Biology

Professors Ambrose, Baker, and Dearborn (chair); Associate Professors Abrahamsen, Bavis, Kinsman, and Kleckner; Assistant Professors Huggett and Williams; Visiting Assistant Professors Eller, Lord, and Richards; Lecturers Barry and Palin



Biology is the study of living systems and how they interact with the nonliving world and with one another. It is a discipline that bridges the physical and social sciences. Students who major in biology become familiar with all levels of biological organization from molecules to ecosystems, and gain practical experience in both laboratory and field studies. More information on the biology department is available on the website (bates.edu/biology).

Major Requirements.

1) One of the following:
CHEM 107A. Atomic and Molecular Structure/Lab.
CH/ES 107B. Chemical Structure and Its Impact on the Environment/Lab.
FYS 398. The Chemistry of Color/Lab.

One of the following:
CHEM 108A. Chemical Reactivity/Lab.
CH/ES 108B. Chemical Reactivity in Environmental Systems/Lab.
Prospective majors are strongly encouraged to complete this two-course introductory chemistry sequence in the first year.

One of the following:
Bio 244. Biostatistics.
CHEM 217-218. Organic Chemistry II/Lab.
Organic Chemistry (CHEM 217-218) is strongly recommended for students interested in attending graduate school, and required for those planning to apply to medical school programs.

2) At least ten courses in biology, of which a minimum of eight must be taken from the Bates faculty. Eight of the ten courses must be advanced courses (200-level and above, or the equivalent). Two introductory courses (100-level and s20 – s28, excluding INDS s15) may be applied toward the major, as long as at least one has a full laboratory component (designated in course descriptions by "[L]"). CHEM 125 and designated first-year seminars (FYS 243, 262, 282, 311, 372) may be used in place of a 100-level biology course. The ten biology courses must include:

a) BIO 190. Organismal Biology/Lab.
BIO 242. Cellular and Molecular Biology/Lab.
BIO 270. Ecology and Evolution/Lab.
Majors are strongly encouraged to complete these courses by the end of the sophomore year; they must be completed prior to the beginning of the senior year. BIO 242 and 270 have prerequisites.

b) Additional advanced biology courses (electives) to complete the ten courses required. The advanced courses may not include BIO 244 if BIO 244 is used to complete requirement (1) above, and may include no more than three research, junior seminar, or thesis credits from among BIO 360, 457, 458, 460, 470 through 478, and s50. The following courses may be substituted for one advanced biology course:
CHEM 321. Biological Chemistry I/Lab.
CHEM 322. Biological Chemistry II/Lab.
PSYCH 363. Physiological Psychology/Lab.

c) Completion of a capstone experience that includes either two of the following:
BIO 457. Senior Thesis.
BIO 458. Senior Thesis.
BIO 460. Junior Seminar.
BIO 471. Seminar and Research in Experimental Botany/Lab.
BIO 472. Seminar and Research in Physiology/Lab.
BIO 473. Seminar and Research in Cell Biology.
BIO 474. Seminar and Research in Marine Ecology/Lab.
BIO 475. Seminar and Research in Environmental Toxicology/Lab.
BIO 476. Seminar and Research in Evolutionary Biology.
BIO 477. Seminar and Research in Microbiology/Lab.
BIO 478. Seminar and Research in Molecular Genetics.
BIO 479. Seminar and Reserach: Biology in the Community/Lab.
Or, with prior approval, BIO 460 plus a service-learning project. With prior departmental approval, a semester-long research experience in certain approved programs, such as those offered at The Jackson Laboratory or Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, combined with BIO 460, may serve to fulfill the capstone experience.

3) Completion of the comprehensive examination requirement. The comprehensive examination requirement must be fulfilled by a satisfactory performance on the departmental comprehensive exam given once during the senior year. If a student's performance on the examination is unsatisfactory, the student cannot graduate as a biology major and must take the Bates examination when it is offered the following year in order to earn a Bates degree in biology.

Students may not major in biology and either biological chemistry or neuroscience.

Students planning to minor in chemistry may not use CHEM 321 or 322 toward both the chemistry minor and the biology major.


Planning for the Major. Prospective majors are urged to discuss course selection and scheduling with a member of the department in the first year, particularly if participation in an off-campus study program is anticipated. It is essential to take CHEM 107 and CHEM 108 in the first year. The department strongly encourages students to complete the required core courses before the end of their sophomore year to allow scheduling flexibility later. Completion of the core courses prior to the beginning of the senior year is required. The department also strongly advises that electives be chosen in close consultation with faculty to ensure breadth of knowledge within biology (from molecules and cells to organisms and ecosystems). Students may apply to include in the major a one-semester biology research internship at The Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine, or Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York. Alternatively, students who study abroad may apply up to two courses toward the major as electives if the courses are appropriate and pre-approved by the chair.

Pass/Fail Grading Option. Pass/fail grading may be elected for courses applied toward the major except for: BIO 190, 242, 270, and all 400-level courses.

Advanced Placement. Advanced Placement (AP) credit does not count toward the major. It cannot substitute for any course in the department and does not reduce the number of courses required for the major.

Courses
BIO 102. Sensory Biology.This course examines the biology of sensation in humans and other organisms. It focuses on the chemical (taste, smell) and mechanical (touch, hearing) senses, and includes other topics such as electroreception in fish, magnetoreception in migrating animals, and vision in vertebrates and invertebrates. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO 103 or s27. Enrollment limited to 40. [S] N. Kleckner.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 103. Sensory Biology/Lab.This laboratory course examines the biology of sensation in humans and other organisms. It focuses on the chemical (taste, smell) and mechanical (touch, hearing) senses, and includes other topics such as electroreception in fish, magnetoreception in migrating animals, and vision in vertebrates and invertebrates. Laboratory exercises examine our own senses (why, for example, do peppers seem hotter to some humans than others?), as well as those of other organisms, such as aversive behaviors to chemical or tactile stimuli in invertebrates, and reaction to touch in carnivorous plants. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO 102 or s27. Enrollment limited to 40. (Purposeful Work.) [S] [L] N. Kleckner.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 104. Forensic Science/Lab.Forensic science encompasses many scientific disciplines from cell and molecular biology to geology, anatomy, and physics. Using knowledge acquired through lectures, readings, and discussions, students perform many field and laboratory techniques used by crime-scene analysts. Critical thinking and analytical skills are used to analyze mock crime scenes. Students produce written analyses of their work, and present their findings and conclusions to their peers and others in various formats. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO s21. Enrollment limited to 10. [S] [L] L. Abrahamsen.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 108. Cancer.In this course, students examine the biological basis of cancer, including the role of oncogenes and tumor suppressors in regulating how the cell divides, how environmental agents and viruses can induce DNA mutations leading to cancerous growth, and the genetic basis of certain predispositions of inherited cancers. Students also examine how cancer treatments (radiation, chemotherapy drugs) work to kill cancerous cells. Finally, they explore emerging technologies that are developing new targeted cancer therapies, based on understanding the basic biological processes of cell division and blood vessel growth. Enrollment limited to 40. [S] S. Richards.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BI/GE 112. Oceanography/Lab.An integrated, interdisciplinary overview of the chemistry, physics, geology, and biology of the world's oceans. Topics include chemical and physical properties of sea water, ocean circulation, evolution of ocean basins, coastal geomorphology, the distribution and abundance of organisms in the major marine communities, the status of the world's most important fisheries, and the role of the ocean in the global carbon cycle. The course may include weekend field trips. Not open to students who have received credit for BI/GE 113. Enrollment limited to 40. [S] [L] [Q] W. Ambrose.
Concentrations
BI/GE 113. Marine Science.An integrated, interdisciplinary overview of the chemistry, physics, geology, and biology of the world's oceans. Topics include chemical and physical properties of sea water, ocean circulation, evolution of the ocean basins, coastal geomorphology, the distribution and abundance of organisms in the major marine communities, the status of the world's major fisheries, and the role of the ocean in the global carbon cycle. Lectures are supplemented by demonstrations and occasional laboratory exercises, though the course does not fulfill the General Education laboratory requirement. Not open to students who have received credit for BI/GE 112. Enrollment limited to 40. [S] [Q] W. Ambrose.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 114. Extreme Physiology.Physiology, the study of how organisms function, has benefited tremendously from studies of amazing animals doing amazing things. How do bar-headed geese fly over the top of Mount Everest when humans struggle to reach the summit? How do fish withstand body temperatures below the freezing point of water? This course explores how animals work under extreme environmental conditions and what this reveals about human physiology in health and disease. Enrollment limited to 40. [S] R. Bavis.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 117. Plants and Human Affairs.A survey of economically and historically important plants, with emphasis on aspects of agronomy, forestry, plant biochemistry, and ethnobotany. Plant products studied include perfumes, spices, medicinals, fermentation products, oils, rubber, textiles, wood, sugar, cereals, and legumes. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO 124 or s20. Enrollment limited to 40. [S] Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 118. Insects and Human Health/Lab.Insects—numerous, ubiquitous, diverse, and uniquely equipped—play significant roles in human and ecosystem health, and have influenced human history and culture in ways both obvious and obscure. This course introduces insect biology and diversity, and explores insects' influence on human affairs with a particular emphasis on health. Topics include insect function, evolution, and interspecific relationships; insects' roles in human disease, health, and policy; and human endeavors to flourish in coexistence with beneficial and harmful insects. Enrollment limited to 40. [S] [L] Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BI/CH 122. Structure and Function of DNA, RNA, and Proteins. How does a virus or a bacterial cell develop drug resistance? How does a colony of fruit flies adapt to living in a new environment? Changes in the sequences and/or shapes of DNA, RNA, and proteins can alter their physical and chemical properties, influencing the survival of an organism in an environment. This course introduces the physical and chemical properties of these important molecules and their roles in the Central Dogma of molecular biology. Examples of molecular evolution and adaptation in a variety of biological systems are studied. Enrollment limited to 40. [S] P. Schlax.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 124. Plants and Human Affairs/Lab.A survey of economically and historically important plants, with emphasis on aspects of agronomy, forestry, plant biochemistry, and ethnobotany. Plant products studied include perfumes, spices, medicinals, fermentation products, oils, rubber, textiles, wood, sugar, cereals, and legumes. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO 117 or s20. Enrollment limited to 40. [S] [L] Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 127. Emerging and Reemerging Infections across the Globe.Emerging infections are those that are newly described, appear in different geographic regions, or move into new host populations. Reemerging infections are those that were controlled in the past but are again of concern. In this course students examine the biology of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other organisms that cause these infections as well as the mechanisms by which they produce disease. Consideration is given to transmission patterns, treatments, and prevention. Topics may include infections of global concern such as malaria, tapeworms, dengue fever, HIV-AIDS, polio and other childhood diseases, cholera, and tuberculosis. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO s28, FYS 236 or 262. Enrollment limited to 40. [S] K. Palin.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 158. Evolutionary Biology.Evolution is the great unifying theory in biology. It is the context into which all other biological subjects fit. The course examines various aspects of evolution, including the origin of life, the major events in the evolution of life on Earth, the processes that result in evolutionary change, the nature of the fossil record, the history of evolutionary theories, and creationist objections to these theories. Enrollment limited to 40. [S] R. Barry.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 190. Organismal Biology/Lab.An introduction to the biology of plants and animals with an emphasis on the evolution of structure, function, and diversity within these groups. The inquiry-based, collaborative laboratory studies introduce students to fundamental principles of form and function in the organismal world, the quantitative analysis of data, scientific writing, and utilizing the primary literature. This course is intended to serve as the entry point for all life science majors including biology, biological chemistry, neuroscience, and environmental studies (science concentration). Not open to students who have received credit for BIO 101. Enrollment limited to 70. [S] [L] [Q] Normally offered every year. Staff.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

BIO 209. Global Change in Marine Systems.Global changes including warming, ocean acidification, and the spread of invasive species greatly impact marine systems, but not all species or communities respond the same way. Why are some coral reefs devastated by warmer water, while others remain unaffected? Why could climate change stop ocean currents from flowing and why would this matter? Why are some species and ecosystems more susceptible to climate change and invasive species than others? This course explores how climate change, overfishing, and bio-invasions interact with each other and impact marine species in tropical to arctic and coastal to deep-sea environments. Prerequisite(s): BIO 190. New course beginning Winter 2015. Enrollment limited to 30. [S] One-time offering. J. Lord.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 211. Marine Invertebrates/Lab.A survey of the varieties, morphology, development, evolution, and behavior of invertebrates with an emphasis on marine animals. Laboratory work includes the study, through dissection and experiment, of representative organisms. The course includes field trips to local marine habitats. Prerequisite(s): BIO 190. Enrollment limited to 14 per section. [S] [L] J. Lord.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 221. Plant and Fungal Diversity/Lab.A survey of fungi, plant-like protists and monerans, algae, bryophytes, ferns and fern allies, gymnosperms, and angiosperms. Lecture, laboratory, and field studies emphasize diversity in morphology, physiology, evolution, ecology, and human uses. Prerequisite(s): one 100-level biology course. Open to first-year students. [S] [L] [Q] Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BI/ES 232. Global Change in Terrestrial Systems.In this course students investigate how global change is affecting terrestrial ecosystems. Plants are the dominant organisms in these systems. Students discuss how adaptations to particular environments may favor or hinder individual species in the future, and how ecology and physiology interact when it comes to species responses to global change. They consider processes from the leaf to ecosystem levels and discuss how natural and agricultural systems are likely to be affected by changes in temperature and water availability, rising carbon dioxide and gaseous pollutants, and alterations in soil chemistry and nutrient availability. Prerequisite(s): BIO 117, 124, 190, or ENVR 203. New course beginning Winter 2015. Open to first-year students. [S] One-time offering. A. Eller.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 242. Cellular and Molecular Biology/Lab.A view of life at the cellular and molecular levels. Topics include cellular energetics, membrane phenomena, genetics, and molecular biology. Laboratory studies include enzymology, bacterial transformation, the light reactions of photosynthesis, Mendelian genetics, bioinformatics, and DNA analysis using gel electrophoresis and polymerase chain reaction. Quantitative analysis of data and peer-reviewed scientific writing are emphasized. This course is required for the biology, biological chemistry, and neuroscience majors. Prerequisite(s): BIO 190 and CHEM 108A or CH/ES 108B. Enrollment limited to 60. [S] [L] [Q] [W2] Normally offered every year. Staff.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

BIO 244. Biostatistics.A course in the use of both descriptive and inferential statistics in the biological sciences, including such topics as types of data, population structure, probability distributions, common types of statistical inference (t-, F-, and chi-square tests), correlation and regression, analysis of variance, and an introduction to nonparametric statistics. Prerequisite(s): BIO 190. Enrollment limited to 50. [S] [Q] Normally offered every year. R. Barry.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BI/MA 255A. Mathematical Models in Biology.Mathematical models are increasingly important throughout the life sciences. This course provides an introduction to discrete and continuous models in biology. Examples are chosen from a variety of biological and medical fields such as ecology, molecular evolution, and infectious disease. Computers are used extensively for modeling and analyzing data. Prerequisite(s): MATH 205. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. [Q] Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 260. Environmental Toxicology/Lab.Environmental toxicology is the study of the impacts of pollutants on organisms and the structure and function of ecological systems. It draws from a variety of disciplines, including ecology, chemistry, organismal and developmental biology, genetics, epidemiology, and mathematics. This course provides an overview of the field by discussing toxicant introduction, movement, distribution, and fate in the environment; toxicant sites and mechanisms of action in organisms and ecosystems; and toxicant impact on organisms and ecosystems. Basics of toxicity testing design and analysis are an important part of the laboratory. Prerequisite(s): BIO 190 and CHEM 108A or CH/ES 108B; or ENVR 203. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 24. [S] [L] Staff.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

BIO 265. Invasive Plant Ecology/Lab.Species transported and established beyond their original range may become invasive, changing the distribution and abundance of local species, and altering the composition, structure, and dynamics of local communities. This course uses knowledge of the ecology of plants—including individual adaptations and abilities; population dynamics; community patterns and dynamics; life history and reproduction; and interactions with mutualists, competitors, and herbivores—to recognize and evaluate the patterns and causes of invasive plant species' effects on communities and ecosystems. Discussions of research literature emphasize the mechanisms of effects; field laboratories emphasize identification, assessment in common and rare local community types, and management planning. Some Saturday field trip laboratories are required. Prerequisite(s): BIO 190, 221, or 270. Enrollment limited to 12. [S] [L] Staff.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

BIO 268. Entomology/Lab.A study of insects, the largest group of animals. Lectures and laboratories emphasize insect morphology and physiology, evolution and classification as well as behavior, ecology, and experimental research. Selected topics may include flight, development and hormones, variations in life cycles and reproductive modes, courtship and parental care, and evolution of mutualisms, defense, and social behavior. Certain laboratories are scheduled as weekend afternoon field trips. In addition, one overnight museum field trip may be scheduled. Prerequisite(s): BIO 190, 114, or 118. Enrollment limited to 14 per section. [S] [L] Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 270. Ecology and Evolution/Lab.An introduction to ecological and evolutionary patterns, principles, and processes. Topics include life history and adaptation, speciation, mechanisms of evolution, population dynamics and interactions, community structure, and ecosystem processes. Laboratories include experimental investigations of several levels of biological organization using cooperative lab groups. Prerequisite(s): BIO 190. [S] [L] [Q] [W2] Normally offered every year. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BI/GE 306. Paleobiology/Lab.Life on Earth has a history of more than three billion years, and organisms and environments have changed a great deal during that time. This course focuses on changes within and among biological lineages from life's earliest origins to the most recent Ice Age, with an emphasis on how abiotic conditions at the Earth's surface have influenced living organisms and vice versa. Laboratory exercises focus on techniques used by scientists to study ancient biological and geological processes, including geochemistry, comparative anatomy, taphonomy, and experimental paleontology. Prerequisite(s): one 200-level course in biology or geology. New course beginning Winter 2015. Enrollment limited to 20. One-time offering. H. Christensen.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BI/NS 308. Neurobiology/Lab.An introduction to the molecular and cellular principles of neurobiology and the organization of neurons into networks. Also included are the topics of developmental and synaptic plasticity, and the role invertebrate systems have played in our understanding of these processes. Laboratories include electrical recordings from nerve cells, computer simulation and modeling, and the use of molecular techniques in neurobiology. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242. Enrollment limited to 12 per laboratory section. [S] [L] [Q] Normally offered every year. N. Kleckner.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 311. Comparative Anatomy of the Chordates/Lab.An introduction to the comparative anatomy of the vertebrates and their kin, with laboratory study of both sharks and mammals. Prerequisite(s): BIO 190. Enrollment limited to 18. [S] [L] R. Barry.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 313. Marine Ecology/Lab.An examination of the complex ecological interactions that structure marine systems. Habitats studied include intertidal, estuary, coral reef, deep sea, salt marsh, and pelagic. Laboratories include work in local marine communities and require occasional weekend trips. Prerequisite(s): BIO 270. Enrollment limited to 12 per laboratory section. [S] [L] [Q] W. Ambrose.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 314. Virology.A lecture and seminar examination of the molecular biology of viruses, including viroids and bacteriophages. Topics include viral infection and replication cycles, morphology, oncogenesis, and virus-host interactions. Viruses of epidemiologic and biotechnologic importance are emphasized. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242. Enrollment limited to 30. (Purposeful Work.) [S] L. Abrahamsen.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

BIO 315. Bacteriology/Lab.A survey of the structure and physiology of bacteria, emphasizing adaptations of these organisms to specific environmental niches. Particular attention is given to organisms of medical, ecological, or industrial interest. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242. Enrollment limited to 25. [S] [L] [Q] Normally offered every year. L. Abrahamsen.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

BIO 321. Cellular Biochemistry.This course explores the biochemical mechanisms of cellular functions with the goal of extending student knowledge about the structure, synthesis, and metabolism of biological macromolecules and contextualizing the regulation of these molecules in healthy and diseased cells and tissues. The course does not satisfy a requirement for the biological chemistry major. Not open to students who have received credit for CHEM 321 or 322. [S] N. Kleckner, S. Richards.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 328. Developmental Biology/Lab.Developmental biology is a dynamic field that addresses questions related to how organisms come into being and grow. This course introduces students to developmental biology with a particular emphasis on the molecular basis for developmental events. The course focuses on the mechanisms involved in making cells that are different from one another (cell differentiation) and the associated mechanisms by which patterns are created (morphogenesis). In the lab, students explore the phenomenon of development in several of the most prominently utilized model organisms. The lab culminates in an independent project. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242. Enrollment limited to 20. [S] [L] Normally offered every year. L. Williams.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 330. Advanced Genetics/Lab.A lecture and laboratory exploration of the principles of inheritance. Topics include viral, bacterial, and human genetics, population genetics, the genetics of model organisms, and genomics. Readings include primary literature. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242. Not open to students who have received credit for BI/ES 333. Enrollment limited to 16. [L] D. Dearborn.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

BIO 331. Molecular Biology/Lab.A laboratory and lecture introduction to the molecular biology of genes and chromosomes. The course emphasizes current research about gene structure and function, experimental techniques, and eukaryotic genetics. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242. [S] [L] Normally offered every year. L. Williams.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

BI/ES 333. The Genetics of Conservation Biology/Lab.Conserving biodiversity is important at multiple scales, including genetic variation within species. Does a species have enough variation to evolve in a changing world? Are individuals differentially adapted to local environmental variation? In a captive population of a rare animal, which individuals should be bred to minimize the erosion of genetic variation? Lectures and labs cover the fundamentals of classical, molecular, and population genetics, applying them to current issues in biological conservation. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242 or 270. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO 330. Enrollment limited to 15. [S] [L] D. Dearborn.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 337. Animal Physiology/Lab.The major physiological processes of animals, including digestion, circulation, respiration, excretion, locomotion, and both neural and hormonal regulation. Examples are drawn from several species and include a consideration of the cellular basis of organ-system function. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242. Enrollment limited to 12 per laboratory section. [S] [L] [Q] Normally offered every year. R. Bavis.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

BIO 338. Drug Actions on the Nervous System.This course focuses on the biochemistry and physiology of neural tissues. An emphasis is placed on neurotransmitter systems, and on drugs thought to act on these systems. The relationships between the actions of drugs at molecular, cellular, and behavioral levels are also discussed. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242. Recommended background: NS/PY 200, 363, or BI/NS 308. [S] N. Kleckner.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

BIO 340. Introduction to Epidemiology.Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of disease, injuries, and health within populations. This course examines the frequencies and types of illnesses and injuries within various groups and the multiple factors that influence their distribution. Students consider infectious, chronic, emerging, and reemerging diseases of historical and current importance. Models and preventions are discussed. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242 or 270. Enrollment limited to 30. [S] K. Palin.
Concentrations
BIO 342. Ecological and Evolutionary Physiology.This course explores the interaction between the environment and physiological phenotypes in animals while emphasizing the role of evolutionary processes in shaping physiological variation. Topics may include the evolution of endothermy, adaptation to extreme environments (e.g., high altitudes, deserts), and controversial concepts such as symmorphosis. Readings from the primary scientific literature highlight diverse methodological approaches used to understand the evolution of physiological traits, such as comparative and phylogenetic analysis, selection experiments, genetic and phenotypic manipulation, and quantitative genetics. Prerequisite(s): BIO 270. [S] R. Bavis.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 350. Immunology.A comprehensive survey of the immune system: those physiological processes responsible for distinguishing self from non-self, preventing debilitating infection, and clearing tumors. After building a thorough understanding of the function of the innate and adaptive immune systems in health, students explore the contribution of immune dysfunction to important diseases such as allergy, autoimmunity, AIDS, and cancer. Medical approaches to immune modulation such as vaccination, anti-inflammatory therapeutics, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are discussed. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO 351. Enrollment limited to 30. [S] Staff.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

BIO 351. Immunology/Lab.The immune system is studied as an example of the body's chemical communication networks and as one mechanism for memory. Topics include production of an immune response, immune surveillance in the maintenance of health, the effects of psychological and environmental factors on the immune system and on health, and the effects of immune dysfunctions (autoimmune diseases and immune deficiencies including AIDS). The course emphasizes the human immune system but briefly covers comparative immunology. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO 350. Enrollment limited to 30. [S] [L] Staff.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

BIO 355. Advanced Topics in Evolution.This course offers an advanced exploration of how evolution works. The first portion of the course is devoted to an overview of the major topics in evolution, ranging from micro-scale processes, such as mutation, to macro-scale processes, such as mass extinction events. The second portion of the course delves deeply into a small number of topics which vary from year to year but may include, for example, host-parasite arms races, sexual selection, and the evolution of aging. Prerequisite(s): BIO 270. Enrollment limited to 15. D. Dearborn.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 360. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study per semester. Normally offered every semester. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 365. Special Topics.Offered at irregular intervals by a faculty member in an area of contemporary interest.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 380. Plant Physiology/Lab.A study of organismal and cellular functions important in the life of green plants. Topics include mineral nutrition, water relations, metabolism, and regulatory processes. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242. Enrollment limited to 20. [S] [L] [Q] B. Huggett.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

BIO 457. Senior Thesis.Permission of the department and the thesis advisor are required. Students register for BIO 457 in the fall semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both BIO 457 and 458. Instructor permission is required. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 458. Senior Thesis.Permission of the department and the thesis advisor are required. Students register for BIO 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both BIO 457 and 458. Instructor permission is required. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 460. Junior Seminar.Reading original biological literature is an essential skill for biology majors. Focusing on the topics addressed by invited speakers for the semester's biology seminar program, students review articles, write analyses, and contribute oral presentations in a small group format. Students attend afternoon and/or evening seminars and discuss the content, context, and presentation of original investigations. Prerequisite(s): BIO 190, 242, and 270. One of these courses may be taken concurrently, only by permission of the instructor. Enrollment limited to 20. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 472. Seminar and Research in Physiology/Lab.Laboratory or library study of a current research topic in animal physiology. A topic is selected with reference to the research interests of the instructor. Recommended background: BIO 337. Enrollment limited to 6. Instructor permission is required. [S] [L] [Q] [W3] R. Bavis.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 473. Seminar and Research in Cell Biology.Laboratory and library study of a current research topic in the experimental study of biology at the cellular level. A topic is selected with reference to the research interests of the instructor. Recommended background: BIO 242. Enrollment limited to 6. Instructor permission is required. [W3] Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 474. Seminar and Research in Marine Ecology/Lab.Laboratory, field, and library study of advanced topics in marine ecology. Topics are selected in relation to research interests of the instructor and students. Prerequisite(s): BIO 244 and 270. Recommended background: BIO 211. Enrollment limited to 6. Instructor permission is required. [S] [L] [Q] [W3] W. Ambrose.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 476. Seminar and Research in Evolutionary Biology.Laboratory or library study of a current research topic in evolutionary biology. A topic is selected in reference to the research interests of the instructor. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242 and 270. Enrollment limited to 6. Instructor permission is required. [S] [L] [Q] [W3] D. Dearborn.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 477. Seminar and Research in Microbiology/Lab.Laboratory and library study of a current research topic in microbiology or immunology. Topics are selected with reference to the research interests of the instructor and students. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242. Enrollment limited to 6. Instructor permission is required. [S] [L] [Q] [W3] Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 478. Seminar and Research in Molecular Genetics.Laboratory and library study of a current research topic in molecular biology and genetics. Topics are selected with reference to the research interests of the instructor. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242. Enrollment limited to 6. Instructor permission is required. [W3] S. Richards.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 479. Seminar and Research: Biology in the Community/Lab.Field and library study of biological research topics with applications in the broader community. Topics are selected with reference to the research and community interests of the instructor. Enrollment limited to 6. [S] [L] [Q] [W3] K. Palin.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

Short Term Courses
BIO s11. Ethnobotany.An introduction to botany and the many uses of plants by humans. Topics include the morphology, function, and biology of plants as related to uses in medicines, spiritual rituals, food and beverages, instrument making, and shelter. Lecture, laboratory, and field trips provide an in-depth study of the human uses of plants from primitive to modern cultures, from Maine to Africa. New course beginning Short Term 2015. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO 117 or 124. Enrollment limited to 18. Normally offered every other year. B. Huggett.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO s12. Experimental Marine Ecology.Many major ecological concepts have roots in experimental marine ecology and experiments conducted in the intertidal zone. What role does temperature play in structuring marine community composition with latitude? How does wave exposure impact survival of intertidal organisms? Lectures introduce major topics and provide background in marine ecological theory and experimental design. Experiments are conducted at multiple sites along the New England coast, with at least two overnight trips of two to four nights that may include weekends. The field component immerses students in marine ecological research and allows them to design, conduct, and analyze large-scale experiments. New course beginning Short Term 2015. Enrollment limited to 15. One-time offering. J. Lord.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

INDS s15. Health, Culture, and Community.This course examines dimensions of health through classroom and community-based experiences, with a special emphasis on current public health issues. The course covers the history and organization of public health; methods associated with health-related research; disparities in health, including those related to race, class, and gender; public policy and health; population-based approaches to public health; and cultural constructions of health and illness. The course is designed to be integrative: expertise from different disciplines is used to address current challenges in public health. Cross-listed in anthropology, biology, and psychology. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. (Diversity.) K. Palin.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO s21. Forensic Science/Lab.Forensics is the utilization and application of scientific information to criminal and civil law. The field of forensics utilizes a number of scientific disciplines including cell biology, molecular biology, genetics, entomology, chemistry, physics, anatomy, biochemistry, geology, and botany. Through lectures, readings, field trips, and discussions, students acquire the knowledge necessary to perform many field and laboratory techniques used by crime-scene analysts. Students then use critical thinking and analytical skills to process mock crime scenes, perform the appropriate laboratory tests, and present their findings and conclusions to their peers. Can they solve the case? Not open to students who have received credit for BIO 104. Enrollment limited to 20. [S] [L] S. Richards.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO s23. Understanding Cancer/Lab.As a cause of mortality in the Western world, cancer is second only to cardiovascular disease. What causes cancer? How is cancer diagnosed and classified? How do flaws in fundamental biological processes drive cancerous growth? What are current therapeutic options and potential new treatments in the fight against cancer? These questions are explored in the classroom and the laboratory. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO 108. Enrollment limited to 40. [S] [L] S. Richards.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO s25. Microbes and Everyday Life/Lab.Microorganisms, most so small that we cannot see them without microscopes, run the world in which we live. They recycle elements and nutrients, play a role in wastewater treatment, cause disease and keep us healthy, produce some of our food and many of our pharmaceutical products, and much more. Through readings, discussions, field trips, and laboratory investigations, students explore the remarkable diversity in habitats and metabolic activities exhibited by the microbial world we encounter every day. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO 315. Enrollment limited to 20. [S] [L] K. Palin.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BI/GE s26. Dinosaur Biology and Ecology.Dinosaurs appear frequently in movies and popular culture, yet are often misunderstood in the popular imagination. This course focuses on dinosaurs as animals, including evolution, ecology, and eventual extinction, as well as the role of dinosaur remains in myth and legend among ancient human cultures. Lab periods include hands-on experience cleaning and preparing dinosaur skeletal material for incorporation into a research collection. Short field trips to fossil sites in the Connecticut River Valley and the Joggins Fossil Cliffs UNESCO World Heritage Site in Nova Scotia are included. Prerequisite(s): one 100-level course in biology or geology. New course beginning Short Term 2015. Enrollment limited to 18. One-time offering. H. Christensen.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO s28. Emerging and Reemerging Infections.Emerging and reemerging infections have the potential to impact all populations, human and nonhuman, in all regions of the world. How are these infections defined and described? What types of organisms cause them? What mechanisms are involved? How do such infections spread within and between populations? How are they controlled? On the global scale, can emerging and reemerging infections be eliminated? These questions and related topics are explored through readings, discussions, and computer simulations. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO 127. Enrollment limited to 30. [S] K. Palin.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO s31. Avian Biology.Birds are among the most conspicuous animals in the environment, occupying terrestrial and aquatic niches from the tropics to the poles. This course examines the origin and diversification of birds and explores avian morphology, physiology, and behavior in an ecological and evolutionary context. Topics include flight, communication, feeding, migration, and reproduction. The course includes a laboratory and requires several extended field trips. Prerequisite(s): BIO 270. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO 335. Enrollment limited to 12. D. Dearborn.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO s32. The Ecology and Evolutionary Biology of the Galapagos Archipelago.This course studies the principles of ecology and evolutionary biology in the birthplace of the theory of evolution by natural selection. The Galapagos archipelago is one of the world's most important areas for biology given its isolation, rough terrain, and distinct oceanographic features. Students visit several islands during a three-week trip to explore terrestrial and marine ecosystems using field techniques. Island habitats are contrasted to learn how organisms have been shaped by the abiotic environment and by the spatial arrangement of the islands. Home stays and community-engaged learning are an integral part of the course. Prerequisite(s): BIO 158 or 270. Enrollment limited to 18. Instructor permission is required. [S] [L] [Q] Normally offered every other year. L. Williams.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO s33. Phenotypic Plasticity/Lab.The ability of organisms to express different morphological, physiological, and behavioral traits in different environments has emerged as a key principle in modern biology. This course explores the proximate physiological basis of this phenotypic plasticity. Other topics include the genetic basis and evolution of phenotypic plasticity, as well as the roles of plasticity in health and disease. Examples are drawn from both animal and plant studies. The course is organized around discussion of the primary scientific literature and research projects selected with reference to research interests of the instructor. Prerequisite(s): BIO 190. Recommended background: BIO 270. Enrollment limited to 8. Instructor permission is required. [S] [L] [Q] R. Bavis.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO s34. Electron Microscopy/Lab.An introduction to the principles of electron optics with emphasis on biological applications. Topics covered in classroom and laboratory activities and on field trips include use of the scanning electron microscope, use of associated X-ray dispersive and cytochemical techniques, preparation of specimens for scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and interpretation of data. Special interest topics are chosen by students for independent research projects. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO 341. Enrollment limited to 8. [S] [L] Staff.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

BIO s35. Experimental Toxicogenomics/Lab.Students learn principles and techniques of toxicology, genomics, and developmental biology. Drawing on primary literature, students form hypotheses about organ systems and genes that are likely targets of developmental arsenic exposure. They test their hypotheses using a zebrafish model system. Laboratory techniques that monitor normal zebrafish development and assess gene expression are integral to the laboratory research component of the course. Students live and work for two weeks at the Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory. Prerequisite(s): any 100-level biology or chemistry course. Enrollment limited to 16. [S] [L] Staff.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

BIO s36. Mammalogy/Lab.Students study the structure, taxonomy, behavior, ecology, evolution, and public health significance of mammals, and history of the science of mammalogy. Laboratory and field exercises emphasize anatomy, identification, capture techniques, habitat analysis, home-range estimation, and habitat characterization. Several day-long and overnight field trips are planned. Prerequisite(s): BIO 190. Recommended background: BIO 244. Enrollment limited to 18. [S] [L] [Q] R. Barry.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO s37. The North Woods.An investigation of the patterns and history of New England's forests and associated plant communities, with an emphasis on field study and research. Students review the influences of geological patterns, climate, unusual soil and water conditions, natural disturbances, invasive plants and insects, and human activities on community type, occurrence, and history. Central to the course are visits to a variety of field sites, where students learn to describe the structure, composition, and history of several communities. Primary literature is emphasized. Prerequisite(s): BIO 270 or ENVR 310. Enrollment limited to 8. [S] [L] Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO s40. Experimental Developmental and Molecular Biology/Lab.In this hands-on, laboratory-based course, students learn and practice the scientific method. Living and working at the Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory, known for its educational and research programs focusing on non-mammalian systems, students work with the important vertebrate model system, zebrafish, and utilize cutting-edge molecular and microscopy techniques to address questions related to protein pathways involved in the developmental process. Independent projects and oral presentations are a central requirement of the course. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242. Enrollment limited to 12. [S] [L] L. Williams.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO s44. Experimental Neuro/Physiology/Lab.A study of contemporary research techniques in the fields of neurobiology, physiology, and pharmacology. Topics may include the pharmacology of recombinant neurotransmitter receptors or the physiology and pharmacology of invertebrate neurons. This course requires extensive laboratory work in independent projects. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242. Enrollment limited to 12. Instructor permission is required. [S] [L] N. Kleckner.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

BIO s50. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study during a Short Term. Normally offered every year. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations