Chemistry

Professors Austin, Lawson, and Wenzel; Associate Professors Côté, Koviach-Côté (chair), and Schlax; Visiting Assistant Professor Jokiel



Chemistry deals with phenomena that affect nearly every aspect of our lives and environment. A liberal arts education in this scientific and technological age should include some exposure to the theories, laws, applications, and potential of this science.

The chemistry curriculum is sufficiently flexible to allow students with career interests in areas such as the health professions, law, business, and education to design a major program suitable to their goals. Students interested in careers in chemistry or biochemistry will find chemistry electives that provide a strong background for work in graduate school, industry, or other positions requiring a strong foundation in chemistry. A major in biological chemistry has been developed in conjunction with the biology department, and is described in a separate section of the catalog. The department and its curriculum are approved by the American Chemical Society (ACS), and an ACS-certified major is offered. More information on the chemistry department and the major is available on the website (bates.edu/chemistry/).

Major Requirements. The requirements for chemistry majors include core courses, elective courses, and senior research and seminar. Some courses have math and/or physics prerequisites. Students who major in chemistry may use no more than one of the following toward their General Education requirements: physics minor, General Education concentrations C006 (Applying Mathematical Methods) or C056 (Physics of the Large and Small). Students may not double major in chemistry and biological chemistry. 200-level core courses should be completed by the end of the junior year.

Core Courses.

One of the following:
CHEM 107A. Atomic and Molecular Structure/Lab.
CH/ES 107B. Chemical Structure and Its Importance in the Environment/Lab.
FYS 398. The Chemistry of Color/Lab.

One of the following:
CHEM 108A. Chemical Reactivity/Lab.
CH/ES 108B. Chemical Reactivity in Environmental Systems/Lab.

All of the following:
CHEM 212. Separation Science/Lab.
CHEM 215. Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry.
CHEM 217. Organic Chemistry I/Lab.
CHEM 218. Organic Chemistry II/Lab.
CHEM 301. Quantum Chemistry.

One of the following:
CHEM 302. Statistical Thermodynamics.
CHEM 310. Biophysical Chemistry.

One of the following:
CHEM s37. Advanced Chemical Measurement Laboratory/Lab.
CHEM s42. Chemical Synthesis and Reactivity/Lab.

Elective Courses. Majors take two chemistry courses numbered 200 or above (s37 or s42 may be taken if not used to fulfill the core major requirements). When satisfying the elective requirements, two restrictions apply. First, one course may not serve as both a core course and an elective. Second, independent study courses (360 or s50) cannot be used to satisfy elective requirements.

Course selections depend upon the goals and interests of the student. All students preparing for graduate study should choose advanced courses in their specific area of interest.

Senior Research and Seminar. The written thesis required of all majors may be either a laboratory thesis or a library thesis. Students doing a laboratory thesis may register for CHEM 457, 458, or both, while students doing a library project may register for CHEM 457 or 458. Students pursuing honors register for both 457 and 458. The senior research and seminar courses include participation in the department's seminar program. Each major is required to deliver one presentation per semester of thesis credit during the senior year.

Pass/Fail Grading Option. Pass/fail grading may not be elected for courses applied toward the major.

Minor. Students may complete a minor in chemistry by taking seven chemistry courses that include 107A, 107B, or FYS 398; 108A or 108B; and five upper-level chemistry courses or departmentally designated courses, at least one of which must be a 300-level course, s37, or s42. Independent study courses (360 or s50) cannot be used to satisfy minor requirements. Only departmentally designated cross-listed courses may be applied toward the minor.

Students majoring in biological chemistry or the chemistry track of environmental science may not minor in chemistry.

Pass/Fail Grading Option. Pass/fail grading may not be elected for courses counting toward the minor.

General Education. Students may satisfy the [W2] requirement by completing any three of the following courses: Chemistry 212, 215, 301, 310, 321, 325, 327, s37, or s42.

Courses
CHEM 107A. Atomic and Molecular Structure/Lab.Fundamental concepts underlying the structure and behavior of matter are developed. Major topics include states of matter, atomic structure, periodicity, and bonding. This course, or its equivalent, is a prerequisite for all advanced courses in chemistry. Laboratory: three hours per week. Not open to students who have received credit for CH/ES 107B or FYS 398. Enrollment limited to 60. [S] [L] [Q] Normally offered every year. P. Schlax, R. Austin, M. Côté.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CH/ES 107B. Chemical Structure and Its Importance in the Environment/Lab.Fundamentals of atomic and molecular structure are developed with particular attention to how they relate to substances of interest in the environment. Periodicity, bonding, states of matter, and intermolecular forces are covered. The laboratory (three hours per week) involves a semester-long group investigation of a topic of environmental significance. Not open to students who have received credit for CHEM 107A or FYS 398. Enrollment limited to 60. [S] [L] [Q] Normally offered every year. T. Wenzel.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

CHEM 108A. Chemical Reactivity/Lab.A continuation of CHEM 107A. Major topics include thermodynamics, kinetics, equilibrium, acid/base behavior, and electrochemistry. Laboratory: three hours per week. Prerequisite(s): CHEM 107A, CH/ES 107B, or FYS 398. Not open to students who have received credit for CH/ES 108B. Enrollment limited to 60. [S] [L] [Q] Normally offered every year. M. Côté, T. Lawson, P. Schlax.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CH/ES 108B. Chemical Reactivity in Environmental Systems/Lab.A continuation of CH/ES 107B. Major topics include thermodynamics, kinetics, equilibrium, acid/base chemistry, and electrochemistry. Examples for course topics are drawn from aquatic chemistry and the chemistry of environmental health. The laboratory (three hours per week) analyzes the chemistry of marine environments. Prerequisite(s): CHEM 107A, CH/ES 107B, or FYS 398. Not open to students who have received credit for CHEM 108A. Enrollment limited to 60. [S] [L] [Q] Normally offered every year. R. Austin.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BI/CH 122. Structure and Function of DNA, RNA, and Proteins. How does a virus or a bacterial cell develop drug resistance? How does a colony of fruit flies adapt to living in a new environment? Changes in the sequences and/or shapes of DNA, RNA, and proteins can alter their physical and chemical properties, influencing the survival of an organism in an environment. This course introduces the physical and chemical properties of these important molecules and their roles in the Central Dogma of molecular biology. Examples of molecular evolution and adaptation in a variety of biological systems are studied. Enrollment limited to 40. [S] P. Schlax.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

CHEM 125. Bioenergetics and Nutrition.Living organisms require nutrients extracted from the environment to support the chemical reactions necessary for all life processes including development, growth, motion, and reproduction. Maintaining the chemical reactions that allow the web of life to continue to exist on Earth demands a continuous input of energy. This course examines the flow of energy from the sun into the biosphere through plants and into animals, with a focus on humans. Through a combination of research and oral presentations, problem solving, and group discussions, the chemistry behind this energy flow is explored, as are the ways in which energy is used by living organisms. The nutritional requirements required to support these enegry transformations also are considered. Recommended background: high school chemistry. Not open to students who have received credit for CH/ES 108B or CHEM 108A. Enrollment limited to 30. [S] [Q] T. Lawson.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

CHEM 212. Separation Science/Lab.A study of some of the most universally used methods and techniques of chemical separation. Both theory and applications are covered. Topics include chemical equilibrium, liquid-liquid extraction, gas and liquid chromatography, and electrophoresis. Laboratory: three hours per week. Prerequisite(s): CHEM 108A or CH/ES 108B. Enrollment limited to 20. [S] [L] [Q] Normally offered every year. T. Wenzel.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM 215. Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry.A study of the wide-ranging aspects of inorganic chemistry. The use of periodic trends and fundamental principles of inorganic chemistry to systematize the descriptive chemistry of the elements is explored. Topics include reaction mechanisms in inorganic chemistry, ligand field theory, and solid state chemistry. Applications of inorganic chemistry to biochemistry, environmental chemistry, and geochemistry are also considered. Prerequisite(s): CHEM 108A or CH/ES 108B. [S] Normally offered every year. R. Austin.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM 217. Organic Chemistry I/Lab.An introduction to organic chemistry. Topics include bonding, structure, stereochemistry, and nomenclature; reactions of alkanes, alkylhalides, alcohols, and ethers; and spectroscopic methods. Laboratory: three hours per week. Prerequisite(s): Chemistry 108A or CH/ES 108B. Enrollment limited to 50 per section. [S] [L] Normally offered every year. J. Koviach-Côté.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM 218. Organic Chemistry II/Lab.A continuation of CHEM 217. The reactions of alkenes, alkynes, carbonyl compounds, aromatics, and radicals are studied from both a mechanistic and a synthetic point of view. Laboratory: three hours per week. Prerequisite(s): CHEM 217. Enrollment limited to 50 per section. [S] [L] Normally offered every year. J. Koviach-Côté.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM 223. Analytical Spectroscopy and Electrochemistry.Spectroscopic and electrochemical methods employed in chemical analysis are discussed. Topics include ultraviolet, visible, infrared, and atomic spectroscopy; and potentiometric and voltametric methods of analysis. Prerequisite(s): CHEM 217. [S] T. Wenzel.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM 301. Quantum Chemistry.Major topics include quantum mechanics, atomic and molecular structure, and spectroscopy. Prerequisite(s): CHEM 108A or CH/ES 108B, MATH 106, and PHYS 107. Corequisite(s): PHYS 108 and MATH 205. [S] [Q] Normally offered every year. M. Côté.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM 302. Statistical Thermodynamics.Major topics include statistical mechanics and chemical thermodynamics. Prerequisite(s): CHEM 108A or CH/ES 108B, MATH 106. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): PHYS 107. Alternates with CHEM 310. Enrollment limited to 32. [S] [Q] M. Côté.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM 310. Biophysical Chemistry.This course is an overview of physical chemical principles and techniques used in understanding the properties, interactions, and functions of biological molecules. Thermodynamic, kinetic, and statistical mechanical principles are applied to understanding macromolecular assembly processes (i.e., assembly of viruses or ribosomes) and macromolecular interactions involved in gene expression and regulation, DNA replication, and other biological processes. Techniques used in studying protein folding, RNA folding, and enzyme kinetics are presented. Prerequisite(s): CHEM 108A or CH/ES 108B, PHYS 107, and MATH 106. Alternates with CHEM 302. Enrollment limited to 32. [S] [Q] P. Schlax.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM 313. Spectroscopic Determination of Molecular Structure.In this course the utilization of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectral data for structural analysis is developed. Particular attention is given to the interpretation of proton, carbon-13, and two-dimensional NMR spectra, and to the interpretation of fragmentation patterns in electron-impact mass spectrometry. Theoretical and instrumental aspects of modern NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry are covered. Prerequisite(s): CHEM 218. [S] T. Wenzel.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM 316. Advanced Topics in Inorganic Chemistry.A study of selected advanced topics in inorganic chemistry. Emphasis is placed on the application of group theory to the elucidation of electronic structure. Selected topics may also include bioinorganic chemistry, inorganic materials, and inorganic reaction mechanisms. Opportunities for critical reading of the current literature are also presented. Prerequisite(s): CHEM 215. [S] R. Austin.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

CHEM 321. Biological Chemistry I/Lab.An introduction to biologically important molecules and macromolecular assemblies. Topics discussed include the structure and chemistry of proteins; the mechanisms and kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed reactions; and the structure, chemistry, and functions of carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and biological membranes. Laboratory: three hours per week. Prerequisite(s): CHEM 218. Recommended background: BIO 242. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO 321. Enrollment limited to 26. [S] [L] [Q] Normally offered every year. T. Lawson, P. Schlax.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM 322. Biological Chemistry II/Lab.A survey of the major metabolic processes in living cells. Topics discussed include protein synthesis, DNA replication and gene expression, the global organization of metabolic pathways, carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism, biological oxidation, reduction and energy production, and the metabolism of nitrogen-containing compounds. Special attention is given to the mechanisms by which metabolic processes are regulated. Laboratory: three hours per week. Prerequisite(s): CHEM 321. Enrollment limited to 36. [S] [L] [Q] Normally offered every year. T. Lawson.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM 325. Advanced Organic Chemistry.A study of important organic reactions with emphasis on structure, stereochemistry, mechanism, and synthesis. Prerequisite(s): CHEM 218. [S] J. Koviach-Côté.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM 327. Topics in Macromolecular Chemistry.Macromolecular chemistry is a broad subject encompassing the synthesis, characterization, properties, and uses of polymers. Current areas of research in macromolecular chemistry, techniques used to characterize macromolecules, and unique physical properties of macromolecules are introduced. Students explore topics including synthesis of biodegradable plastics, structure and functions of catalytic RNA, structural characterization of polymers, characterization or uses of semiconducting polymers, dendrimer synthesis, mechanisms of molecular evolution, and harnessing DNA as a microprocessor or micromotor. Prerequisite(s): CHEM 218. [S] P. Schlax.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

CHEM 328. Organometallics.An investigation of the structure of organometallic compounds (compounds with transition metal-carbon bonds) and their use as catalysts. Emphasis is placed on mechanisms of reactions, as well as tuning reaction conditions to achieve desired results. The synthetic utility of such reagents for the bench chemist is investigated along with a few select biological examples of organometallic catalysts (e.g., vitamin B12 and iron-containing oxygenases). Examples from the current literature are used, and students have the opportunity to present on a current topics in the field. Prerequisite(s): CHEM 215 and 218. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

CHEM 360. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study per semester. Normally offered every semester. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

CHEM 457. Senior Research and Seminar.A laboratory or library research study in an area of interest under the supervision of a member of the department. Each senior major delivers one presentation on the research for each thesis credit. Students register for CHEM 457 in the fall semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both CHEM 457 and 458. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

CHEM 458. Senior Research and Seminar.A laboratory or library research study in an area of interest under the supervision of a member of the department. Each senior major delivers one presentation on the research for each thesis credit. Students register for Chemistry 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both Chemistry 457 and 458. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

Short Term Courses
CHEM s11. The Natural Science of Honeybees.The study of honeybees has led to greater scientific understanding of subjects as diverse as social behavior, aerodynamics, chemical communication, and developmental biology. In this course students explore historical scientific discoveries in the natural sciences while studying the life cycle of the honeybee. This laboratory course introduces techniques used to monitor the health of honeybees. Laboratory and field work may include examination of bees in various stages of development, analysis of wax and honey for the presence of antibiotics and/or pesticides, use of molecular biology and microscopy techniques to identify pathogens. Prerequisite(s): BIO 190, CHEM 107A, or CH/ES 107B. New course beginning Short Term 2015. Enrollment limited to 18. P. Schlax.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

CHEM s20. Mythbusters: The Lab.Can the simultaneous consumption of soda and Pop Rocks candy cause a lethal increase in pressure? Can an egg really be cooked between two activated cellular phones? Is club soda a more effective alternative to commercially designed stain removers? The course offers a nontraditional (and fun) way to practice the application of the scientific method to life's vexing problems. Not open to students who have received credit for CH/ES 108B, CHEM 108A, or PHYS 108. Enrollment limited to 18. [S] [L] P. Jokiel.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

CHEM s21. Biotechnology: Life Science for Citizens/Lab.A nonscientist's introduction to the science of the biotechnology revolution. Topics include the basic biology and chemistry of cells, the biochemistry of gene expression, the development and applications of recombinant DNA and related technologies, and the structure and functioning of the biotechnology research establishment in the United States. Weekly laboratory exercises include a DNA cloning project. Not open to majors in chemistry, biological chemistry, or biology. Enrollment limited to 18. [S] [L] T. Lawson, P. Schlax.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

CHEM s37. Advanced Chemical Measurement Laboratory/Lab.The use of spectroscopic methods to probe atomic and molecular structure, and to identify, characterize, and quantify chemical species is examined. Measurements of thermodynamic and kinetic parameters describing chemical reactions are performed. Theoretical and experimental aspects of several techniques including nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, and UV-visible spectroscopy are covered. Prerequisite(s): CHEM 301, 302, or 310. Enrollment limited to 30. [S] [L] [Q] P. Schlax, M. Côté.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM s42. Chemical Synthesis and Reactivity/Lab.Multi-step synthesis, reactivity, and characterization of complex inorganic and organic molecules. Working independently, students carry out week-long experiments designed to introduce important techniques in modern organic and inorganic chemistry. Concepts covered include stereoselective reactions, air sensitive syntheses, and purification techniques. In addition, students gain hands-on experience with a wide variety of instrumentation used for compound characterization. Emphasis is placed on proper techniques in laboratory work, safety, waste handling, and communicating experimental approaches and results. Prerequisite(s): CHEM 215 and 218. Enrollment limited to 15. [S] [L] R. Austin, J. Koviach-Côté.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

CHEM s50. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study during a Short Term. Normally offered every year. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations