Associate Professor Buck (chair); Assistant Professor Tieken; Lecturers Charles and Sale

The Bates College Department of Education seeks to foster the democratic possibilities of schooling through the study of education in the United States and internationally. The aim of the department is to create an environment in which students and faculty together analyze the complex dynamics between the purposes and products of schooling, and the social structures and cultural processes that constitute the broader context for education. In particular, the department aims to nurture in students the development of these qualities:

Critical action and civic responsibility: The department wants students to develop a sense of social responsibility and concern for the common good, and so encourages them to become involved in the local community and beyond through fieldwork, service-learning projects, policy analysis, student teaching, and empirical research.

Reflection and engagement: In the department's vision of education, reflection and engagement work together to deepen students' understanding and foster their personal growth.

Imagination and a passion for learning: With imagination, a passion for learning, and the skills and knowledge they develop, students are well-prepared to pursue their interests in education.

Commitment to social justice: Throughout the program, students are encouraged to recognize and address the influence of social context on the democratic possibilities of schooling.

Because education itself is an interdisciplinary area of study, the education department offers courses that attract students with a variety of interests. Some pursue educational studies as part of their exploration of liberal arts at Bates. Some want to teach immediately after they graduate from Bates or following graduate study. Others link their interest in social institutions, public policy, community, or families and children to a direct and deeper understanding of schools and schooling. Many students simply want to know more about education so that they can be better prepared to fulfill their future roles as citizens and parents. To encourage the integration of theory and practice, education courses require a field placement in a local school or community setting. Students are expected to reflect systematically on the larger questions surrounding educational structures and practices raised through field experiences. More information on the education department is available on the website (

Minor. The Bates Department of Education offers two minors in education: teacher education and educational studies. For both minors, students are required to take EDUC 231 (Perspectives on Education). This course introduces students to the field through foundational perspectives that stimulate further interest in education; it is open to first-year students. Students interested in declaring a minor in education are encouraged to come to information sessions offered twice during the academic year and to make appointments with education faculty for early planning and advisement.

Teacher education offers graduates the ability to complete certification as public school teachers (7–12) in several disciplines including English, social studies, science, mathematics, and modern languages (K–12). Certification in art or music may be available through transcript analysis; interested students should consult the director of teacher education. The program is approved by the Maine State Board of Education, and students who receive Maine certification gain opportunities to teach through reciprocity with approximately forty other states. Some students may choose to enroll in the teacher education program even if they are interested in teaching in an independent school where certification is not required because they gain significant experience in the classroom and thus are better prepared for the challenges they will face when they enter a classroom on their own for the first time.

Educational studies offer students the opportunity to pursue a set of interdisciplinary courses that are designed around students' emerging interests in education policy practice, theory, and research.

Students who wish to pursue a minor in education in either teacher education or educational studies should begin planning their course schedules no later than the sophomore year. With early planning they will be able to meet all of the requirements for a major and minor and to spend some time in off-campus study as well. Those students interested in certification need to think about how to manage the demands of student teaching in their senior year with their course work and thesis.

Minor in Teacher Education. Requirements for the College's recommendation for certification in Maine as secondary school teacher include: 1) EDUC 231, 362; a department elective other than FYS 300; and all of the following: 447, 448, 460, and 461, including field experience in conjunction with each of these courses; 2) a major in an appropriate teaching field, although some fields may require additional courses; 3) fulfillment of the college's General Education and other degree requirements; and 4) fulfillment of state requirements, which include passing a standardized test and fingerprinting. Note that licensing of teachers is a state function; requirements differ from state to state, and these rules change frequently. Courses and experiences other than those offered at Bates may be required. Students interested in certification should consult with a faculty member as early as possible to plan for required course work. Applications must be completed by 1 March of the sophomore year.

Minor in Education Studies. Students choosing this option must complete seven courses or six courses within the department and an internship pre-approved by the department chair.This minor requires that six of the seven courses be Department of Education courses. EDUC 231 is required for all students. Each education course requires at least thirty hours of field experience (such as tutoring or action research) in educational settings or fieldwork related to education more generally, such as research on policy. Students may apply to have an off-campus program or course count as one of the six required education courses. These requests require the prior approval of education faculty. Students are required to take EDUC 450 (Seminar in Educational Studies) in their senior year. Students design and complete a culminating project in educational studies, which may include field placement. Students are strongly advised to begin preliminary planning and application as soon as possible.

Pass/Fail Grading Option. Pass/fail grading may be elected for courses applied toward the minor.

Title II "Report Card." An amendment to Title II, Higher Education Act (HEA), passed by Congress in 1998, requires that states and institutions with teacher-preparation programs annually report to the public certain program information, including the pass rates of program participants on assessments required by the state for teacher certification. Maine requires Praxis I tests in reading, writing, and mathematics as well as the Praxis II subject matter test in the chosen area of certification. Bates College requires only Praxis I passing scores for consideration of program completion. 100 percent of Bates program completers for 2011–2012 who took the Praxis I examination earned passing scores required for Maine certification. 100 percent of those students taking Praxis II earned passing scores in each student's respective academic content area. Nine students were enrolled in the program as seniors in 2011–2012 (a student-faculty ratio of 3 to 1). The current requirement for clinical experience in the program is 450 hours. Further information about the program's annual report is available from the chair of the department and the director of the teacher education program.


INDS 100. African Perspectives on Justice, Human Rights, and Renewal.This team-taught course introduces students to some of the experiences, cultural beliefs, values, and voices shaping contemporary Africa. Students focus on the impact of climatic, cultural, and geopolitical diversity; the politics of ethnicity, religion, age, race, and gender and their influence on daily life; and the forces behind contemporary education policy and practice in Africa. The course forges students' critical capacity to resist simplistic popular understandings of what is taking place on the continent and works to refocus their attention on distinctively "African perspectives." Students design a research project to augment their knowledge about a specific issue within a particular region. Students interested in education issues focus their research on education policy and practice; their research project includes a field placement in a local school or community organization and participation in a twice-monthly seminar-style reflection session. Students who focus on education issues and complete the field placement and project have the course recorded in their academic record as INDS 100A (African Perspectives on Justice, Human Rights, and Renewal in Education), and may use INDS 100A to fulfill the minor in education studies, but not the minor in teacher education. The course is primarily for first- and second-year students with little critical knowledge of Africa and serves as the introduction to the General Education concentration Considering Africa (C022). Cross-listed in anthropology, education, French and Francophone studies, and politics. Enrollment limited to 40. (Governance and Conflict.) (Identities and Interests.) Normally offered every year. (Community-Engaged Learning.) P. Buck, A. Dauge-Roth, E. Eames, L. Hill. Concentrations

EDUC 231. Perspectives on Education.This course introduces students to foundational perspectives (anthropological, historical, philosophical, psychological, and sociological) about education and their relationships to the realities present in contemporary schools and classrooms. Students consider several large questions: What should be the purpose of education in a democratic society? What should be the role of the school? What should be the ideal of an educated person? Should this be the same for all students or differentiated in some way for particular individuals or groups of students? Who should participate in making decisions about schools? Students must complete at least thirty hours of fieldwork. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 28. Normally offered every semester. (Community-Engaged Learning.) Staff. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

EDUC 235. Teaching in the Sciences.We all possess an innate curiosity about the natural world. This is especially true during our childhood. This course explores the excitement and challenges of teaching sciences in the traditional classroom setting and experientially through lab and outdoor experiences. Through readings, conversation, research, writing, practice, and field placement in local schools students prepare to approach the teaching of science as visionaries whose classrooms are ones of imagination, curiosity, investigation, and skepticism. A thirty-hour field placement in a local school is required. Recommended background: math or science majors preferred. A previous education class is recommended. Course reinstated beginning Winter 2015. Enrollment limited to 18. Staff. Concentrations

EDUC 240. Gender Issues in Education.This course considers education in relation to recent theory, policy, practice, and research on gender. In addition to providing a feminist philosophical perspective on education, the course explores the implications of gender, race, class, and sexual orientation on ways of knowing, developing, and interacting for education practice. The course includes a comparative and international focus. A thirty-hour field experience is required. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 25. [W2] (Community-Engaged Learning.) P. Buck. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

ED/SO 242. Race, Cultural Pluralism, and Equality in American Education.Through thematic investigation of school segregation, desegregation, and resegregation, this course explores the question: What would equal educational opportunity look like in a multicultural society? In light of contextual perspectives in educational thought, the course confronts contemporary debates surrounding how the race/ethnicity of students should affect the composition, curriculum, and teaching methods of schools, colleges, and universities. Specific issues explored include bilingual education, college admission, curriculum inclusion, desegregation, ethnic studies, and hiring practices. A thirty-hour field experience is required. Recommended background: EDUC 231. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 25. [W2] (Community-Engaged Learning.) M. Tieken. Concentrations

EDUC 243. Issues in Early Childhood Education.This course focuses on the care and education of young children, birth to age five. Integrating developmental and sociocultural perspectives, the course explores local, state, federal, and international programs, practices, and policies. Topics include the importance of play, the universal preschool movement, culture and family influences, learning across multiple domains and disciplines, and policy issues. This course includes a thirty-hour field placement working in an early childhood environment with children in this age range. Recommended background: EDUC 231. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. (Community-Engaged Learning.) A. Charles. Concentrations

EDUC 245. Literacy in Preschool and Elementary Years.This course examines how literacy is defined and developed through a child's early and elementary years from developmental and sociocultural perspectives. Students connect these theories with practice by exploring various methods and materials that foster literacy development in elementary students and by doing fieldwork in local schools. Working collaboratively with classroom teachers, students design and implement literacy development strategies and projects with elementary students. A thirty-hour field experience is required. Recommended background: EDUC 231. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 25. [W2] (Community-Engaged Learning.) A. Charles. Concentrations

EDUC 250. Critical Perspective on Teaching and Learning.This course examines and critiques shifting historical and contemporary notions of good pedagogy, curriculum, and assessment through the lens of critical theory. Particular emphasis is given to the ways teaching can contribute to social justice: teaching that critiques and transforms, that is culturally relevant, and that engages in activism. A thirty-hour field placement is required. Prerequisite(s): one course in education. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 25. [W2] (Community-Engaged Learning.) Staff. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

EDUC 255. Adolescent Literacy.This course examines various perspectives on and issues in adolescent literacy in today's middle and high schools, focusing primarily on critical sociocultural frameworks for the study of current practices and beliefs. Topics include not only what we mean by literacy, but also how youths today make meaning within various discourse communities and contexts. Topics include multiple literacies, literacy across the curriculum, the influence of complex technologies, diverse learners, and current policies and paradigms influencing instruction. This course interweaves theory with practice through a required thirty-hour field placement in a local middle or high school. Recommended background: EDUC 231. Not open to students who have received credit for EDUC 355. Enrollment limited to 25. [W2] (Community-Engaged Learning.) A. Charles. Concentrations

ED/PY 262. Community-Based Research Methods.This course introduces research methods through collaborative community partnerships. Students collaborate with local professionals such as teachers on research projects that originate in their work sites. Class meetings introduce design issues, methods of data collection and analysis, and ways of reporting research. Prerequisite(s): PSYC 218 or EDUC 231. Enrollment limited to 15 per section. [W2] Normally offered every year. (Community-Engaged Learning.) K. Aronson, G. Nigro. Concentrations

DN/ED 265. Teaching through the Arts.This course examines arts education theory and policy and methods and models of arts education, and considers career options. Class sessions include large- and small-group work, participatory experiences, lectures, group discussions, and student-led activities and presentations. Through a thirty-hour field placement, students explore teaching in and through the arts. Recommended background: EDUC 231. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 18. (Community-Engaged Learning.) B. Sale. Concentrations

EDUC 270. Educating for Democracy.Troubling voter turnout rates and levels of civic participation in the United States raise questions about the health of our democracy. Youth, in particular, express a sense of alienation from government and formal political processes. What does this say about education for democracy? If education is vital to the success of democratic governance, what might be done in schools and other educational institutions to better engage young people in public life? This course explores the relationship between education and democracy and various approaches to civic and citizenship education. A thirty-hour field experience is required. Recommended background: EDUC 231. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 25. (Community-Engaged Learning.) Staff. Concentrations

EDUC 325. Art Museum Education.In conjunction with a field placement in the education department of the Bates College Museum of Art, students develop and present units of instruction and/or educational experiences and materials for community members and precollege students utilizing the museum's collection. Students explore the field of art education in the context of the art museum. Students interested in art museum education should discuss their interest with the curator of education at the Bates College Museum of Art and the course instructor at least one semester in advance. Prerequisite(s): two courses in art and visual culture and two courses in education. Instructor permission is required. (Community-Engaged Learning.) B. Sale. Concentrations

EDUC 343. Learning and Teaching: Theories and Practice.Students explore learning and teaching with an emphasis on reflective practice. They consider various theories and research on learning and motivation, educational philosophies, and current issues in education. This knowledge serves as a basis for critically examining curriculum development, classroom practice, and the roles of teachers and students in today's schools. Students apply what they learn by creating and teaching a mini-curriculum unit in a local classroom. The teaching fulfills part of the required thirty-hour field experience for the course. Recommended background: EDUC 231, PSYC 101. Enrollment limited to 15. (Community-Engaged Learning.) B. Sale. Concentrations

EDUC 360. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study per semester. Normally offered every semester. Staff. Concentrations

EDUC 362. Basic Concepts in Special Education.Students learn the legal requirements (IDEA, ADA) for providing special services to and the characteristics of students who need additional support to learn. They explore a variety of strategies and modifications teachers can use to help students with various learning differences, styles, and abilities succeed in the mainstream classroom. They critically examine how differences in students' gender, cultural, socioeconomic, racial, and ethnic backgrounds affect the quality of the education they receive. A thirty-hour field experience is required. Because this course is required for certification as a teacher in Maine, it is also required for Bates students pursuing the minor in Teacher Education. Recommended background: EDUC 231. Enrollment limited to 25. [W2] Normally offered every year. (Community-Engaged Learning.) A. Charles, B. Sale. Concentrations

EDUC 365. Special Topics.A course or seminar offered from time to time and reserved for a special topic selected by the department. (Community-Engaged Learning.) Staff. Concentrations

EDUC 378. Ethnographic Approaches to Education.This course provides an introduction to fieldwork for those planning to conduct qualitative research for a thesis in the social sciences. Ethnography focuses on the daily lives and meaning-making processes of people who associate regularly in local networks, institutions, or communities. Ethnographers observe, interview, and participate in the routine activities of the people they study. They also explore the connections between locally situated activity and broader realms of symbolic meaning and social organization. This course introduces students to interpretive methods with which to examine the webs of meaning that give shape to educational spaces. Through active engagement in empirical research in educational settings across the Lewiston-Auburn community, students grapple with theoretical assumptions, procedures, and standards of quality in ethnographic research. A thirty-hour field experience is required. Not open to students who have received credit for AN/ED 378. Enrollment limited to 15. [W2] (Community-Engaged Learning.) P. Buck. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

ED/SO 380. Education, Reform, and Politics.The United States has experienced more than three centuries of growth and change in the organization of public and private education. The goals of this course are to examine 1) contemporary reform issues and political processes in relation to the constituencies of school, research, legal, and policy-making communities and 2) how educational policy is formulated, implemented, and evaluated. The study of these areas emphasizes public K–12 education but includes postsecondary education. Examples of specific educational policy arenas include governance, school choice (e.g., charter schools, magnet schools, and vouchers), school funding, standards and accountability, and parental and community involvement. A research-based field component of at least thirty hours is required. Recommended background: one or more courses in education and sociology. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 15. (Community-Engaged Learning.) Staff. Concentrations

ED/WS 384. Globalization, Globalisms, and Education.We live in an era characterized by global flows of ideas and information, commodities, and people. In this course students examine the impacts of globalization and globalism upon educational policy and practices. Students explore how these transformative forces influence educative processes in different geographical, national, and cultural contexts. Topics address a set of concerns with enduring resonance to the field of educational studies, including social inequity and change; relations of power; and constructions of race, gender, and social class. A thirty-hour field experience is required. Recommended background: one course in education and one course in women and gender studies. Not open to students who have received credit for ED/WS 280. Enrollment limited to 28. [W2] (Community-Engaged Learning.) P. Buck. Concentrations

EDUC 447. Curriculum and Methods.This course continues study of the concepts needed to understand curriculum design and program evaluation, and helps students develop the skills needed to design and teach curriculum units in their subject area. The course is part workshop: as part of the seminar (448, taken concurrently), students plan, develop, teach, and evaluate their own curriculum units. At the same time, students read about and reflect on classic questions in curriculum and instruction, such as: To what extent are teachers responsible for developing their own curriculum? Should curriculum and instruction focus on transmitting established knowledge, developing individuals' talents, or preparing successful members of society? Can teachers assess students' knowledge in ways that allow them to learn from the assessments? What particular teaching methods are appropriate for the different disciplines? Students develop a repertoire of methods to use in student teaching and in future teaching. Prerequisite(s): EDUC 231 and 460. Corequisite(s): EDUC 448 and 461. Normally offered every year. (Community-Engaged Learning.) A. Charles, B. Sale, M. Tieken. Concentrations

EDUC 448. Senior Seminar in Teacher Education: Reflection and Engagement.The seminar helps students reflect on and engage with their experiences as teachers. Students are encouraged to develop their own philosophies of education and to use these philosophies in planning and teaching their classes. The seminar also addresses three areas of practice—technology, community-based, and interdisciplinary approaches—and helps students incorporate these into their teaching. Prerequisite(s): EDUC 231, 362, and 460. Corequisite(s): EDUC 447 and 461. Instructor permission is required. Normally offered every year. (Community-Engaged Learning.) A. Charles, B. Sale, M. Tieken. Concentrations

EDUC 450. Seminar in Educational Studies.Required of all students in the educational studies minor, this seminar helps students to reflect upon and synthesize their previous education courses, courses in related fields, and their field experiences. Students produce and present a culminating project. A thirty-hour field placement is required. Prerequisite(s): EDUC 231 and three additional courses in education. Open to seniors only. Normally offered every year. (Community-Engaged Learning.) P. Buck. Concentrations

EDUC 460. Student Teaching I.This is an intensive field experience in secondary education. Students begin by observing a host teacher in their academic field, spending one or two class periods each day in the middle or high school. Soon they begin teaching at least one class per day. In regular, informal meetings, they are guided and supported by their host teachers and a supervisor from the Bates Department of Education. Students also meet for seminar sessions at Bates to address conceptual matters and to discuss problems and successes in the classroom. These seminars include workshops in content area methods and extensive informal reflective writing. Students begin to move toward proficiency in four areas of practice: curriculum, instruction, and evaluation; classroom management, interactions, and relationships; diversity; time management and organizational skills. Prerequisite(s): EDUC 231 and 362. Instructor permission is required. Normally offered every year. (Community-Engaged Learning.) A. Charles, B. Sale. Concentrations

EDUC 461. Student Teaching II.This course continues and deepens the experiences and reflection begun in EDUC 460. Students spend four or five class periods each day in a local middle or high school observing, teaching, and becoming fully involved in the life of the school. Students continue to meet regularly with their host teacher and Bates supervisor. Integrated into the seminar (448), students spend extensive time planning their classes and reflecting in writing on their experiences. Prerequisite(s): EDUC 231, 362, and 460. Corequisite(s): EDUC 447 and 448. Normally offered every year. (Community-Engaged Learning.) A. Charles, B. Sale, M. Tieken. Concentrations

Short Term Courses

EDUC s19. Theory and Practice of Writing and Tutoring.Winston Churchill is supposed to have asked, "How can I tell what I think until I see what I've said?" This course explores the intersection of thinking, learning, and writing in the academy, and in particular, the teaching and tutoring of writing. Students consider readings in current composition and peer-tutoring theory and have opportunities to apply and practice a variety of writing and tutoring strategies on campus and in the community. The course serves as a particularly useful foundation for students seeking to become peer writing and speaking assistants and those interested in teaching writing at the secondary level. A thirty-hour field experience is required. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 20. (Community-Engaged Learning.) J. Cole. Concentrations

EDUC s26. Qualitative Methods of Education Research.Policymakers and practitioners often rely upon rich descriptive data to inform their understandings of schools and students. This sort of ethnographic, qualitative research typically involves observation and interviewing. This course introduces students to these methods, exploring the fundamentals of research design, data collection, and data analysis. Students consider questions concerning validity, positionality, and the ethics of qualitative research. Working in partnership with a local education-oriented community organization, students carry out a qualitative research project, articulating research design, conducting observations and interviews, analyzing data, and presenting results. A thirty-hour field experience is required. Enrollment limited to 15. Normally offered every year. (Community-Engaged Learning.) M. Tieken. Concentrations

EDUC s27. Literacy in the Community.The field of "new literacy studies" calls into question the traditional emphasis upon discrete reading and writing skills. In an expanded definition scholars place literacy within anthropological and cross-cultural frameworks that consider reading and writing practices within families, communities, and cultures. This course introduces students to the literature of new literacy studies and educational anthropology in conjunction with a thirty-hour service-learning placement in the Lewiston area. The course also offers an introduction to English Language Learning pedagogy. Students are asked to investigate the impact culturally informed knowledge and experience have upon the literacy practices of those community members with whom they work closely. Enrollment limited to 30. Normally offered every year. (Community-Engaged Learning.) P. Buck, A. Charles. Concentrations   |   Interdisciplinary Programs.

DN/ED s29A. Tour, Teach, Perform I.This course uses the diverse collective skills of the students in the class as base material for the creation of a theater/dance piece that tours to elementary schools. The first two weeks are spent working intensively with a guest artist to create the performance piece. The remaining weeks are spent touring that piece, along with age-appropriate movement workshops, to elementary schools throughout the region. This course open to performers and would-be performers of all kinds. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 20. Normally offered every year. (Community-Engaged Learning.) C. Dilley. Concentrations

DN/ED s29B. Tour, Teach, Perform II.Continued study of the integration of dance and other arts for the purpose of producing a performance piece for elementary school children. Students participate in all aspects of creating the performance, encompassing a wide variety of topics and movement-based performance styles, and developing a creative movement workshop to be taught in the classrooms. This course is open to performers and would-be performers of all kinds. Prerequisite(s): DANC s29A. Enrollment limited to 6. Normally offered every year. (Community-Engaged Learning.) C. Dilley. Concentrations

ED/PY s39. Development in Malawi.This course examines development in Malawi at two levels of analysis: the individual and societal. At the individual level, students focus on child development; in partnership with a nonprofit in rural Malawi, students work in an afterschool program teaching English, which children need in order to pursue secondary schooling. At the societal level, students select one of three focus areas for further study—public health, environmental sustainability, or gender equality and women’s empowerment—and work in partnership with villagers and leaders. During the three-week stay in Malawi, students live at M’Pamila Village, a rural site next to a rainforest. Prerequisite(s): EDUC 231 or PSYC 240. New course beginning Short Term 2014. Enrollment limited to 12. Instructor permission is required. G. Nigro. Concentrations

EDUC s50. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study during a Short Term. Normally offered every year. Staff. Concentrations

ED/SO s51A. Community Organizing.New research, practices and technologies have prompted exciting changes in the landscape of teaching and learning at the college level. This course investigates those changes both broadly and within a specific discipline or interdisciplinary field of study. A small group of students works under the direction of a faculty member to examine innovative trends in teaching and learning, with the goal of designing or redesigning a specific course in that faculty member's field. New course beginning Short Term 2014 Instructor permission is required. One-time offering. M. Tieken. Concentrations