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Romance Languages and Literatures

Professors Rice-DeFosse, López, Fra-Molinero, and Read; Associate Professors Aburto Guzmán (chair for Spanish), and Dauge-Roth (chair for French); Assistant Professor Pettway; Visiting Assistant Professor Curren; Lecturers George and Balladur

The Department of Romance Languages and Literatures offers courses in French and Spanish.

Courses in French and Spanish help students to learn basic communication skills, to appreciate another culture through its language, and to go beyond the study of language to achieve a deeper understanding of diverse peoples by way of their literature and other modes of cultural production. Texts are read closely from a contemporary critical perspective with attention to their cultural context. All courses are taught in French or Spanish, except in the case of some courses cross-listed with other departments or programs, which may be taught in English. More information on the Romance languages and literatures department is available on the website (www.bates.edu/RLL.xml).

Minors. In addition to a major in French or Spanish, a minor can be pursued in these areas of study. Application for a minor must be made prior to Short Term of the senior year, after consultation with a permanent member of the faculty in the language area of concentration (French or Spanish). Advanced Placement courses may not be applied toward the minor.

Study Abroad. All students, and especially majors, are strongly encouraged to spend an extended period of time in a Spanish- or French-speaking country prior to graduation. Opportunities to do so include participation in junior-year- or junior-semester-abroad programs, and in the various off-campus Short Term courses sponsored by the department. The department supports programs of study it has approved for a junior year or semester abroad as significant means of increasing one's comprehension of the culture and as the most effective method of developing advanced proficiency in the language.

Placement in French and Spanish Courses. Students entering courses in the department are advised of the following general policies and procedures. The beginning (101-102) sequence is reserved for true beginners in the language. Those with more than two years of secondary school study are not admitted at this level and are encouraged to enter at the 200 level, or, in some cases, 102 in the spring semester; students who have followed a conventional sequence of language study in high school (generally three to four years, sometimes more, sometimes involving Advanced Placement courses) are advised to enroll at the early to mid-200 level: 201 for general review or other intermediate courses that concentrate variously on introductions to culture, spoken language, and/or literature. The department allows for self-placement in 201 and 205 (French) and 201 and 207 (Spanish); students are advised to be in touch directly with the instructor for permission or prerequisite waiver for entry into more advanced courses.

French and Francophone Studies

The major in French aims at flexibility within a structure that affords a diversity of experience in Francophone culture and literature and continuous training in the use of the language. It provides effective preparation for graduate work but is not conceived as strictly preprofessional. The significance of French is highlighted by the College's proximity to Québec and by the large number of Franco-Americans who live and work in northern New England. In addition to France's literary tradition, the Francophone histories and cultures of North Africa, West Africa, the Caribbean, and Québec have produced writers and artists who have influenced the world broadly with their cultural and artistic dynamism and insight, making French and Francophone cultural production truly rich and varied.

Major Requirements. The major in French and Francophone studies consists of a minimum of ten courses beyond the level of Intermediate French (201). These courses should reflect both geographical breadth and historical depth; students are encouraged to consult with a faculty member when planning the course of study in the major. Two courses in a related discipline may normally count as one of the ten courses in the major; one of the two may be taught in English. All majors are required to take at least one 300-level seminar in the senior year.

The Capstone Experience. Fluent and correct use of the language is essential to the completion of the major. All senior majors are required to complete a capstone experience that serves to synthesize and reflect upon their work in the major as described below:

1) All majors must assemble a portfolio of their work in the major and discuss it in at the end of the second semester of their senior year. This exercise is known as the soutenance du portfolio. The portfolio contains a personal statement on the student's experience in French and Francophone studies and other components such as papers from courses taken at Bates or abroad, a journal of a study-abroad program or travel experience, audio and/or video recordings to show progress in oral proficiency, websites that may have been created for courses or other Francophone endeavors, or other personal reflections.

2) All majors must complete a senior thesis, senior essay, or an oral history project, all of which fulfill the [W3] requirement. The thesis (which may be one-semester, two-semester, or honors) represents a sustained, scholarly work in the discipline, written in close consultation with a faculty member from the department. The senior essay is an extracurricular (noncredit) written work that treats a question in the field of French and Francophone studies as agreed upon by the student and faculty advisor; it is significantly shorter than a one-semester thesis, yet still involves research and inquiry into a topic using tools of literacy and cultural study as practiced in the discipline. The oral history project consists of a series of interviews with local Maine Francophone residents that are transcribed, presented at the Mount David Summit, and archived at Bates and in local depositories. Some portion of any of these options must be included in the portfolio for discussion.

3) All majors participate in a regularly scheduled Atelier de recherches in which they discuss approaches to research in French and Francophone cultural studies and their progress in the capstone requirements, including presentations of their research.

Honors candidates register for French 457 and 458.

Minor Requirements. A minor in French requires a minimum of seven courses. At least one of the seven courses must have as its focus literature or culture. Advanced Placement courses may not be applied toward the minor. All students who minor in French and Francophone studies must assemble a portfolio of their work in the minor. The portfolio consists of samples of written course work and is designed to demonstrate progress in the study of the French language.

Students considering a major or minor in French should begin to compile a writing portfolio as soon as possible.

Study Abroad. Students majoring in French and Francophone studies are strongly encouraged to study abroad in a country appropriate for their area of interest. Majors receive a maximum of three credits for one semester of study and five credits for two semesters of study in a recognized program. Students must obtain approval from a Bates faculty member in French in order for their courses to count toward major or minor in the discipline; otherwise, credit is not guaranteed.

Transfer Credit. Students normally may transfer up to two credits for course work equivalent to courses offered by the program in French. Students need to obtain approval from a Bates faculty member in French in order for their courses to count toward the major; otherwise, credit is not guaranteed.

Pass/Fail Grading Option. No courses beyond French 235 may be taken pass/fail for credit toward the major.

Courses
INDS 100. African Perspectives on Justice, Human Rights, and Renewal.This team-taught course introduces students to some of the cultural beliefs, values, and experiences shaping contemporary Africa. Students focus on the impact of climatic, cultural, and geopolitical diversity as well as how the politics of ethnicity, religion, age, race, and gender influence daily life. The course forges students' critical capacity to resist simplistic popular understandings and works to refocus their attention on distinctively "African perspectives." Case studies vary year to year. Students design a research project to augment their knowledge about a specific issue within a particular region. This course is primarily for first- and second-year students with little critical knowledge of Africa and serves as the introduction to the General Education Concentration Considering Africa (C022). Cross-listed in anthropology, French, and politics. Enrollment limited to 40. (Governance and Conflict.) (Identities and Interests.) Normally offered every year. A. Dauge-Roth, E. Eames, L. Hill.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE 101. Elementary French I.In the first semester, emphasis is placed on oral proficiency with conversational practice in various aspects of contemporary French culture, and on the acquisition of vocabulary, basic grammar, and reading and writing skills. In the second semester, students concentrate on further development of these skills with short readings and films. French 101 is not open to students with two or more years of French in secondary school. Enrollment limited to 22 per section. Normally offered every year. L. Balladur, E. Curren.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE 101-102. Elementary French I and II.In the first semester, emphasis is placed on oral proficiency with conversational practice in various aspects of contemporary French culture, and on the acquisition of vocabulary, basic grammar, and reading and writing skills. In the second semester, students concentrate on further development of these skills with short readings and films. French 101 is not open to students with two or more years of French in secondary school. Enrollment limited to 22 per section. Normally offered every year. L. Balladur, E. Curren.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE 102. Elementary French II.In the first semester, emphasis is placed on oral proficiency with conversational practice in various aspects of contemporary French culture. Acquisition of vocabulary, basic grammar, and reading and writing skills. In the second semester, concentration on further development of these skills with short readings and films. French 101 is not open to students with two or more years of French in secondary school. Enrollment limited to 22. Normally offered every year. L. Balladur, E. Curren.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE 201. Intermediate French.The course focuses on proficiency in speaking, with intensive review of grammar. Students read and analyze selected texts. Class discussions in French explore both literary and cultural topics. Prerequisite(s): French 102. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 22 per section. Normally offered every semester. E. Curren, M. Rice-DeFosse.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE 205. Oral French.The course is designed to develop oral fluency and aural acuity, with attention to vocabulary, syntax, and pronunciation. Students discuss topics of contemporary interest and focus on improvisation, role play, and reporting. Prerequisite(s): French 201. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 15. Normally offered every semester. E. Curren, K. Read.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE 207. Introduction to Contemporary France.This course develops facility in speaking, reading, and writing French by focusing on French society and culture. Students explore contemporary France through content-based cultural materials such as magazine and newspaper articles, published interviews, video, film, music, and appropriate works of current literature. Students prepare oral reports and written essays. Prerequisite(s): French 201. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. Normally offered every year. M. Rice-DeFosse.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE 208. Introduction to the Francophone World.This course focuses on the Francophone world while developing greater facility in speaking, reading, and writing in French. The Francophone world is first presented through the history of colonization, the slave trade, and the decolonization movements in several areas such as the Caribbean, Senegal, and Algeria. The diversity of Francophone cultures and voices is explored through a variety of cultural material including newspaper and magazine articles, and the work of directors and authors such as Ernest Pépin, Gisèle Pineau (Guadeloupe), Patrick Chamoiseau (Martinique), Assia Djebar, Leïla Sebbar, Lyes Salem (Algeria), Mariama Bâ, Ousmane Sembène, and Djibril Diop Mambety (Senegal). Class presentations and discussions are conducted entirely in French. Prerequisite(s): French 201. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. Normally offered every year. A. Dauge-Roth.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

FRE 235. Advanced French Language.The course is designed to develop facility in conversing and writing in idiomatic French with ease and fluency. Students review linguistic structures with attention to correct written expression. The course focuses on analysis and critical thinking in a variety of media such as film, fiction, documentary, essay, and journalism. Prerequisite(s): French 205, 207, or 208. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 15. [W2] L. Balladur.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE 240. Introduction to French Studies.In these courses, students examine literature in its social, political, and historical context with emphasis on the cultural interrelationship of text and society through short critical papers and class discussion in French. Open to first-year students. [W2]
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE 240E. Le Maghreb: Vue de l'Enfance.An appreciation and analysis of the amply recorded experience of childhood in North Africa. Students examine the rich body of memoirs, historical accounts, novels, films, and short stories that reveal the often tumultuous conditions of children caught in the calamity of colonization and its aftermath. Particular attention is paid to issues of gender, Orientalism, and religious and cultural diversity within the Maghreb. Authors include Sebbar, Ben Jelloun, Mernissi, and Amrouche and filmmakers Ferroukhi and Boughedir. Recommended background: French 207 or 208. Open to first-year students. [W2] K. Read.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE 240F. Borders and Disorders.A study of the various experiences of immigration that the Francophone world has made possible and, in certain cases, forced upon people for political and economic reasons. In an era of globalization, students examine how increasingly migrants must negotiate their sense of self through multiple heritages and places, and how Francophone novels and films imagine new forms of belonging that embrace the complex and fluid status of the migrant experience. How does one define "home" within one's host country without denying one's past and cultural origins? The course envisions the Francophone world as a theater of multiple encounters that lead to the creation of new hybrid identities that transform both the immigrant and the host country. Authors and filmmakers include Allouache, Benguigui, Bouchareb, Bouraoui, Condé, Kane, Mabanckou, Ngangura, Dardenne, Gomis, Sebbar, and Sembène. Prerequisite(s): French 207 or 208. [W2] A. Dauge-Roth.
Concentrations
FRE 240G. Science and Literature.This course explores the relationship between science and literature in France. French literature has a particularly rich tradition in which authors have explored this relationship, from those who participated in and investigated both fields, to science fiction writers, and more recently to authors who manipulate the literary form to express scientific theories. While the central theme of the course explores how French literature articulates scientific concepts, a background in science is not required. Readings provide students with a better understanding of certain key scientific concepts such as fractals, entropy, and information systems. Prerequisite(s): French 207 or 208. [W2] L. Balladur.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

AC/FR 240I. French in Maine.An appreciation and analysis of what it means to speak French and to be "French" in the local and regional context. Students examine questions of language, ethnic identity, and cultural expression through novels, short stories, autobiographies, film, and written and oral histories. Visits to local cultural sites enhance students' understanding of the Franco-American community and its heritage. Prerequisite(s): French 207 or 208. Not open to students who have received credit for French s35. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 20. [W2] M. Rice-DeFosse.
Concentrations
FRE 250. Introduction to French Literature I.An introduction to major French authors and forms of French literature through close readings, short papers, and discussion of texts selected from various periods of French literature. The purpose is to introduce the student to a critical approach to French literature. Although this is not a survey course, the first semester does concentrate on texts written before the French Revolution, and the second semester, on texts written after 1800. Some attention is paid to the socioeconomic context of the works studied and to questions of gender. Prerequisite(s): French 207 or 208. Open to first-year students. [W2] Normally offered every year. L. Balladur, A. Dauge-Roth.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE 250, 251. Introduction to French Literature I and II.An introduction to major French authors and forms of French literature through close readings, short papers, and discussion of texts selected from various periods of French literature. The purpose is to introduce the student to a critical approach to French literature. Although this is not a survey course, the first semester does concentrate on texts written before the French Revolution, and the second semester, on texts written after 1800. Some attention is paid to the socioeconomic context of the works studied and to questions of gender. Prerequisite(s): French 207 or 208. Open to first-year students. [W2] Normally offered every year. L. Balladur, A. Dauge-Roth.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE 251. Introduction to French Literature II.An introduction to major French authors and forms of French literature through close readings, short papers, and discussion of texts selected from various periods of French literature. The purpose is to introduce the student to a critical approach to French literature. Although this is not a survey course, the first semester does concentrate on texts written before the French Revolution, and the second semester on texts written after 1800. Some attention is paid to the socioeconomic context of the works studied and to questions of gender. Prerequisite(s): French 207 or 208. Open to first-year students. [W2] Normally offered every year. L. Balladur, A. Dauge-Roth.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE 261. French Civilization: The Changing Face of French Identity.This course traces the ways in which events have shaped French society and identity. Through various media (literature, art, film, television, popular culture, and the Internet), students explore the enduring importance of historical moments such as the conquest of Gaul, the Renaissance, the Edict of Nantes, the slave trade, the Revolution, the Dreyfus affair, and the two world wars. Students consider the effects of immigration, European unity, relations within the postcolonial Francophone world, and new constructions of the self. Prerequisite(s): French 207 or 208. Open to first-year students. M. Rice-DeFosse.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE 270. French Stylistics.An intensive review of French grammar with emphasis on developing facility in writing idiomatic French, through weekly compositions, written exercises, oral drills, and grammatical analysis of literary texts. Prerequisite(s): French 235, 240, 250, or 251. Open to first-year students. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE 271. Translation: Theory and Practice.A study of the problems of translation. Passages from newspapers and journals and from literary, technical, and scientific works are translated and analyzed. Prerequisite(s): French 207, 208, or 235. Open to first-year students. L. Balladur.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE 360. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study per semester. Normally offered every semester. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE 365. Special Topics.These courses are designed for the small seminar group of students who may have particular interests in areas of study that go beyond the regular course offerings. Periodic conferences and papers are required.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE 371. Literary Identity in Early French Literature. Students read and discuss aspects of literary identity in medieval and Renaissance literature, devoting particular attention to considerations of religion, gender, kinship, and nationality. Prerequisite(s): French 240, 250, or 251. Not open to students who have received credit for French 351. K. Read.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE 372. Woman Writer/Women Written.Reading and discussion of women writers of the seventeenth century with a focus on their important role in the formation of the novel. Attention is given to women as heroines or titular characters in the works of male authors of the period. Prerequisite(s): French 240, 250, or 251. Not open to students who have received credit for French 352. K. Read.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

FRE 373. Close-up on the Enlightenment: Film, Text, Context.This course explores twentieth-century film perceptions of France from the Enlightenment through the Revolution, either through adaptations of literary texts or representations of the ancient régime's historical, social, and political atmosphere. Readings of literary texts as well as contemporary criticism reveal the ways Enlightenment ideology is reshaped by twentieth-century film. Prerequisite(s): French 240, 250, or 251. Not open to students who have received credit for French 365F. Enrollment limited to 15. L. Balladur.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE 374. Écrire la Revolution: French Literature in the Nineteenth Century.This course explores a century of enormous political, socioeconomic, and cultural change through its literature. Students consider such authors as Staël, Nodier, Balzac, Hugo, Sand, Flaubert, Baudelaire, and Zola. Prerequisite(s): French 240, 250, or 251. Not open to students who have received credit for French 354. [W2] M. Rice-DeFosse.
Concentrations
FRE 375. The French Dis/Connection in Contemporary Literature.From Proust's quest at the beginning of the twentieth century to Nothomb's haunting fictions one century later, from Apollinaire's ideograms and vision of Paris to Bon's poetry of place, from Delbo's autobiographical account of the Holocaust to Perec's W ou le souvenir d'enfance, from La Vagabonde by Colette to Irigaray's Ce sexe qui n'en est pas un, contemporary French literature has been in constant dialogue with a century marked by social change, redefinition of gender, trauma, urban modernity, and mobility. This course explores how contemporary literature shaped the perceptions of such issues and examines its contribution by understanding its authors in their social and political context. Prerequisite(s): French 240, 250, or 251. Not open to students who have received credit for French 355. A. Dauge-Roth.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE 376. Femmes, Écrivaines.This course explores gender and voice in selected literary, political, and theoretical texts by French women from 1789 to the present. Through a study of writers such as Gouges, Sand, Tristan, Colette, Beauvoir, Duras, Condé, Cixous, and Irigaray, students explore the contributions of French women writers to women's writing, feminist theory, and questions of gender in social context. Prerequisite(s): French 240, 250, or 251. Not open to students who have received credit for French 365A. M. Rice-DeFosse.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE 377. Colon/Colonisé: Récits de l'Expérience Nord-Africaine.This course studies the colonial, postcolonial, and immigrant experience of North Africans as portrayed in Francophone literature. Readings include narratives and journals from the beginning of the colonial period in Algeria (1830), as well as the contemporary novels and discourse of feminists such as Assia Djebar, Malika Mokkadem, and Leïla Sebbar. Gender is often highlighted as a category of analysis. Prerequisite(s): French 240, 250, or 251. Not open to students who have received credit for French 365D. Instructor permission is required. K. Read.
Concentrations
FRE 378. Voix francophones des Antilles.An examination of literary voices from the French-speaking Caribbean from the first half of the twentieth century to the contemporary period, including works by authors such as Aimé Césaire, René Depestre, Edouard Glissant, Marie Chauvet, Maryse Condé, Gisèle Pineau, and Patrick Chamoiseau. The course explores topics such representations of colonial past and slavery, the Négritude movement, issues of political and social justice, hybridity, and créolité. Prerequisite(s): French 240, 250, or 251. Not open to students who have received credit for French 365G. M. Rice-DeFosse.
Concentrations
FRE 379. Documenting the Genocide of the Tutsi in Rwanda.This course presents a historical and rhetorical examination of various media and genres that bear witness to the Rwandan genocide of 1994 and question the ability to document genocide in Africa through Western modes of representation and information. Students analyze literary works written by Francophone sub-Saharan African writers such as Koulsy Lamko (Chad) and Boubacar Boris Diop (Senegal), the play Rwanda 94, written testimonies by Tutsi and Hutu survivors such as Yolande Mukagasana and Annick Kayitezi and those of foreign journalists present during or after the genocide such as Jean Hatzfeld, fictional films by Raoul Peck and Terry George, and numerous documentaries. Prerequisite(s): French 240, 250, or 251. Not open to students who have received credit for French 365H. Enrollment limited to 20. [W2] A. Dauge-Roth.
Concentrations
FRE 457. Senior Thesis.Open only to senior majors, with departmental permission. Before registering for 457 or 458 a student must present to the department chair an acceptable plan, including an outline and a tentative bibliography, after discussion with a member of the department. Students register for French 457 in the fall semester or for French 458 in the winter semester. Senior majors register for 457 or 458 only, unless the department gives permission for a second semester's credit because the nature of the project warrants it. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both French 457 and 458. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
FRE 457, 458. Senior Thesis.Open only to senior majors, with departmental permission. Before registering for 457 or 458 a student must present to the department chair an acceptable plan, including an outline and a tentative bibliography, after discussion with a member of the department. Students register for French 457 in the fall semester or for French 458 in the winter semester. Senior majors register for 457 or 458 only, unless the department gives permission for a second semester's credit because the nature of the project warrants it. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both French 457 and 458. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
FRE 458. Senior Thesis.Open only to senior majors, with departmental permission. Before registering for 457 or 458 a student must present to the department chair an acceptable plan, including an outline and a tentative bibliography, after discussion with a member of the department. Students register for French 457 in the fall semester or for French 458 in the winter semester. Senior majors register for 457 or 458 only, unless the department gives permission for a second semester's credit because the nature of the project warrants it. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both French 457 and 458. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
Short Term Courses
FRE s28. Social Pulse, Documentary Impulse.What kind of unique knowledge does a documentary film seek to offer? What are the strengths and the limits of this genre in our increasingly visual culture? Does the documentary impulse bring us closer to the "reality" of which it takes the pulse? Does it force us to face the existential and political practices it makes socially visible? How do documentary films, in comparison with historical fiction or novels, position their viewers and call for social engagement? Moreover, to what extent are documentary films able to renew our vision of postcolonial history and national memory? This course examines these issues through the works of several French and Francophone documentary filmmakers. Recommended background: French 201. A. Dauge-Roth.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE s33. France, Day by Day.This course offers an intensive immersion experience in French language and culture in Nantes (three weeks) and Paris (four days). The course pays close attention to the everyday, lived experience of French people; the homestay component is central to the course. Students live with families in the Nantes region for the three-week stay, exploring cultural similarities and differences. The course is organized around three discrete units: Nantes and Its History, Nantes and Food, and Nantes and the Arts. These units present a window onto French culture to deepen students' understanding of how they live day to day in families, together in class, and in their individual explorations of the city and region. At the end of the course, students spend four days in Paris. Prerequisite(s): French 201 and one French course beyond 201. Enrollment limited to 14. K. Read.
FRE s34. French Drama in Performance.A study and performance of scenes from French dramatic works from a variety of literary styles, movements, and eras. Students read, discuss, and perform dramatic works (or portions thereof) throughout the course and then conceive and create a coherent production of portions of these plays to be presented in public to area high schools and colleges. Readings may include the works of Molière, Racine, Beaumarchais, De Musset, Ionesco, and Duras, which, though drawn from a wide range of time periods and approaches, are assimilated and reconciled under a common theme to be determined by the class. Prerequisite(s): French 201. Recommended background: adequate oral fluency in French, good reading comprehension. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 25. K. Read.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE s36. The Evolution of French Cinema.A study of the development of theme, structure, and technique in French film through the works of directors such as Vigo, Clair, Renoir, Resnais, Godard, Truffaut, Kurys, Beneix, and Jeunet. Prerequisite(s): French 201. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 25. Instructor permission is required. M. Rice-DeFosse.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE s38. Learning with Orphans of the Genocide in Rwanda.From a perspective of civic engagement, students undertake an oral history project to understand the lives of orphans of the genocide of the Tutsis fifteen years after the catastrophic event. By evaluating the life stories, needs, challenges, sufferings, and hopes of these vulnerable survivors, students learn from them as they identify forms of social resilience and long-term negotiation of trauma. They consider the history of Rwanda, the origin of the genocide of 1994, and its aftermath. In Rwanda, they meet several important social actors and government officials involved in the process of memorialization, mourning, national reconciliation, and testimony. Prerequisite(s): French 235. Enrollment limited to 12. A. Dauge-Roth.
Concentrations
FRE s39. Tintin et les Intellos.The intrepid boy reporter Tintin is a cultural icon of vast international acclaim. His adventures, drawn and written by Georges Rémi (Hergé), have been translated into over fifty languages and sold hundreds of millions of copies. In this course, students explore the Tintin phenomenon as artistic production, as colonialist discourse, as commodified object, and as part of a distinctly European tradition of graphic storytelling. Readings include a selection of the twenty-three adventures, a biography of Hergé, and related critical works on the reception and controversy of Tintin's enduring popularity. All readings and discussions are in French. Prerequisite(s): French 201. Recommended background: another upper-level course in French. Enrollment limited to 30. K. Read.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

FRE s50. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study during a Short Term. Normally offered every year. Staff.
Spanish

Spanish is the most widely spoken language in the Americas, without even including ten percent of the United States population. It is also spoken in Spain, Equatorial Guinea, Israel, and the Philippines. The established cultural, political, and economic ties among all nations of the American continents underscore the importance of this discipline. The major in Spanish develops not only students' language skills, it exercises critical thinking around subjects related to the culture, literatures, art, and history of the Spanish-speaking peoples of all continents. Reading, discussing, and writing in Spanish are the principal activities of the major. Spanish majors are strongly encouraged to spend a year or a semester living and studying in a Spanish-speaking country. Students interested in graduate studies in Spanish or Latin American studies, or in business, medicine, law, or international relations, are encouraged to develop advanced proficiency in Spanish.

Major Requirements. Spanish majors acquire a broad knowledge of the different literatures and cultural histories of the Spanish-speaking peoples. In consultation with the faculty in Spanish, the student elects courses in a variety of areas. The requirements for the major consist of ten courses beyond Spanish 202. They must include:

1) At least three 200-level courses beyond Spanish 202.

2) One course taken outside of the Spanish program preapproved by the faculty in Spanish. This course may be chosen from a number of options from literary theory to history or politics of Latin America (e.g., Anthropology 234, English 295, History 181, Politics 249) or a research methods course in areas such as women and gender studies, African American studies, or American cultural studies. Study-abroad courses may count for this category.

3) At least two seminars on the literatures or cultural histories of Spain or Latin America (400-level) taught by Bates faculty, usually taken during senior year.

In addition, majors must complete a senior thesis (Spanish 457 or 458) written in Spanish. This may be a literary or cultural analysis of any topic related to the Hispanic world. Honors candidates register for Spanish 457 and 458.

Students interested in proposing an independent interdisciplinary studies major with a focus on Latin American studies should contact the chair of Spanish.

Minor in Spanish. A minor requires a minimum of seven courses in Spanish (or six courses and a designated Short Term course). At least one of the seven courses must be beyond 208. Advanced Placement courses may not be applied toward the minor.

Study Abroad. Spanish majors are encouraged to gain proficiency in the language through the experience of studying in a Spanish-speaking country. For the major a maximum of three credits is normally recognized for one semester and five for two semesters of study in a recognized program. For a minor the maximum number is two for one semester and three for two semesters. Students must obtain approval from a Spanish faculty member in order for their courses to count toward the major or minor; otherwise, credit is not guaranteed.

Pass/Fail Grading Option. The use of the pass/fail option is restricted to one course within the major and the minor. 400-level seminars cannot be taken pass/fail.

Courses
SPAN 101-102. Elementary Spanish I and II.
SPAN 103. Accelerated Elementary Spanish.Designed for students with significant prior experience in Spanish or another Romance language and for highly self-motivated students who wish to learn at a faster pace, the course reviews essential constructions and vocabulary covered in Elementary Spanish I and II in one semester. The course emphasizes oral proficiency and the development of reading and writing skills while fostering a cross-cultural understanding of the Spanish-speaking world with authentic texts and media. Not open to juniors or seniors. Not open to students who have received credit for Spanish 101 or 102. Enrollment limited to 22. Normally offered every year. Staff.
SPAN 201. Intermediate Spanish I.Designed to increase students' vocabulary and to improve mastery of language skills: speaking, listening, reading, and writing. The course provides a thorough review of grammar as well as an emphasis on conversational proficiency, expository writing, and Hispanic culture. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 103. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 22 per section. Normally offered every year. Staff.
SPAN 202. Intermediate Spanish II.Intensive practice in reading, composition, and conversation, as well as attention to selected grammar problems. The course focuses on discussion through visual presentations and selections of Hispanic literature, art, and culture. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 201. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 22 per section. Normally offered every year. Staff.
SPAN 207. Advanced Spanish: Culture and Language.This course develops oral fluency and aural acuity as well as reading and writing skills by means of directed and spontaneous classroom activities and regular written assignments. Conversations and compositions are based primarily on readings and films. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 202. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 20 per section. Normally offered every year. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 208. Advanced Spanish: Texts and Contexts.This course is a continuation of Spanish 207 with particular emphasis upon analyzing a variety of texts and developing more sophistication in writing. Conversations and compositions are based on both literary and cultural readings. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 202. Recommended background: Spanish 207. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 20 per section. Normally offered every year. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 215. Readings in Spanish American Literature.A survey of representative Spanish American literary texts. Major emphasis is on reading and discussing texts that relate to specific problems of literary form (such as poetry, theater, and novel), literary movements, and literary periodization. The topics are also discussed in their sociocultural contexts. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 207 or 208. Open to first-year students. [W2] Normally offered every year. Staff.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

SPAN 216. Readings in Peninsular Spanish Literature.A survey of representative peninsular Spanish texts. Major emphasis is on reading and discussing texts that relate to specific problems of literary form (such as poetry, theater, and novel), literary movements, and literary periodization. The topics are also discussed in their sociocultural contexts. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 207 or 208. Open to first-year students. [W2] Normally offered every year.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 216A. España en Blanco y Negro.Spanish literature developed complex representations of people of African descent since the Renaissance. Religious difference generated the new category of race. Cervantes, Quevedo, María de Zayas, or Lope de Vega created the first credible black characters in European literature at the time. Blacks reappeared in Spanish literature at the end of the twentieth century. Gender, class, sexuality, immigration, inter-racial love, and racial discrimination are the main topics of discussion in fiction, poetry, film, and television in productions where black writers and artists have a voice of their own. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 207 or 208. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. [W2] Normally offered every year. B. Fra-Molinero.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 217. Literatura en el cine.This course explores the complex relationship between literature and cinema in light of narrative techniques and the mechanical, social, cultural, political, and economic limitations that determine the representative possibilities of both media. Through the study of literary works and their cinematic adaptations from Latin America, Spain, and the United States, students consider the theoretical and practical debates—between writers and directors, publishers and producers, literary critics and film critics, and readers and viewers as consumers—that emerge in the process of transposition from the written word to film. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 207, 208, 215, or 216. C. Aburto Guzmán, D. George.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 250. The Latin American Short Story.A study of the short story as a genre in Latin America. Attention is given to the genre's definition and to the different trajectories and currents in its development. Students read major works as well as those by lesser-known writers. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 207 or 208. Open to first-year students. [W2] Normally offered every year. C. Aburto Guzmán.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

SPAN 251. Spanish Short Story.The first manifestations of the short story as a genre in Spanish date back to the Middle Ages. In this course, students consider the evolution of the genre, from the cultural hybridity that shaped the earliest short stories to contemporary approaches to the literary form. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 207 or 208. Recommended background: Spanish 216. [W2] F. López.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 301. Introduction to Translation.An introduction to the basic principles of translation: theories, methods, and techniques. With an emphasis on practical issues related to both language and culture, students focus on linguistic structure, text analysis, idiomatic expressions, and cultural specificities. Students improve their knowledge of the Spanish language and develop their translation skills through extensive practice both in the classroom and beyond. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 208 or one 200-level Spanish literature course. Enrollment limited to 15. F. López.
INDS 321. Afroambiente: Writing a Black Environment.This course studies the response of black writers and intellectuals of the Spanish-speaking world to issues related to the natural environment. In three countries, Ecuador, Puerto Rico, and Equatorial Guinea, modernity has brought serious challenges to notions of economic progress, human rights, and national sovereignty, as well as individual and communal identity. Course materials include written texts from local newspapers and magazines, as well as other sources of information such as Internet sites that discuss issues related to the environment and the arts. Prerequisite(s): one 200-level Spanish literature course. Cross-listed in African American studies, environmental studies, and Spanish. Not open to students who have received credit for Interdisciplinary Studies 320. B. Fra-Molinero.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

SP/WS 323. Gendered Experiences in the Américas Borderlands.This course reviews cultural productions of the gendered experiences of people's border crossings throughout the Américas. Students become acquainted with testimonies, film, photography, fictional narrative, and poetry as well as government reports on human trafficking and slave labor. Readings are in Spanish and English. All discussions and written assignments are in Spanish. Prerequisite(s): one Spanish 200-level literature course. Not open to students who have received credit for Spanish 223 or 323. C. Aburto Guzmán.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 330. Spanish-Speaking Caribbean Literature.This course examines the twentieth-century novel and short story of Spanish Caribbean nations, Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, and Cuba. Students explore the sociocultural place of Catholicism, African descendant spirituality, and race to determine the ways the Caribbean nation consecrates certain forms of religious practice while denigrating others. Race is examined in terms of the allocation of visible as well as less perceptible socioeconomic benefits. Critical writing, literary analysis, and the contextualization of the texts are developed in this course. Conducted in Spanish. Prerequisite: one of the following: Spanish 215, 216, 217, 250 or 251. M. Pettway.
SP/TH 341. Spanish Theater of the Golden Age.This course focuses on the study of Spanish classical drama of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Reading and critical analysis of selected dramatic works by Lope de Vega, Tirso de Molina, Calderón de la Barca, Miguel de Cervantes, Ana Caro, María de Zayas, and Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, among others, offer an insight into the totality of the dramatic spectacle of Spanish society during its imperial century. Conducted in Spanish. Prerequisite(s): one Spanish 200-level literature course. Not open to students who have received credit for Spanish/Theater 241 or Spanish 241. Not open to students who have received credit for SP/TH 241 or Spanish 241. Enrollment limited to 20. B. Fra-Molinero.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 345. Twentieth-Century Spanish Drama.A study of the evolution of political ideas and social values in Spain in the twentieth century through an examination of several plays. Interconnected and parallel sociocultural realities are analyzed along with different dramatic tendencies: from "poetic" to social-realist to avant-garde theater. Authors may include Lorca, Mihura, Buero Vallejo, Sastre, Nieva, Martín Recuerda, and Arrabal. Prerequisite(s): one 200-level Spanish literature course. Not open to students who have received credit for Spanish 445. F. López.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 348. Culturas de protesta.At different times and in different countries, many Hispanic writers, filmmakers, and other artists have felt compelled to create works that confront various types of social injustice. These range from the effects of imperialism to political repression, and often address issues of race, sexuality, gender, and class. In this course students analyze such "texts" within their respective social, political, and historical contexts. Prerequisite(s): one Spanish 200-level literature course. Not open to students who have received credit for Spanish 245. Enrollment limited to 25. F. López.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

SPAN 360. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study per semester. Normally offered every semester. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 362. Culture in Franco Spain.Through the analysis of literary texts and popular culture, this course focuses on the impact of ideology on cultural production in Spain from the 1930s to the 1970s. Students pay particular attention to representations of the nation in terms of time (history) and space (national isolation/international connections), and examine how censorship and dissent shaped the form and content of cultural products in Franco's Spain. Prerequisite(s): one 200-level Spanish literature course. Not open to students who have received credit for Spanish 262. F. López.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 366. Fantastic Hispanic Cinema.This course explores the genres of horror and fantasy in recent Spanish-language films by directors from Mexico, Chile, Argentina, Spain, and the United States. It considers how these works represent the supernatural, the diabolical, evil violence, fear, paranoia, and magic; create, perpetuate, and subvert categories of gender, class, race, and sexuality; and adapt and participate in key literary and cinematic genres such as the Gothic, parody, adventure, family drama, magical realism, and science fiction. Prerequisite(s): one 200-level Spanish literature course. Not open to students who have received credit for Spanish 266. Enrollment limited to 20. D. George.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 441. Cervantes.A careful reading and a comprehensive formal and thematic study of Don Quijote. Careful consideration is given to various pieces of Cervantine scholarship. The effects of Don Quijote on the genre of the novel are examined. Prerequisite(s): one 200-level Spanish literature course. Not open to students who have received credit for Spanish 341. B. Fra-Molinero.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 442. Hybrid Cultures: Latin American Intersections.Latin America is a space of intersections where cultures meet and/or crash. Concepts and experiences used to define, locate, and represent these cultures to each other are continuously modified at the crossings. This course aims to take literary products (novels, essays, short stories, and films) as a cross-section of this phenomenon. Each text identifies multiple oppositions that converge violently, merely scar the individual, or craft a new prism by which we can read the dynamics taking place in these intersections. Prerequisite(s): one 200-level Spanish literature course. Not open to students who have received credit for Spanish 342. Enrollment limited to 20. C. Aburto Guzmán.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

SPAN 444. Contemporary Spanish Women Writers.In this course, students use gender as the main category of analysis, paying particular attention to its interconnectedness with power. In-depth examination of texts written by women in contemporary Spain show their deliberate use of gender as a lens through which to understand different forms of domination—economic, political, and social. Prerequisite(s): one 200-level Spanish literature course. Not open to students who have received credit for Spanish 344. Instructor permission is required. F. López.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

SPAN 447. Guerra Civil or the Good Fight?.The Spanish Civil War is not only an important historical landmark, but also the main theme of a myriad of literary and filmic narratives produced since the establishment of democracy in Spain. The increasing popularity of fictional representations of this armed conflict, its political antecedent (Segunda República), and its consequence (el régimen de Francisco Franco), seems to point to a cultural need in democratic Spain—the need for origins. What is the role of these narratives? What do they say about the roots of Spanish democratic traditions? How do they negotiate conflict? What type of Spain do they propose? Prerequisite(s): one 200-level Spanish literature course. Not open to students who have received credit for Spanish 347. Enrollment limited to 15. F. López.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 449. Identity Discourses in Contemporary Latin America.This course examines Latin American intellectuals' responses to contemporary issues that directly affect regional identities. Readings include essays and fictional narratives that address (but are not limited to) topics such as modernity versus postmodernity in Latin America, neoliberalism and "pink" left ideologies, mega- and edge-city tensions, transculturation, and migration. Prerequisite(s): History 181, Politics 249, or one 200-level Spanish literature course. Not open to students who have received credit for Spanish 349. C. Aburto Guzmán.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

AA/SP 450. Representing Blacks in Cuban Literature: From the Colony to the Revolution.This course examines innovations and shifts in the representation of African descendants in Cuban literature. Students read narrative pieces, essays, letters, and poetry written by and about blacks that span the early colonial period to Revolutionary Cuba. Adapting an in-depth multi-disciplinary approach, black as object is critically analyzed in opposition to literary and historical texts that construct black as subject. Race, religion, slavery, and gender as well as the formation of Afro-Cuban subjectivities are the primary topics of study, revealing the black struggle against multiple structures of domination as well as the resilience to negotiate with power. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 215, 216, 217, 250, or 251. M. Pettway.
SPAN 454. Revolución en el cine.The late 1960s is recognized as a period of diverse and ill-fated revolutions and revolutionaries. From the 1967 assassination of Che Guevara to the 1968 invasion of Prague onward, film has been used to represent heroes, martyrs, and the circumstances surrounding these events. More recently, a variety of cinematographers have produced films as acts of dissidence, presenting a counter-discourse to the hegemonic collage of prevailing capitalistic values. In this course students examine film as a tool of revolutionary negotiation. They analyze the transformation and regional adaptations of representations of dissidence since the 1960s, and they look at early revolutionary creativity within the genre as well as the social functions adopted by Third Cinema. Prerequisite(s): one 200-level Spanish literature course. Not open to students who have received credit for Spanish 354. D. George, C. Aburto Guzmán.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 457. Senior Thesis.Research leading to writing of the senior thesis. Students participate in a limited number of group meetings, plus individual conferences. Students register for Spanish 457 in the fall semester and for Spanish 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both Spanish 457 and 458. A detailed outline and bibliography must be approved by the department. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
SPAN 457, 458. Senior Thesis.Research leading to writing of the senior thesis. Students participate in a limited number of group meetings, plus individual conferences. Students register for Spanish 457 in the fall semester and for Spanish 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both Spanish 457 and 458. A detailed outline and bibliography must be approved by the department. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
SPAN 458. Senior Thesis.Research leading to writing of the senior thesis. Students participate in a limited number of group meetings, plus individual conferences. Students register for Spanish 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both Spanish 457 and 458. A detailed outline and bibliography must be approved by the department. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
SPAN 465. Special Topics.Designed for the small seminar group of students who may have particular interests in areas of study that go beyond the regular course offerings. Periodic conferences and papers are required. Not open to students who have received credit for Spanish 365. Instructor permission is required. Staff.
SPAN 490F. La diaspora afrohispanica.The 500-year presence of descendants of Africans in the Spanish-speaking world has produced a significant body of literature by blacks and about blacks. Spanish America was the main destination of the African diaspora. Afro-Hispanic writers attest to the struggle for freedom and the abolition of slavery. Their literature shows how the participation of blacks in the wars of Latin American independence was a struggle for their emancipation. Afro-Hispanic writers in Spain, the Americas, and Africa use their art and ideas to address the postnational migrations of the twenty-first century, a diaspora that has not ceased. This course is conducted in Spanish but meets jointly, once a week, in English, with African American Studies 390F. Prerequisite(s): one 200-level Spanish literature course. Not open to students who have received credit for Spanish 390F. B. Fra-Molinero.
Concentrations
Short Term Courses
SPAN s20. Envisioning Catalan Modernity.Over 180 years, Catalan modernity has been envisioned and re-envisioned by novelists, architects, filmmakers, painters, politicians and poets through a continuous process of rupture and reconciliation between past and present. The economic and cultural revolution set in motion by the mid-nineteenth-century Renaixença (Renaissance) transformed Catalonia from a rural society to an urban industrial powerhouse that continues to influence Spanish, European, and global cultures in the twenty-first century. In this course students travel to the Catalan capital, Barcelona, to explore the real places and imaginary spaces that reflect and contest Catalonia's unique vision of modernity. Recommended background: Spanish 207. Enrollment limited to 16. One-time offering. D. George.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN s30. Escritura creativa: Cuento.This course combines reading and intensive writing. Students read carefully selected short stories in order to gain an understanding of the genre and to apply what they learn to their own craft. The focus is on the fundamentals of short fiction writing: structure, plot, voice, point of view, description, and dialogue. Class meetings follow a workshop format, with writing exercises, class discussions, and in-depth critique of students' writing. Prerequisite(s): one 200-level Spanish literature course. Enrollment limited to 15. F. López.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN s34. The Practice of Translation in Four Specialty Areas.The course gives the students the opportunity to practice translating documents pertinent to four specialty areas: medicine, law, business, and literature. Students translate documents daily and the translations are then revised as a group in class. Students develop new vocabulary, insight into the profession of translating, and familiarity with translation Web sites and document formatting. Prerequisite(s): Spanish 208 or an advanced Spanish course. C. Aburto Guzmán.
SPAN s50. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study during a Short Term. Normally offered every year. Staff.