Chemistry

Professors Lawson (chair), Schlax, and Wenzel; Associate Professors Côté and Koviach-Côté; Assistant Professor Kennedy; Visiting Assistant Professors Bazilio, Mandletort and Nelson



Chemistry deals with phenomena that affect nearly every aspect of our lives and environment. A liberal arts education in this scientific and technological age should include some exposure to the theories, laws, applications, and potential of this science.

Majors in chemistry and biological chemistry are offered. The chemistry curriculum is sufficiently flexible to allow students with career interests in areas such as the health professions, law, business, and education to design a major program suitable to their goals. Students interested in careers in chemistry or biochemistry will find chemistry electives that provide a strong background for work in graduate school, industry, or other positions requiring a strong foundation in chemistry. The department and its curriculum are approved by the American Chemical Society (ACS), and an ACS-certified major is offered. More information on the chemistry department and the majors is available on the website (bates.edu/chemistry/).

Chemistry Major Requirements. The requirements for chemistry majors include core courses, elective courses, and senior research and seminar. Some courses have math and/or physics prerequisites. Students who major in chemistry may use no more than one of the following toward their General Education requirements: physics minor, General Education concentrations C006 (Applying Mathematical Methods) or C056 (Physics of the Large and Small). Students may not double major in chemistry and biological chemistry. 200-level core courses should be completed by the end of the junior year.

Core Courses.

All of the following:
CHEM 107A. Atomic and Molecular Structure/Lab.
CHEM 108A. Chemical Reactivity/Lab.
CHEM 212. Separation Science/Lab.
CHEM 215. Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry.
CHEM 217. Organic Chemistry I/Lab.
CHEM 218. Organic Chemistry II/Lab.
CHEM 301. Quantum Chemistry.

One of the following:
CHEM 302. Statistical Thermodynamics.
CHEM 310. Biophysical Chemistry.

One of the following:
CHEM s37. Advanced Chemical Measurement Laboratory/Lab.
CHEM s42. Chemical Synthesis and Reactivity/Lab.

Elective Courses. Chemistry majors take two chemistry courses numbered 200 or above (s37 or s42 may be taken if not used to fulfill the core major requirements). When satisfying the elective requirements, two restrictions apply. First, one course may not serve as both a core course and an elective. Second, independent study courses (360 or s50) cannot be used to satisfy elective requirements.

Course selections depend upon the goals and interests of the student. All students preparing for graduate study should choose advanced courses in their specific area of interest.

Senior Research and Seminar. The written thesis required of all chemistry majors may be either a laboratory thesis or a library thesis. Students conducting a laboratory thesis may register for CHEM 457, 458, or both, while students undertaking a library project may register for CHEM 457 or 458. Students pursuing honors register for both 457 and 458. The senior research and seminar courses include participation in the department's seminar program. Each major is required to deliver one presentation per semester of thesis credit during the senior year.

Pass/Fail Grading Option. Pass/fail grading may not be elected for courses applied toward the chemistry major.

Advanced Placement. Students receiving scores of four or five on the Chemistry AP examination, a grade of A or B on the A-level Chemistry examinations, or a grade of six or seven on the IB HL program examination may receive credit for CHEM 107 and/or 108. These credits may be used toward a major or minor in chemistry and may be used as a prerequisite for any course that requires CHEM 107 or 108. They may not be used as a prerequisite for medical school.

Biological Chemistry Major. Biological chemistry encompasses the study of the form and function of the proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids found in living organisms. Traditionally, biological chemistry has been an interdisciplinary field, drawing on techniques and expertise from physics, medicine, biology, and chemistry. The required courses for the major give a student a solid foundation in basic science, while the array of elective courses allows wide latitude in pursuing an area of individual interest. The thesis provides a final integrating experience.

More information on the biological chemistry major is available on the website (bates.edu/biological-chemistry).

Biological Chemistry Major Requirements. The major requires thirteen or fourteen courses, including a one- or two-semester thesis, mentored by a faculty member from either the biology or chemistry department.

Students may not double major in biological chemistry and biology, chemistry, or neuroscience.

Seminar Requirement. Each biological chemistry major is required to make one formal thesis research presentation for each semester of thesis completed. Each senior is also required to attend at least four seminars presented by visiting scholars in either the biology or chemistry department.

B.S. Requirements. In addition to CHEM 107A and CHEM 108A, MATH 106 or MATH 206 and two semesters of physics (PHYS 107 or FYS 314, and PHYS 108 or FYS 274) are required. Since three of these courses are required for CHEM 302 and 310, only PHYS 108 or FYS 274 is an additional requirement.

Pass/Fail Grading Option. Pass/fail grading may not be elected for courses applied toward the major.

Required Courses

BIO 190. Organismal Biology/Lab.
BIO 242. Cellular and Molecular Biology/Lab.

One of the following:
BIO 328. Developmental Biology/Lab.
BIO 331. Molecular Biology/Lab.

Both of the following:
CHEM 107A. Atomic and Molecular Structure/Lab.
CHEM 108A. Chemical Reactivity/Lab.

One of the following:
CHEM 302. Statistical Thermodynamics.
CHEM 310. Biophysical Chemistry.

All of the following:
CHEM 217. Organic Chemistry I/Lab.
CHEM 218. Organic Chemistry II//Lab.
CHEM 321. Biological Chemistry I/Lab.
CHEM 322. Biological Chemistry II/Lab.

A one- or two-semester thesis, BIOC 457 and/or BIOC 458, is also required, with a thesis advisor who is a faculty member in either chemistry or biology.

Elective Courses

Choose at least two, one of which must come from biology. It is strongly recommended that students considering graduate programs in biochemistry, biophysics, or related disciplines select a chemistry elective.

BI/NS 308. Neurobiology/Lab.
BIO 244. Biostatistics.
BIO 314. Virology.
BIO 315. Bacteriology/Lab.
BIO 320. Pharmacology.
BIO 328. Developmental Biology/Lab (cannot serve as both an elective and a required course).
BIO 330. Advanced Genetics/Lab.
BIO 331. Molecular Biology/Lab (cannot serve as both an elective and a required course).
BI/ES 333. Genetics Conservation Biology/Lab.
BIO 337. Animal Physiology/Lab.
BIO 338. Drug Actions on the Nervous System.
BIO 350. Immunology.
BIO 351. Immunology/Lab.
BIO 365F. Topics in Cell Biology.
BIO 380. Plant Physiology/Lab.
BIO 477. Seminar and Research in Microbiology.
BIO s34. Electron Microscopy/Lab.
BIO s35. Experimental Toxicogenomics/Lab.
BIO s40. Experimental Developmental and Molecular Biology/Lab.
BIO s44. Experimental Neuro/Physiology/Lab.

CHEM 212. Separation Science/Lab.
CHEM 215. Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry.
CHEM 223. Analytical Spectroscopy and Electrochemistry.
CHEM 240. Materials Chemistry.
CHEM 301. Quantum Chemistry.
CHEM 302. Statistical Thermodynamics (cannot serve as both an elective and a required course).
CHEM 310. Biophysical Chemistry (cannot serve as both an elective and a required course).
CHEM 313. Spectroscopic Determination of Molecular Structure.
CHEM 314. Medicinal Chemistry.
CHEM 325. Advanced Organic Chemistry.
CHEM 327. Topics in Macromolecular Chemistry.
CHEM s37. Advanced Measurement Laboratory/Lab.
CHEM s42. Chemical Synthesis and Reactivity/Lab.


Minor in Chemistry. Students may complete a minor in chemistry by taking seven chemistry courses that include 107A, 108A, and five upper-level chemistry courses or departmentally designated courses, at least one of which must be a 300-level course, s37, or s42. Independent study courses (360 or s50) cannot be used to satisfy minor requirements. Only departmentally designated cross-listed courses may be applied toward the minor.

Students majoring in biological chemistry or the chemistry track of environmental science may not minor in chemistry.

Pass/Fail Grading Option. Pass/fail grading may not be elected for courses counting toward the minor.

General Education. Students may satisfy the [W2] requirement by completing any three of the following courses: CHEM 212, 215, 301, 310, 321, 325, 327, s37, or s42.

Courses

CHEM 107A. Atomic and Molecular Structure/Lab.

Fundamental concepts underlying the structure and behavior of matter are developed. Major topics include states of matter, atomic structure, periodicity, and bonding. This course, or its equivalent, is a prerequisite for all advanced courses in chemistry and biological chemistry. Laboratory: three hours per week. Enrollment limited to 60. [S] [L] [Q] Normally offered every year. M. Côté, R. Nelson, P. Schlax.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM 108A. Chemical Reactivity/Lab.

A continuation of CHEM 107A. Major topics include thermodynamics, kinetics, equilibrium, acid/base behavior, and electrochemistry. Laboratory: three hours per week. Prerequisite(s): CHEM 107A. Enrollment limited to 60. [S] [L] [Q] Normally offered every year. M. Côté, T. Lawson, P. Schlax.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM 125. Bioenergetics and Nutrition.

Living organisms require nutrients extracted from the environment to support the chemical reactions necessary for all life processes including development, growth, motion, and reproduction. Maintaining the chemical reactions that allow the web of life to continue to exist on Earth demands a continuous input of energy. This course examines the flow of energy from the sun into the biosphere through plants and into animals, with a focus on humans. Through a combination of research and oral presentations, problem solving, and group discussions, the chemistry behind this energy flow is explored, as are the ways in which energy is used by living organisms. The nutritional requirements required to support these enegry transformations also are considered. Recommended background: high school chemistry. Not open to students who have received credit for CH/ES 108B or CHEM 108A. Enrollment limited to 30. [S] [Q] T. Lawson.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

CHEM 212. Separation Science/Lab.

A study of some of the most universally used methods and techniques of chemical separation. Both theory and applications are covered. Topics include chemical equilibrium, liquid-liquid extraction, gas and liquid chromatography, and electrophoresis. Laboratory: three hours per week. Prerequisite(s): CHEM 108A. Enrollment limited to 20. [S] [L] [Q] Normally offered every year. T. Wenzel.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM 215. Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry.

A study of the wide-ranging aspects of inorganic chemistry. The use of periodic trends and fundamental principles of inorganic chemistry to systematize the descriptive chemistry of the elements is explored. Topics include reaction mechanisms in inorganic chemistry, ligand field theory, and solid state chemistry. Applications of inorganic chemistry to biochemistry, environmental chemistry, and geochemistry are also considered. Prerequisite(s): CHEM 108A. [S] Normally offered every year. R. Nelson.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM 217. Organic Chemistry I/Lab.

An introduction to organic chemistry. Topics include bonding, structure, stereochemistry, and nomenclature; reactions of alkanes, alkylhalides, alcohols, and ethers; and spectroscopic methods. Laboratory: three hours per week. Prerequisite(s): CHEM 108A. Enrollment limited to 50 per section. [S] [L] Normally offered every year. J. Koviach-Côté, Y. Gorske.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM 218. Organic Chemistry II/Lab.

A continuation of CHEM 217. The reactions of alkenes, alkynes, carbonyl compounds, aromatics, and radicals are studied from both a mechanistic and a synthetic point of view. Laboratory: three hours per week. Prerequisite(s): CHEM 217. Enrollment limited to 50 per section. [S] [L] Normally offered every year. Y. Gorske, J. Koviach-Côté.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM 223. Analytical Spectroscopy and Electrochemistry.

Spectroscopic and electrochemical methods employed in chemical analysis are discussed. Topics include ultraviolet, visible, infrared, and atomic spectroscopy; and potentiometric and voltametric methods of analysis. Prerequisite(s): CHEM 217. [S] T. Wenzel.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM 301. Quantum Chemistry.

Major topics include quantum mechanics, atomic and molecular structure, and spectroscopy. Prerequisite(s): CHEM 108A, MATH 106, and PHYS 107. Corequisite(s): PHYS 108 and MATH 205. [S] [Q] Normally offered every year. M. Côté.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM 302. Statistical Thermodynamics.

Major topics include statistical mechanics and chemical thermodynamics. Prerequisite(s): CHEM 108A, MATH 106. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): PHYS 107. Alternates with CHEM 310. Enrollment limited to 32. [S] [Q] M. Côté.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM 306. Electrons in Solids.

A study of the electronic properties of solid materials. Subjects include the application of quantum theory to simple models of crystalline solids, the chemical and optical properties of solids, the impact of surfaces on material behavior, and quantum confinement. Prerequisite(s): CHEM 301. [S] [Q] M. Côté.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

CHEM 310. Biophysical Chemistry.

This course is an overview of physical chemical principles and techniques used in understanding the properties, interactions, and functions of biological molecules. Thermodynamic, kinetic, and statistical mechanical principles are applied to understanding macromolecular assembly processes (i.e., assembly of viruses or ribosomes) and macromolecular interactions involved in gene expression and regulation, DNA replication, and other biological processes. Techniques used in studying protein folding, RNA folding, and enzyme kinetics are presented. Prerequisite(s): CHEM 108A, PHYS 107, and MATH 106. Alternates with CHEM 302. Enrollment limited to 32. [S] [Q] P. Schlax.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM 313. Spectroscopic Determination of Molecular Structure.

In this course the utilization of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectral data for structural analysis is developed. Particular attention is given to the interpretation of proton, carbon-13, and two-dimensional NMR spectra, and to the interpretation of fragmentation patterns in electron-impact mass spectrometry. Theoretical and instrumental aspects of modern NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry are covered. Prerequisite(s): CHEM 218. [S] T. Wenzel.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM 316. Advanced Topics in Inorganic Chemistry.

A study of selected advanced topics in inorganic chemistry. Emphasis is placed on the application of group theory to the elucidation of electronic structure. Selected topics may also include bioinorganic chemistry, inorganic materials, and inorganic reaction mechanisms. Opportunities for critical reading of the current literature are also presented. Prerequisite(s): CHEM 215. [S] R. Nelson.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

CHEM 321. Biological Chemistry I/Lab.

An introduction to biologically important molecules and macromolecular assemblies. Topics discussed include the structure and chemistry of proteins; the mechanisms and kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed reactions; and the structure, chemistry, and functions of carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and biological membranes. Laboratory: three hours per week. Prerequisite(s): CHEM 218. Recommended background: BIO 242. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO 321. Enrollment limited to 26. [S] [L] [Q] Normally offered every year. T. Lawson, P. Schlax.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM 322. Biological Chemistry II/Lab.

A survey of the major metabolic processes in living cells. Topics discussed include protein synthesis, DNA replication and gene expression, the global organization of metabolic pathways, carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism, biological oxidation, reduction and energy production, and the metabolism of nitrogen-containing compounds. Special attention is given to the mechanisms by which metabolic processes are regulated. Laboratory: three hours per week. Prerequisite(s): CHEM 321. Enrollment limited to 36. [S] [L] [Q] Normally offered every year. T. Lawson.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM 325. Advanced Organic Chemistry.

A study of important organic reactions with emphasis on structure, stereochemistry, mechanism, and synthesis. Prerequisite(s): CHEM 218. [S] J. Koviach-Côté.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM 328. Organometallics.

An investigation of the structure of organometallic compounds (compounds with transition metal-carbon bonds) and their use as catalysts. Emphasis is placed on mechanisms of reactions, as well as tuning reaction conditions to achieve desired results. The synthetic utility of such reagents for the bench chemist is investigated along with a few select biological examples of organometallic catalysts (e.g., vitamin B12 and iron-containing oxygenases). Examples from the current literature are used, and students have the opportunity to present on a current topics in the field. Prerequisite(s): CHEM 215 and 218. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

CHEM 360. Independent Study.

Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study per semester. Normally offered every semester. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIOC 457. Senior Thesis.

A laboratory or library research study in an area of interest under the supervision of a member of the biology or chemistry department. Senior majors deliver presentations on their research. Students register for BIOC 457 in the fall semester and BIOC 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both BIOC 457 and 458. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
Interdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM 457. Senior Research and Seminar.

A laboratory or library research study in an area of interest under the supervision of a member of the department. Each senior major delivers one presentation on the research for each thesis credit. Students register for CHEM 457 in the fall semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both CHEM 457 and 458. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIOC 458. Senior Thesis.

A laboratory or library research study in an area of interest under the supervision of a member of the biology or chemistry department. Senior majors will be asked to deliver presentations on their research. Students register for Biological Chemistry 457 in the fall semester and Biological Chemistry 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both Biological Chemistry 457 and 458. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
Interdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM 458. Senior Research and Seminar.

A laboratory or library research study in an area of interest under the supervision of a member of the department. Each senior major delivers one presentation on the research for each thesis credit. Students register for CHEM 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both CHEM457 and 458. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

Short Term Courses

CHEM s11. The Natural Science of Honeybees.

The study of honeybees has led to greater scientific understanding of subjects as diverse as social behavior, aerodynamics, chemical communication, and developmental biology. In this course students explore historical scientific discoveries in the natural sciences while studying the life cycle of the honeybee. This laboratory course introduces techniques used to monitor the health of honeybees. Laboratory and field work may include examination of bees in various stages of development, analysis of wax and honey for the presence of antibiotics and/or pesticides, use of molecular biology and microscopy techniques to identify pathogens. Prerequisite(s): BIO 190 or CHEM 107A Enrollment limited to 18. [S] [L] P. Schlax.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

CHEM s20. Mythbusters: The Lab.

Can the simultaneous consumption of soda and Pop Rocks candy cause a lethal increase in pressure? Can an egg really be cooked between two activated cellular phones? Is club soda a more effective alternative to commercially designed stain removers? The course offers a nontraditional (and fun) way to practice the application of the scientific method to life's vexing problems. Not open to students who have received credit for CH/ES 108B, CHEM 108A, or PHYS 108. Enrollment limited to 18. [S] [L] Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

CHEM s21. Biotechnology: Life Science for Citizens/Lab.

A nonscientist's introduction to the science of the biotechnology revolution. Topics include the basic biology and chemistry of cells, the biochemistry of gene expression, the development and applications of recombinant DNA and related technologies, and the structure and functioning of the biotechnology research establishment in the United States. Weekly laboratory exercises include a DNA cloning project. Not open to chemistry, biological chemistry, or biology majors. Enrollment limited to 18. [S] [L] T. Lawson, P. Schlax.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BC/SP s23. Intersection of Biomedicine and Human Rights: The Case of the Chilean Mining Experience.

This course explores the intersections between natural scientific inquiry and social and cultural studies. Through historical, scientific, cultural, and bioethical lenses, students examine biomedical science in Latin America and the struggle for civil, human, and health rights by workers in the Chilean mining industry since the nineteenth century. The study of historical and cultural narratives alongside the application of the scientific approach to problem solving and laboratory experimentation provide students with a foundation for further on-site examination of biomedical science in Chile, where they consider the Chilean mining industry to contextulize principles of science and health policy, the impact of scientific practices on human populations, and the intererconnectedness of state policy, public health, and human welfare. Prerequisite(s): SPAN 210. Enrollment limited to 17. Instructor permission is required. [S] [Q] T. Lawson, C. Aburto Guzmán.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

CHEM s37. Advanced Chemical Measurement Laboratory/Lab.

The use of spectroscopic methods to probe atomic and molecular structure, and to identify, characterize, and quantify chemical species is examined. Measurements of thermodynamic and kinetic parameters describing chemical reactions are performed. Theoretical and experimental aspects of several techniques including nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, and UV-visible spectroscopy are covered. Prerequisite(s): CHEM 301, 302, or 310. Enrollment limited to 30. [S] [L] [Q] P. Schlax, M. Côté.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM s42. Chemical Synthesis and Reactivity/Lab.

Multi-step synthesis, reactivity, and characterization of complex inorganic and organic molecules. Working independently, students carry out week-long experiments designed to introduce important techniques in modern organic and inorganic chemistry. Concepts covered include stereoselective reactions, air sensitive syntheses, and purification techniques. In addition, students gain hands-on experience with a wide variety of instrumentation used for compound characterization. Emphasis is placed on proper techniques in laboratory work, safety, waste handling, and communicating experimental approaches and results. Prerequisite(s): CHEM 215 and 218. Enrollment limited to 15. [S] [L] Staff.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM s50. Independent Study.

Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study during a Short Term. Normally offered every year. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations