to influence markets? Enrollment limited to 40. (Institutional Politics.) (Political Economy.) Normally offered every year. Á. Ásgeirsdóttir.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 155. Women, Power, and Political Systems.This course examines women's status, roles, and activities in a variety of political systems and studies the impact of women's participation on political life and public policy. Does sex make a difference in politics? Does women's participation affect gender power relations? This introduction uses the lenses of various fields—voter behavior, constitutional law, comparative politics, and international relations—to examine women as political actors and to consider how notions of gender difference affect women's access to and exercise of power in public decision making and government. Enrollment limited to 40. (Identities and Interests.) (Phil., Lit., Legal Studies.) L. Hill.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

PLTC 160. Politics of the Muslim World.This course offers students an introduction to the politics of the Muslim world, specifically the Middle East and North Africa. The first section concentrates on the history of the Muslim world and considers a number of issues, including the rise of Islam, empires, colonialism, and the formation of modern states in the twentieth century. The second section is organized more conceptually: students investigate different regime types, political ideologies, authoritarianism, political economy, and the politics of gender in various Muslim countries, including Egypt, Morocco, Iran, Turkey, Syria, and Saudi Arabia. In the final week of the class, students discuss prospects for democracy and liberalization in different Muslim countries. Enrollment limited to 40. (Governance and Conflict.) (Identities and Interests.) S. Aslan.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 171. International Politics.This course explores some of the many structures and processes that organize world politics, including the system of sovereign states, the global capitalist economy, and the varied meanings assigned to "nation" and "gender." To examine how these structures reinforce, intrude upon, and sometimes subvert each other, this course focuses on specific case studies such as international efforts to regulate climate change, nuclear proliferation, international trade, and intellectual property rights. Enrollment limited to 40. (Governance and Conflict.) (Political Economy.) Normally offered every year. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 191. Western Political Theory.The course examines the relation of Western political thought to current struggles against various forms of oppression. When white Western male theorists use the language of truth and justice, law and order, or rights and liberty, do they speak for everyone? Or do their writings reinforce asymmetries of economic and social power? Students consider various responses to such questions while reading and discussing selections from Plato, Locke, Wollstonecraft, and Marx. Enrollment limited to 40. (Phil., Lit., Legal Studies.) (Political Economy.) Normally offered every year. W. Corlett.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 200. Democracy and Democratization.In this course, students consider democracy and democratization in a comparative and historical perspective. They define democracy and democratization and examine other regime types such as various types of authoritarianism and republicanism. The course looks at the three or four waves of democratization over the last two hundred years, focusing on why these waves occurred and how each wave has changed. Students then turn to disaggregating the concept of democracy and tracing the historical development of its specific elements. These elements include elections, secret ballots, accountability and checks and balances, and political and civil rights. They also examine conditions that foster or impede democracy, such as the nature of civil society and political culture, and economic development and nationalism. At the end of the course, they look at the prospects for democracy around the world. Enrollment limited to 30. One-time offering. J. Scheideman.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 205. State-Society Relations in the Modern Middle East.Like no other political entity in history, the modern state seeks to transform society into an image of its own making and to harness its citizens' productive power for its own benefit. States in the Middle East, like those all over the world, have attempted this feat with varying degrees of success and failure. This course examines state efforts to dominate and shape society in the Middle East and the myriad ways that social groups have resisted, assisted, and otherwise modified state rule. Recommended background: Politics 160. Enrollment limited to 30. (Governance and Conflict.) (Identities and Interests.) Normally offered every year. S. Aslan.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 211. American Parties and Elections.The origins, structures, activities, and functions of parties in the American political system. Students analyze elections, voter behavior, campaign strategy and finance, and the role of parties in the operation of government. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. (Identities and Interests.) (Institutional Politics.) J. Baughman.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 215. Political Participation in the United States.Citizen participation lies at the heart of democratic decision making, but its importance extends well beyond formal tools like voting. This course explores the many ways in which Americans participate in politics and voice demands on the government, both formally and informally, from letters to the president to demonstrations in the streets. Students also look at who uses these tools, including the ways in which class, race, and gender circumscribe political influence. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. (Identities and Interests.) (Institutional Politics.) J. Baughman.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

PLTC 216. Constitutional Law: Balance of Powers.This course investigates the development and interpretation of constitutional law in the United States, with focus on governmental structure — popular sovereignty, separation of powers, and federalism — and some basic and contested techniques of constitutional interpretation. Topics include the respective and overlapping powers of the congress, presidency, and judiciary; the development of judicial review; the relationship among the three federal branches; the balance of powers between the federal government and the governments of the several states; and government regulation of citizens' actions in the workplace. Students read, discuss, and critically analyze constitutional interpretations by judges in legal opinions and evaluate scholarly commentary. Recommended background: Politics 115. Enrollment limited to 30. (Institutional Politics.) (Phil., Lit., Legal Studies.) S. Engel.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PT/WS 220. Gender, War, and Peace.This course uses gender as an analytical tool to examine the history of war and peace. Questions include: How do war and militarization construct masculinities and femininities? What types of roles have women played in the making of war and in the making of peace? How has gender socialization influenced people's analysis of and participation in war and in peace activism? What are the gender politics of the politics of war and of peacemaking? How is gender deployed in current war zones and in current movements for peace? Recommended background: Women and Gender Studies 100. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. (Governance and Conflict.) (Political Economy.) M. Plastas.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 222. International Political Economy.This course offers an introduction to the theories and debates regarding the politics of trade, multinational corporations, money and finance, and regional integration of developed and developing countries. Students are encouraged to explore the connections between international politics and economics both historically and in the contemporary era of "globalization." Specific topics addressed include the power of transnational corporations, the emergence and significance of the World Trade Organization and the European Union, the role of the International Monetary Fund in the development world, and transitions from state socialism to free-market capitalism. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. (Governance and Conflict.) (Political Economy.) Normally offered every year. Á. Ásgeirsdóttir.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 224. Politics of International Trade.International trade is a contentious political issue within developed as well as developing nations. This course explores the political impact of international trade on governments and societies. Students discuss the economic and political aspects of free trade as well as the changes in the politics of international trade over the past two centuries. Specific topics covered include trade protection, regional and global trade agreements, trade in agricultural goods, international trade and human rights, intellectual property rights, and the impact of trade on the environment. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. (Institutional Politics.) (Political Economy.) Á. Ásgeirsdóttir.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 225. International Security.War and conflict are persistent elements in international politics. There are many forms of international conflict, including global wars, local wars, terrorism, and insurgencies. This course begins by looking at the causes of war and conflict, examines forms of conflict, and ends with a look at war's consequences. It provides some historical background, but concentrates on explaining issues in contemporary international politics. Recommended background: Politics 171. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. (Governance and Conflict.) (Institutional Politics.) J. Scheideman.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 229. Race and Civil Rights in Constitutional Interpretation.An examination of judicial responses to issues of race and civil rights throughout United States history. Topics may include slavery, segregation in public accommodations, school desegregation, employment discrimination, and affirmative action. Students read and discuss Supreme Court opinions and commentaries. Recommended background: Politics 227 and/or 228. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. (Identities and Interests.) (Phil., Lit., Legal Studies.) Staff.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

PLTC 230. The U.S. Congress. This course explores the U.S. Congress and legislative politics. Students examine the practice and significance of congressional elections and the organization and behavior of congressional institutions, including their historical development, with a special emphasis on the connection between electoral behavior and lawmaking. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. (Institutional Politics.) J. Baughman.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 231. Leaders and Leadership.Philip of Macedon (350 B.C.E.) wrote, "There is more to be feared from an army of deer led by a lion than from an army of lions led by a deer." This course draws from multiple disciplines to focus on the theories and practice of leadership through case studies. The essence of the inquiry is to discover the qualities of leaders, whether those qualities can be learned, and how the qualities are put into practice (or not) in real-life situations. Ernest Shackleton, Martin Luther King Jr., Eleanor Roosevelt, Margaret Sanger, Winston Churchill, and Abraham Lincoln are among those studied. Classes are augmented by such films as Apollo 13, On the Waterfront, Thirteen Days, and Twelve Angry Men. Enrollment limited to 30. (Identities and Interests.) (Institutional Politics.) Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 232. The Politics of Post-Communism.The collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and Asia provide a unique opportunity to examine why things change and why things stay the same. This course examines how Russia and at least one other post-communist country have dealt with the three fundamental challenges that all such countries had to face: the transformation of political institutions; the transformation of economic institutions; and the redefinition of national identity. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. (Identities and Interests.) (Institutional Politics.) J. Richter.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 243. Politics and Literature.This course explores the links between politics and literature, focusing on the unique powers of fiction for understanding and expressing politics. Students read and discuss novels, short stories, and plays drawn from diverse historical and cultural settings, including the Middle East and China. Topics include the construction of authority; women and politics; war, violence, and narratives; change of regime and political power; the construction of alternative realities; private and political virtue; and the relationship between stories and democratic and authoritarian politics. Students also write short stories of their own. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. (Identities and Interests.) (Phil., Lit., Legal Studies.) A. MacLeod.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 244. Political Imagination.Has our society lost the ability to imagine and create alternative political arrangements? This course uses theoretical and cross-cultural materials to explore the nature of political imagination. What are the sources of political imagination? What constraints limit the envisioning of alternative polities? How do identity differences shape imagining, and who typically voices alternatives? What is the relationship between art, popular culture, and politics? This course explores the politics of ideology, consciousness, and change in the West, the Middle East, and China to better understand the nature of political creativity. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. (Identities and Interests.) (Phil., Lit., Legal Studies.) A. MacLeod.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 247. Transition and Transformation in Southern Africa.Two questions inform this study of politics in Southern Africa: What are the dimensions of internal political change? How do they affect the prospects of building democracy in the region? This course examines political, economic, and social features of anticolonial and liberation struggles, civil and regional wars, and antiapartheid resistance to discover the enduring factors underlying new state formation, regional political economy, and democratization. Close scrutiny of political change in South Africa and its impact on development in the region provides a substantial focus for the course. Recommended background: Politics 122, 155, 171, or 290. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. (Governance and Conflict.) (Political Economy.) L. Hill.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 248. The Arctic: Politics, Economics, Peoples.Overlapping political and ecological political boundaries, valuable resources, and indigenous politics combine to make the Arctic region an important area in international affairs. The impact of global climate change is creating new conflicts while exacerbating old ones. This course explores the linkages among the areas bordering the Arctic while discussing the political economy of resource use such as fisheries, oil drilling, mining, reindeer herding, whaling, sealing, and polar bears. Students explore the actors in the area — Canada, Greenland, Norway, Alaska, Sweden, Russia, and their respective indigenous populations — and study efforts to increase international cooperation in the area. Enrollment limited to 30. (Governance and Conflict.) (Political Economy.) Á. Ásgeirsdóttir.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 249. Politics of Latin America.This course examines the reasons for Latin America's mixed record with democracy. Students explore challenges facing the region such as weak rule of law, slow and uneven economic development, weak political parties and legislatures, and the difficulty of overcoming institutional legacies such as military rule. Students also examine promising political changes in the region such as increased support for democracy among its people and greater representation for indigenous people and women. Country studies include Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Guatemala, Peru, Mexico, and Venezuela. Recommended background: Politics 122. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. (Identities and Interests.) (Institutional Politics.) [W2] C. Pérez-Armendáriz.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

PLTC 250. Politics of Third World Development.Does the Third World exist? Is it underdeveloped, developing, or something else? This course is an introductory exploration of the relationships, struggles, issues, and actors that drive Third World politics. Because the idea of "development" has underpinned much of the discourse in and about the Third World, the course is centered on the politics of development in poorer countries. While much of the course emphasizes the broad processes, theories, and issues of development, it also gives some attention to the ways ordinary people are affected by development, and what ordinary (and in some cases, extraordinary) people do to adapt to or confront development. Recommended background: Politics 122, 155, 222, 234, 247, or 249. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. (Institutional Politics.) (Political Economy.) Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 252. Religion and Politics in the Middle East.This course examines how Islamic popular imagery and symbolic language are used to mobilize people into social protest movements that have impacted politics in several Middle Eastern countries. The course uses as a framework for analysis Barrington Moore's theories of how popular notions of justice and injustice sustain political obedience or promote protest and resistance/rebellion, and it applies these ideas to case studies in such countries as Algeria, Egypt, Iran, and Turkey. Recommended background: Politics 160. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. (Governance and Conflict.) (Phil., Lit., Legal Studies.) Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 253. U.S. Foreign Policy in the Middle East.This course follows a thematic rather than a chronological approach to exploring the ideological underpinnings of major U.S. policy issues such as the peace process between Israel and the Palestinians; war in Iraq; containment of Iran; globalization, especially as it affects Middle East energy resources; and the war on terrorism. The course aims to understand the role of ideological perspectives in shaping U.S. policy, the impact of that policy on the Middle East, and the "blowback" effect on the United States. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. (Governance and Conflict.) (Political Economy.) Staff.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

INDS 257. African American Women's History and Social Transformation.This course examines the political, social, and cultural traditions African American women have created from slavery to the current moment, notably the influence of African American women on the major social movements of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries including abolition, woman's suffrage, the club movement, women's liberation, the black arts movement, the civil rights movement, and Black Power. Through novels, plays, autobiography, music, and nonfiction produced by and about African American women, students explore a range of intellectual and cultural traditions. Recommended background: one course in women and gender studies and/or one course in African American studies. Cross-listed in African American studies, politics, and women and gender studies. Not open to students who have received credit for African American Studies/Women and Gender Studies 257. Not open to students who have received credit for AA/WS 257. Enrollment limited to 30. (Identities and Interests.) (Institutional Politics.) M. Plastas.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

PLTC 258. Environmental Diplomacy.Environmental hazards rarely recognize state boundaries; people acting to eliminate these hazards often cannot avoid them. Through a series of case studies, this course examines the obstacles to international cooperation on the environment and the strategies people use to overcome them. Case studies include the politics surrounding the depletion of the ozone layer, the depletion of international fisheries, deforestation, and urbanization. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. (Governance and Conflict.) (Political Economy.) J. Richter.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 260. Nationalism and Nation Building.This course provides an overview of major theories on nationalism and nation building. It introduces different forms of nationalism and discusses the relationship between the emergence of modern states and the idea of national identity. Students explore how nationalism relates to state building, citizenship, different regime types, economic change, gender, and religion. Students analyze different theoretical approaches and concepts through empirical case studies drawn from the experiences of national identity formation in countries such as France, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Iran, India, and Thailand. Recommended background: Politics 122 or 160. Enrollment limited to 30. (Governance and Conflict.) (Identities and Interests.) Normally offered every year. S. Aslan.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 290. Politics of Sub-Saharan Africa.In the 1990s the promise of political transformation emerged in Africa, giving cause for both optimism and pessimism about the continent's political and economic future. While some states have realized unprecedented degrees of political stability, others have fragmented into civil chaos. Novel democratic experiments have persisted while authoritarian impulses remain entrenched. And despite some of the highest levels of poverty in the world, Africa as a whole witnessed economic growth for the first time in decades. This course exposes students to the diverse mosaic of political life in Africa and examines factors that have shaped development and governance since the close of the colonial era. Attention is given to Africa's historical experiences, economic heritage, and the international context in which they are embedded. Students also explore the unfolding patterns of change witnessed at the opening of the twenty-first century and the way that Africans continue to shape their own political and economic situations. Recommended background: Politics 115, 122, or 171. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. (Institutional Politics.) (Political Economy.) L. Hill.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 295. Reading Marx, Rethinking Marxisms.Students practice different ways of reading and rethinking the work of Karl Marx. The first part of the course permits unrushed, close reading and discussion of Marx's best-known texts. The second part emphasizes recent efforts by critical theorists to revise the original doctrine without abandoning radical politics. Topics for reading and discussion include various Marxist feminisms, Marxist literary theory, and other Marxist interventions against capitalism. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. (Phil., Lit., Legal Studies.) (Political Economy.) W. Corlett.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 296. Contract and Community.Western political thought frequently explores relationships—including contracts and community—between individuals and the state, but the terms of this discourse are hotly contested. Why do "contracts" so often seem to ignore the unequal power of the parties involved? Must terms like "community" erase the politics of human difference? How do categories such as "individual" and "state" restrict even the politics of privileged men as well as neglect considerations of gender, race, and class? Students read and discuss a variety of texts, including Hobbes, Rousseau, and contemporary theorists. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. (Governance and Conflict.) (Phil., Lit., Legal Studies.) W. Corlett.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 297. The Household and Political Theory.Western political theories often acknowledge, either implicitly or explicitly, the importance of domestic considerations—such as child bearing, sexual relations, and issues of home economics—but rarely appreciate their political significance. And sometimes theorists who acknowledge that the personal is political miss the significance of the so-called racial classification or class position of the domestic situations they study. Drawing from Western and non-Western feminist, socialist, and other sources, this course stresses close reading of theories that highlight the politics of domestic life. Because many of these arguments involve criticism of Western political thought, students also examine how various Western classics (for example, Plato, Aristotle, Rousseau, or Hegel) situate domesticity. Recommended background: Politics 191. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. (Phil., Lit., Legal Studies.) (Political Economy.) W. Corlett.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

PLTC 298. Sexuality and the Politics of Difference.Picture females and males learning how to be women and men by distancing themselves from each others' prescribed gender roles. What's missing from this picture? Identity politics often gives the impression that patterns of self and other are fixed in nature, culture, or both. The politics of difference marks a refusal to reduce life's ambiguities to orderly patterns. Various gay and lesbian constructions of sexuality provide suggestive terrain for exploring how theories of difference undermine fixed patterns of sexuality. Students read, discuss, and write about recent work in political theory within a context of difference influenced in part by Foucault, Lacan, and Derrida. Recommended background: Politics 191. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. (Identities and Interests.) (Phil., Lit., Legal Studies.) W. Corlett.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

PLTC 310. Public Opinion.An analysis of controversies concerning the formation, nature, and role of public opinion in American politics. The course examines attitudes on selected current issues among persons with a variety of social and economic backgrounds. Students learn the methodology of sample surveys (polls), appropriate statistics, and the use of computers to analyze data. No previous knowledge of statistics or computing is assumed. Prerequisite(s): Politics 115, 211, or 215. Enrollment limited to 16. (Identities and Interests.) [Q] J. Baughman.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

PLTC 312. Ocean Governance: Local, National and International Challenges.Oceans cover more than seventy percent of the surface of the Earth and contain both valuable renewable resources, such as fish and whales, and nonrenewable resources such as oil and gas. This mixture of resources and increased diversification of ocean uses is a challenge to governance. The mobility of many ocean resources and frequent lack of information increases this challenge. Hence, for the past sixty years, national and subnational governments and international actors have worked together to develop a variety of policies to react to the collapse of fisheries, increased offshore oil and gas drilling, emergence of aquaculture and deterioration of coral reefs. In the future, challenges stemming from global climate change and ocean acidification will only increase these policy efforts. Enrollment limited to 15. (Governance and Conflict.) (Political Economy.) Á. Ásgeirsdóttir.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 315. International Cooperation.In this course students analyze the dual questions of why nations cooperate and how they cooperate. The course begins with the problems of cooperation in an anarchic world and investigates how nations overcome these problems. In the process, the course examines different analytical perspectives such as realism, liberalism, and regime theory, as well as solutions to cooperative problems proposed by game theory and negotiation analysis. Substantively, the course examines cooperation over trade issues, financial affairs, global commons, and the environment. Recommended background: Politics 171, 222, and 234. Enrollment limited to 15. (Governance and Conflict.) (Political Economy.) [W2] Normally offered every year. Á. Ásgeirsdóttir.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 320. The Politics of Latin American Migrant Transnationalism.The observation that many migrants actively engage in the social, political and economic life of both their origin and host countries is the basis for the study of transnational migration. How does simultaneous membership in two countries help migrants shape and pursue their political interests? How and why have states reached out to their émigrés and formalized pathways for them to participate in home-country politics, and with what effect? What is the impact of migrant transnationalism on the politics of migrants' host and home countries? The course emphasizes emigration from Latin America and touches on European and Asian cases. Enrollment limited to 15. (Identities and Interests.) (Institutional Politics.) [W2] Normally offered every year. C. Pérez-Armendáriz.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 325. Constitutional Rights and Social Change.An exploration of relationships between constitutional rights and movements for social change. Rights are examined as legal declarations that empower the oppressed, as ideological constructions that reinforce privilege, and as resources of unknown value that may be employed in political struggle. The utility of rights is examined in the civil rights and women's rights movements. Recommended background: Politics 114, 226, 227, 228, or 229. Enrollment limited to 15. (Institutional Politics.) (Phil., Lit., Legal Studies.) [W2] Staff.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

PLTC 328. Representation in Theory and Practice.Are citizens in a representative democracy more like stage directors or probation officers? This course is an analysis of the purpose and limits of political representation. Topics include the role of formal representation in democratic government, the ways citizens hold governments accountable, the responsiveness of political leaders, representation of and by women and minorities, and alternative mechanisms for ensuring accountability. Students consider historical and contemporary sources on the United States, Europe, and Latin America. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: Politics 115, 122, 211, 230, or 249. Enrollment limited to 15. (Institutional Politics.) (Phil., Lit., Legal Studies.) [W2] J. Baughman.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 333. State Formation, State Development, State Collapse.This course offers an in-depth analysis of the state. It begins with the definitional question and explores different approaches to the state. It then proceeds to historical analysis of the rise of states in Europe and other world regions. The third component of the course explores the relationship between states and societies, focusing on European and other cases. Finally, the course explores the extent of state weakness across the world, and explanations for variation in the strength and stability of states. Enrollment limited to 15. (Governance and Conflict.) (Institutional Politics.) [W2] S. Aslan.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 335. Democratic Transition.Authoritarian regimes may fall but what legacies remain? How are democratic institutions created and consolidated? This course examines the issues in conceptual terms and then explores three problems in cases from Latin America and Europe. First, does the pursuit of justice threaten democratic transition? Second, how are political rules and institutions defined? And third, what is the state role in the economy and society? Recommended background: Politics 122, 232, 247, 249, or 250. Enrollment limited to 15. (Governance and Conflict.) (Political Economy.) Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 340. Democracy in South Africa.This seminar explores the dynamics of building a democratic state and political community in South Africa following a century of white minority rule. Reviewing scholarship on the state, political economy, and democratization, students assess the political transition as well as efforts aimed at social and economic transformation. In a complementary approach that views grassroots politics, students examine the role of civil society to understand how government and citizens are addressing the challenges of building a democratic society. They study HIV/AIDS as a problem of democratic development. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: Politics 122, 168, 171, 222, 234, 235, 243, 244, 249, 290, or any 300-level seminar. Enrollment limited to 15. (Political Economy.) L. Hill.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 344. Ethnicity and Conflict.Every day the news media brings us horrifying accounts of bloody conflict described as the result of ethnic or cultural difference. This course examines different ways to understand and investigate how such conflicts start and how they can be resolved. Are such conflicts more prevalent now than during the cold war era? If so, why? Is cultural difference really the cause of such conflicts, or is difference merely a convenient frame, obscuring more fundamental causes? What makes neighbors turn against each other? Can there be lasting reconciliation? What role should the international community play in such conflicts? Prerequisite(s): any 100-level course in politics. Enrollment limited to 15. (Governance and Conflict.) (Identities and Interests.) [W2] J. Richter.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 345. NGOs and World Politics.The phenomenal growth of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in recent decades has made them increasingly influential actors in international politics. This course examines NGO strategies in human rights (including the rights of women) and environmental policy, and critically evaluates their role in global affairs. What is the relation between international NGOs, their donors, and their constituents? What happens when relatively rich international NGOs interact with relatively poor indigenous organizations and populations? Has growing NGO activity caused changes in current understandings of state sovereignty? Prerequisite(s): one of the following: Politics 161, 171, 234, 236, 245, or 278. Enrollment limited to 15. (Governance and Conflict.) (Identities and Interests.) J. Richter.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 346. Power and Protest.The role of subordinates in power relations ranges from resigned acceptance of exploitation to active revolution. This course examines the nature of power; the focus is a comparative study of the parts played by subordinate groups in different power relationships and cultural contexts. Readings and discussion center on a combination of theoretical studies of power, and case materials, primarily on peasants and women in the developing world. The goal is to better understand the complex meaning of "resistance." Enrollment limited to 15. (Governance and Conflict.) (Phil., Lit., Legal Studies.) [W2] A. MacLeod.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 347. Gender and the State.Two key questions provide the focus for this course: How does gender define citizenship, politics, and the state? What roles do states play in shaping notions of masculinity and womanhood? Theoretical framings of gender and politics form the basis for reviewing women's varying relationships to states. Students examine processes through which gender ideologies shape state power and policy as well as how state projects, such as economic development or war, influences gender relations. Using case studies of women's political activism, students investigate how women (re)define their political roles and seek access to state power, thus pursuing different relationships to the state. Prerequisite(s): one 200-level course in politics or women and gender studies. Enrollment limited to 15. (Governance and Conflict.) (Identities and Interests.) L. Hill.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

PLTC 348. Islam and Democracy.This seminar examines the debate among non-Muslims in the West and Muslims in Islamic countries as to whether Islam as a religious ideology and practice is compatible with classic notions of democratic government. It explores the religious and ideological origins of the debate in the West and the diverse ways this "external" debate impacts the "internal" debate in different Muslim societies. Political Islam is studied in several Muslim countries to understand views of autonomous civil society organizations, elections, and political participation. Enrollment limited to 15. (Governance and Conflict.) (Phil., Lit., Legal Studies.) Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 360. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study per semester. Normally offered every semester. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 365. Special Topics.A course or seminar offered from time to time and reserved for a special topic selected by the department. A course satisfies the department's 300-level requirement only if specified in the individual course description. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 376. National Identity and Foreign Policy.This course examines how notions of national identity influence foreign policy decisions in the United States and in other countries. It begins with a brief discussion of constructivist approaches to international politics and their implications for foreign policy. It proceeds with a discussion of nationalism and the complex interplay between domestic politics and the international environment in the construction of national identity. Finally, the course critically examines the role of national identity in the formation of foreign policy in the United States and Russia. Prerequisite(s): Politics 122, 125, 171, or 195. Enrollment limited to 15. (Governance and Conflict.) (Identities and Interests.) J. Richter.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PT/WS 389. Race and U.S. Women's Movements.This course focuses on how racial formations develop in women's movements and how gender ideologies take shape through racialization. Some of the movements examined include the woman's suffrage movement, the anti-lynching movement, the civil rights movement, moral reform movements, the welfare rights movement, the women's liberation movement, and the peace movement. Students analyze how the intertwined categories of race and gender shape various women's responses to debates about issues including citizenship, U.S. foreign policy, reproductive rights, and immigration. Students consider current theoretical and methodological debates and examine the topic through the perspectives of women in various ethnic and racial groups. Prerequisite(s): five core courses in women and gender studies. Not open to students who have received credit for Politics/Women and Gender Studies 390 or Women and Gender Studies 400E. Not open to students who have received credit for PT/WS 390 or Women and Gender Studies 400E. Enrollment limited to 15. (Identities and Interests.) (Institutional Politics.) M. Plastas.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 394. Contemporary Liberalism and Democratic Action.Twentieth-century Western liberalism has faced new challenges of cultural pluralism: including people previously excluded on the grounds of race, gender, and sexuality; speaking to both sides of the widening gap between rich and poor nations; coming to terms with the rights of indigenous peoples; and reconciling capitalism and democracy. Do contemporary formulations of this diverse and venerable tradition show how to negotiate the contested terrain of twenty-first-century cultural politics? Or is Western liberalism necessarily an apologist for the exclusionary politics of a bygone era? Students read and criticize recent authors who discuss these questions against the backdrop of canonical texts. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: Politics 191, 296, 346, Philosophy 256 or 257. Enrollment limited to 15. (Phil., Lit., Legal Studies.) (Political Economy.) [W2] W. Corlett.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 396. Poverty and Democracy.This seminar examines new developments in democratic theory against the backdrop of public policies concerned with the stubborn problem of poverty. Beginning with specific issues in poverty studies, such as food security, prison construction, and health care, students gain familiarity with options available to policy makers. Turning to specific issues in democratic theory, such as distributive justice, public deliberation, and self-determination, students consider a variety of arguments concerned with popular rule. Reading and criticizing texts that address both poverty and democracy make the problem of physical survival more visible in contemporary social justice debates concerning sexuality, race, gender, and class. Prerequisite(s): two courses in politics. Enrollment limited to 15. (Phil., Lit., Legal Studies.) (Political Economy.) W. Corlett.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 421. Congressional Internship.Part-time internships, primarily in local offices of members of the Maine delegation in the United States Congress. Readings and writing focus on congressional staffs, constituencies, and relations with the bureaucracy. Prerequisite(s): Politics 115, 230, or 328. Enrollment is limited to available positions. Instructor permission is required. Normally offered every semester. J. Baughman.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 423. Internships in Public Policy Research.This internship-based course is designed for students interested in public policy and current issues facing Maine. It considers the political process by which policy is formed, the institutions that influence it, and the factors affecting its implementation. The course focuses on a policy research project of the student's own choosing, undertaken for a government agency or policy advocacy group; class discussions link readings to the research projects, and student-instructor conferences guide students' projects. Students also explore the ethical considerations of the policy issues they are researching and visit the State House to observe the legislative process and to meet with stakeholders. Enrollment limited to 10. (Institutional Politics.) Normally offered every year. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 457. Senior Thesis.Discussion of methods of research and writing, oral reports, and regular individual consultation with instructors. Students undertake a one-semester thesis by registering for Politics 457 in the fall semester or Politics 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both Politics 457 and 458. Prerequisite(s): one 300-level seminar in politics and Politics s49. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 457, 458. Senior Thesis.Discussion of methods of research and writing, oral reports, and regular individual consultation with instructors. Students undertake a one-semester thesis by registering for Politics 457 in the fall semester or Politics 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both Politics 457 and 458. Prerequisite(s): one 300-level seminar in politics and Politics s49. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 458. Senior Thesis.Discussion of methods of research and writing, oral reports, and regular individual consultation with instructors. Students undertake a one-semester thesis by registering for Politics 457 in the fall semester or Politics 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both Politics 457 and 458. Prerequisite(s): one 300-level seminar in politics and Politics s49. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

Short Term Courses
PLTC s13. Immigration Reform.What should immigration reform look like? What are the obstacles to immigration reform? Students explore U.S. immigration from 1965 to the present, including both its intended and unintended consequences. Students analyze the policy preferences, resources and constraints of key stakeholders in the current immigration debate and practice advancing these diverse perspectives vis-à-vis Congress through role-play and simulation. Based on community research, theoretical readings, and review of the policy proposals that Congress has recently considered students experience first-hand why so many voices remain "unheard" in Congress as the reform process remains stalled. Not open to students who have received credit for Politics s15. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 14. (Institutional Politics.) Normally offered every year. C. Pérez-Armendáriz.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PT/WS s14. Gender and Tobacco.This course explores the sociohistorical complexities of tobacco and the political economies of tobacco production, consumption, and regulation. The course focuses on how gender, race, and class influence tobacco industry policies, tobacco control procedures, the health and economic impact of tobacco on communities, and the strategies of grassroots and transnational activists in tobacco regulation movements. Recommended background: coursework in women and gender studies. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. M. Plastas.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC s15. Unheard Voices and the Politics of Immigration.This course examines U.S. immigration policy from 1965 to the present. The course includes a trip to the San Diego/Tijuana border to learn how key stakeholders on both sides perceive the problem of immigration and what types of solutions they desire. Following the trip, students explore proposals for immigration reform that recently have been floated in Congress and among policy thinkers and analyze the moral, philosophical, and political context in which they have developed. The final product is a website containing student observations, information collected at the border, individual opinion columns, and a unified reform proposal developed by the class. Not open to students who have received credit for Politics s13. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 14. (Institutional Politics.) C. Pérez-Armendáriz.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC s20. Spy Games: The Role of Espionage in International Affairs.What is espionage? Why do nations spy? Espionage is often referred to as the world's second-oldest profession. Intelligence operations have often played an important role in international affairs, especially during wartime. This course looks at the role of espionage in international affairs with a focus on the twentieth century. Topics covered include the political implications of spying, the myths and realities of espionage, overt operations, counterintelligence, intelligence operations in the global north (CIA, MI5, MI6, Mossad), intelligence operations in the global south, and the role of women in espionage. Enrollment limited to 20. (Governance and Conflict.) (Institutional Politics.) Á. Ásgeirsdóttir.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC s22. Politics of Memory in Central and Eastern Europe.The twentieth century cast a long shadow over Eastern and Central Europe: two world wars, several mass expulsions and deportations, the imposition of Soviet-style dictatorships, and, most tragically, the holocaust. Each country has its share of victims, villains, heroes, cowards, and collaborators. Efforts to make sense of this history, even after all these years, remain a topic of intense political debate. This course examines historical writings, films, museums, and monuments to examine the politics of memory in East and Central Europe. Why does historical memory of these events continue to have such emotional and political power in this region? What choices are made in memorializing history, and what are their contemporary political implications?. Enrollment limited to 30. Normally offered every year. J. Richter.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC s23. Simulating the Legislative Process.Students engage in a simulation of the federal legislative process by playing the roles of interest groups and officeholders in writing a major law. They explore the goals, strategies, and constraints of political actors in making policy. At the same time, attention is paid to the policy process generally and how in particular cases the process can be altered or subverted to suit the interests of actors. Parallels are drawn with real-world instances of contemporary congressional lawmaking. Recommended background: Politics 115 and 230. Enrollment limited to 20. (Institutional Politics.) J. Baughman.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PT/WS s27. Feminisms of the 1970s and 1980s.This course explores the rise of multiple feminist theories and forms of activism during the 1970s and 1980s. Students critically examine the genealogy of the conceptualization of "second-wave feminism," and explore the role of gay, Chicano, and black liberation, civil rights, and labor struggles on the development of feminist thinking and action. The course pays particular attention to how feminists of this period addressed questions of U.S. foreign policy in Vietnam, Central America, and South Africa; the nuclear arms race; and U.S. domestic race relations. Students read from primary source material and study the literature produced by Marxist feminisms, black feminisms, lesbian feminisms, liberal feminisms, and radical feminisms. Recommended background: Women and Gender Studies 100. Enrollment limited to 25. (Identities and Interests.) (Institutional Politics.) M. Plastas.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC s29. Politics and the Essay.The essay is experiencing a renaissance, appropriated by a diverse range of writers for new purposes. In this course, students examine the politics of the essay by studying the special qualities of this genre and by reading a wide range of essays drawn from diverse historical periods and cultural locations. Students also write and discuss a series of essays of their own, and may experiment with photo or video essays. Special attention is paid to understanding the politics of the essay genre, constructions of self and other, questions of identity and expression, and women writers and the essay. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 12. (Identities and Interests.) (Phil., Lit., Legal Studies.) [W2] A. MacLeod.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC s49. Political Inquiry.To prepare for writing a senior thesis, students are introduced to many of the approaches used to study politics. By reading and discussing texts from a variety of perspectives, students learn to identify and evaluate crucial research decisions. These include how to formulate a precise and answerable research question, relate it to the work of other scholars, construct an argument to answer the question, assess evidence pertaining to the argument, and present the findings in a manner of interest to other scholars. After critically assessing the work of others, students engage in writing tasks to design their own independent research project. Prerequisite(s): two courses in politics. Enrollment limited to 60. Normally offered every year. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC s50. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study during a Short Term. Normally offered every year. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations