Environmental Studies

Professors Auer (Environmental Studies), Costlow (Environmental Studies), Lewis (Economics), Smedley (Physics), and Wenzel (Chemistry); Associate Professors Ewing (Environmental Studies, chair) and Pieck (Environmental Studies); Visiting Assistant Professor Dekker; Lecturers Beck (Environmental Studies), Parrish (Environmental Studies), and Sewall (Environmental Studies)

Environmental studies encompasses a broad range of issues that arise from the interaction of humans with the natural world. To understand these issues, students must think across and beyond existing disciplinary boundaries. The environmental studies major provides a framework for students to examine how humans experience, investigate, and interact with their natural environment. The curriculum includes, first, an interdisciplinary core that encourages students to explore the social, aesthetic, ethical, scientific, and technical aspects of environmental questions, and second, a disciplinary-based major concentration that allows students to approach these questions with more focused knowledge and methodological tools. More information on the environmental studies program including the course requirements for each major concentration is available on the website (bates.edu/environment/).

Major Requirements. Students majoring in environmental studies must fulfill core requirements of five courses, a major concentration, a one- or two-semester thesis, and a 200-hour internship. Students may apply designated Short Term courses toward their major requirements. It is recommended that students complete ENVR 203, 204, and 205 as early as possible, preferably within their first two years. These courses are not open to seniors. In addition to ENVR 203, 204, and 205, the environmental studies committee recommends that all students interested in environmental studies take a related course in biology, chemistry, physics, or geology during their first year. CH/ES 107B and 108B are designed specifically for students interested in environmental studies, and both are required for students choosing many majors or concentrations in the natural sciences.

Students are advised that there may be limits on second majors or minors and on double-dipping certain courses, but these differ by major concentration. For example, the geology minor is not available to Environmental Geology concentrations; the physics minor is not open to Energy concentration; and the chemistry minor may not be completed by Environmental Studies majors with an Environmental Chemistry concentration. Students are encouraged to look at concentration requirements for details and consult with the advisor for the environmental studies major concentration in question.

Students should note that there may be flexibility in requirements due to changes in the curriculum.

Students interested in environmental education are advised to take a minor or general education concentration in education in addition to their major in environmental studies. Students are encouraged to consider study abroad, although the program reserves the right to restrict study abroad to one semester.

Core Requirements.
1) Required courses:

ENVR 203. Scientific Approaches to Environmental Issues.
ENVR 204. Environment and Society.
ENVR 205. Lives in Place.
ENVR 417. Community-Engaged Research in Environmental Studies.
ENVR 457, 458. Senior Thesis.

2) At least one course from the following list. There are restrictions depending on the student's major concentration. Students should consult the environmental studies website for information on which courses fulfill each major concentration.

ECON 222. Environmental Economics.
ENVR 227. Catastrophes and Hope.
ENVR 229. The Electric Grid.
ENVR 240. Water and Watersheds.
AN/ES 242. Environment, Human Rights, and Indigenous Peoples.
ENVR 310. Soils.
ENVR 334. The Question of the Animal.
ENVR 337. Social Movements, NGOs, and the Environment.
ENVR 340. Literatures of Agriculture.
ENVR 348. Nature and the Novel.
ENVR 350. Environmental Justice in the Americas.

3) Courses in the Major Concentration. Major concentrations focus on a particular aspect of environmental studies. The program website provides information regarding the courses required of each major concentration. The major concentrations are:
Ecology.
Energy.
Environment and Human Culture.
Environmental Chemistry.
Environmental Economics.
Environmental Ethics.
Environmental Geology.
Environment in the Literary and Visual Arts.
Global Environment and Social Change.
Health.

The Thesis. All students must complete a one- or two-semester thesis. Theses must build in some significant way upon the courses that students take as part of their major concentration. Students write proposals for thesis in the winter semester of the junior year.

The Internship. Every student must complete a 200-hour internship in an environmentally oriented organization by the end of the fall semester of their senior year. Internships at academic research organizations, those requiring only physical labor, and those at summer camps are generally unacceptable.

Pass/Fail Grading Option. Pass/fail grading may not be elected for courses applied toward the major.

Courses
CH/ES 107B. Chemical Structure and Its Importance in the Environment/Lab.Fundamentals of atomic and molecular structure are developed with particular attention to how they relate to substances of interest in the environment. Periodicity, bonding, states of matter, and intermolecular forces are covered. The laboratory (three hours per week) involves a semester-long group investigation of a topic of environmental significance. Not open to students who have received credit for CHEM 107A or FYS 398. Enrollment limited to 60. [S] [L] [Q] Normally offered every year. T. Wenzel.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

CH/ES 108B. Chemical Reactivity in Environmental Systems/Lab.A continuation of CH/ES 107B. Major topics include thermodynamics, kinetics, equilibrium, acid/base chemistry, and electrochemistry. Examples for course topics are drawn from aquatic chemistry and the chemistry of environmental health. The laboratory (three hours per week) analyzes the chemistry of marine environments. Prerequisite(s): CHEM 107A, CH/ES 107B, or FYS 398. Not open to students who have received credit for CHEM 108A. Enrollment limited to 60. [S] [L] [Q] Normally offered every year. R. Austin.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ENVR 203. Scientific Approaches to Environmental Issues/Lab.An introduction to central concepts in environmental science—the function and interrelationship of physical, chemical, and biological systems—through the study of specific environmental issues. The laboratory links field studies of environmental systems to the scientific concepts and tools environmental scientists use. This course serves as a foundation for further study of environmental science at Bates. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. [S] [L] [Q] Normally offered every year. H. Ewing.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ENVR 204. Environment and Society.Environmental issues rarely have only physical dimensions. They most often also have social and political aspects. This course familiarizes students with some of the major social scientific contributions to understanding how and why environmental problems arise, how they are defined, and how different groups are affected by and respond to them. The course first outlines the contemporary world system in which environmental debates take place and then identifies drivers of environmental change. Students then apply these ideas to a variety of ongoing environmental controversies, including climate change, agriculture, urbanization, biodiversity conservation, pollution, and environmental justice. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every year. S. Pieck.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ENVR 205. Lives in Place.What does it mean to live sustainably in place? This course investigates possible answers to that question by considering lives in place–particular stories, particular places, and multiple forms of storytelling about human relationship to the more than human world. From nature writing and calendars of nature to poetry, memoir, documentary, and the novel, humans (the "storytelling animal") demonstrate ways of living that enable us to reflect on the virtues, values, vices, and trade-offs of those lives. Keystones in this consideration include modernity and tradition, technologies of change, voices and points of view, animal agency, eating as agricultural act, consumption, and creativity. Students consider both classic and emerging texts and artists from a variety of periods and cultures, examples of humans' ongoing experiment in living on Earth. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every year. C. Dekker.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

INDS 208. Introduction to Medieval Archaeology.The Middle Ages were a time of major cultural changes that laid the groundwork for Northwest Europe's emergence as a global center of political and economic power in subsequent centuries. However, many aspects of life in the period from 1000 to 1500 C.E. were unrecorded in contemporary documents and art, and archaeology has become an important tool for recovering that information. This course introduces the interdisciplinary methods and the findings of archaeological studies of topics including medieval urban and rural lifeways, health, commerce, religion, social hierarchy, warfare, and the effects of global climate change. Cross-listed in anthropology, classical and medieval studies, environmental studies, and history. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. (Premodern.) Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

INDS 211. Environmental Perspectives on U.S. History.This course explores the relationship between the North American environment and the development and expansion of the United States. Because Americans' efforts (both intentional and not) to define and shape the environment were rooted in their own struggles for power, environmental history offers an important perspective on the nation's social history. Specific topics include Europeans', Africans', and Indians' competing efforts to shape the colonial environment; the impact and changing understanding of disease; the relationship between industrial environments and political power; and the development of environmental movements. Cross-listed in American cultural studies, environmental studies, and history. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. (United States.) J. Hall.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ES/PL 214. Environmental Ethics.A study of selected issues in environmental ethics, including questions about population growth, resource consumption, pollution, the responsibilities of corporations, environmental justice, animal rights, biodiversity, and moral concern for the natural world. The course explores debates currently taking place among environmental thinkers regarding our moral obligations to other persons, to future generations, to other animals, and to ecosystems and the Earth itself. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. T. Tracy.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

INDS 215. The Environmental History of Japan: Pollution, Protection, and the Public Good.This course looks at a range of environmental issues in the history of Japan from the late seventeenth century to the present. Key topics include managing scarce resources, the legacy of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, heavy industrial pollution tied to breakneck industrial and economic growth, the rise of the environmental movement, and the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster and its implications. Students discuss conflicts between conservation and consumption, defining progress and growth, the individual costs behind larger societal and economic decisions, and balancing the material needs of human society with environmental preservation and ecological management. Cross-listed in Asian studies, environmental studies, and history. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. (East Asian.) P. Eason.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ES/RU 216. Nature in Russian Culture.How does a given culture understand and represent its relationship to the specific geography of its place in the world? This course explores the cultural landscape of Russia through a broad range of literary works, visual images, and ethnographic studies. Students examine some of the following issues: the relationship between geography and national identity; the political uses of cultural landscape; the interaction of agriculture, official religion, and traditional belief in peasant culture; and the role of class and revolutionary reimaginings of nature in the Soviet era. Conducted in English. Open to first-year students. [W2] J. Costlow.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ES/GE 217. Mapping and GIS/Lab.Geographical information systems (GIS) are computer-based systems for geographical data presentation and analysis. They allow rapid development of high-quality maps, and enable sophisticated examination of spatial patterns and interrelationships. In this course students learn the principles of GIS through extensive computer use of ArcGIS (ESRI). Geological and environmental projects introduce students to cartography, common sources of geographic data, methods for collecting novel spatial data, and data quality. Finally, students learn to extend the capabilities of GIS software to tackle more advanced spatial analysis tasks by completing an independent project. Lectures supplement the laboratory component of the course. Prerequisite: one 200-level course in environmental studies or one 100-level course in geology. Not open to students who have received credit for ENVR 220. Enrollment limited to 20. [S] [L] [Q] C. Parrish, J. Eusden.
Concentrations
INDS 219. Environmental Archaeology.Over the past two hundred years archaeologists, scientists, and humanists in many disciplines have worked together to understand the interactions of past human populations with the physical world, including plants, animals, landscapes, and climates. This course outlines the methods and theories used by archaeologists, geologists, biologists, physicists, chemists, and historians in reconstructing past economies and ecologies in diverse areas of the globe. The course also discusses how archaeology contributes to our understanding of contemporary environmental issues such as rapid climate change, shrinking biodiversity, and sustainable use of resources. Cross-listed in anthropology, environmental studies, and history. Recommended background: ANTH 103. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. (Premodern.) Normally offered every year. Staff.
Concentrations
ENVR 220. GIS across the Curriculum.Geographical information systems (GIS) are computer-based systems for analyzing spatially located data. They allow rapid development of high-quality maps and enable sophisticated examination of spatial patterns and interrelationships. In this course students learn the principles of GIS through extensive use of the software ArcGIS (ESRI). Modules from across the curriculum introduce students to spatial data by exploring common data sources, data collection methods, data quality, and data presentation methods. Finally, students extend their capabilities in advanced spatial analysis tasks by undertaking an independent project. Not open to students who have received credit for ENVR 217 or ES/GE 217. Enrollment limited to 20. [S] [Q] C. Parrish, H. Ewing.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ES/GE 226. Hydrogeology.Hydrogeology is the study of the movement and interaction of underground fluids within rocks and sediments. This course uses hydrogeology as a disciplinary framework for learning about groundwater processes, contamination, supply, use, and management. Students engage in practical applications of hydrogeology via discussions, guest lectures, research projects, problem sets, and hands-on experience. Students learn field and laboratory methods for determining and analyzing groundwater flow, contamination, and aquifer properties by working at local sites of interest in central Maine. Prerequisite(s): ENVR 203 or one 100-level geology course. Enrollment limited to 22. [S] B. Johnson.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ENVR 227. Catastrophes and Hope.Disaster narratives can be both documentary and cautionary, attempting to describe what seems beyond human imagination. Such narratives may serve as dire warnings, offer glimpses of hope, spur us to change our lives, or scare us into denial. This course explores examples of disaster narratives from various cultures and time periods, considering the emotional, aesthetic, and civic function of discourses of disaster. In addition, students consider imaginations of disaster at the end of the cold war and in contemporary discussions of climate change. Prerequisite(s): ENVR 205. Enrollment limited to 30. J. Costlow.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

INDS 228. Caring for Creation: Physics, Religion, and the Environment.This course considers scientific and religious accounts of the origin of the universe, examines the relations between these accounts, and explores the way they shape our deepest attitudes toward the natural world. Topics of discussion include the biblical Creation stories, contemporary scientific cosmology, the interplay between these scientific and religious ideas, and the roles they both can play in forming a response to environmental problems. Cross-listed in environmental studies, physics, and religious studies. Enrollment limited to 40. [S] J. Smedley, T. Tracy.
Interdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ENVR 229. The Electric Grid.An exploration of electricity production, distribution, and consumption. Principles of electromagnetism are developed to provide an understanding of the design and function of the electric grid. Topics include the history of grid evolution, reliability and disruptions, organizational design, regulations, environmental impacts, energy storage, incorporation of renewable energy sources, and the smart grid. Prerequisite(s): CHEM 107A, CH/ES 107B, ENVR 203, or any course in physics. Enrollment limited to 40. [S] [Q] J. Smedley.
BI/ES 232. Global Change in Terrestrial Systems.In this course students investigate how global change is affecting terrestrial ecosystems. Plants are the dominant organisms in these systems. Students discuss how adaptations to particular environments may favor or hinder individual species in the future, and how ecology and physiology interact when it comes to species responses to global change. They consider processes from the leaf to ecosystem levels and discuss how natural and agricultural systems are likely to be affected by changes in temperature and water availability, rising carbon dioxide and gaseous pollutants, and alterations in soil chemistry and nutrient availability. Prerequisite(s): BIO 117, 124, 190, or ENVR 203. New course beginning Winter 2015. Open to first-year students. [S] One-time offering. A. Eller.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

EN/ES 237. Books that Changed The World.This course examines works of fiction and nonfiction around which claims of social or political efficacy circulate, seeking to understand how each text attempts to sway its audience and searches for strategies that can be borrowed for communicating about today's environmental problems. A final project asks students to select and assess a recent book with world-changing aspirations. Students from all disciplinary backgrounds, including non-humanities majors who are interested in learning how to shape public perception of environmental or justice issues, are especially encouraged to join the course. Recommended background: ENVR 205 or any English or rhetoric course. New course beginning Winter 2015. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 40. One-time offering. C. Dekker.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ENVR 240. Water and Watersheds/Lab.Where does water go and what does it do? Humans across the globe extract, enjoy, use, waste, and conserve water and hence affect its distribution, movement, and quality. In this course students follow water from atmosphere to land to aquatic systems, emphasizing the controls on the movement and chemistry of water in freshwater ecosystems. They investigate not only the need of organisms for water but also the ways in which organisms, including humans, influence the distribution and chemistry of water. Some class meetings involve field and lab work. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: ENVR 203; CHEM 107A, CH/ES 107B, or FYS 398, and GEO 103; CHEM 107A, CH/ES 107B, or FYS 398, and BIO 190 or BI/GE 112. Recommended background: CHEM 107A, CH/ES 107B, or FYS 398 and CHEM 108A or CH/ES 108B. Enrollment limited to 18. [S] [L] H. Ewing.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

AN/ES 242. Environment, Human Rights, and Indigenous Peoples.For decades environmentalists have used the image of the "ecological native" in their critique of industrialization while indigenous activists have framed their struggles for land rights and self-determination in environmental terms. Why and how have environmental and indigenous concerns merged? How are these connections used strategically? This course examines the struggles of the world's indigenous peoples in the context of an accelerating ecological crisis. Topics include Western ideas of indigenous people, indigenous self-representation, indigenous relations to modern nation-states and the United Nations, and the impacts of oil and mining, bio-prospecting, biodiversity conservation and climate change. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: ANTH 101, ENVR 337, ENVR 204, ENVR 350, or PLTC 250. Enrollment limited to 30. S. Pieck.
Concentrations
ENVR 310. Soils/Lab.Depending on one's point of view, soils are geological units, ecosystems, the foundation of plant life, a place for microbes to live, building material, or just dirt. This course takes a scientific perspective and explores the genesis of soils, their distribution and characteristics, and their interaction with plants. Field studies emphasize description of soils, inferences about soil formation, and placement within a landscape context. Labs investigate the chemistry of soils and their role in forestry and agriculture. Prerequisite(s): ENVR 203; or two terms of chemistry (CHEM 107A, CH/ES 107B, or FYS 398 and CHEM 108A or CH/ES 108B) and one 200-level biology or geology course. Recommended background: one 200-level geology course. [S] [L] H. Ewing.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

INDS 321. Afroambiente: Writing a Black Environment.This course studies the response of black writers and intellectuals of the Spanish-speaking world to issues related to the natural environment. In three countries, Ecuador, Puerto Rico, and Equatorial Guinea, modernity has brought serious challenges to notions of economic progress, human rights, and national sovereignty, as well as individual and communal identity. Course materials include written texts from local newspapers and magazines, as well as other sources of information such as Internet sites that discuss issues related to the environment and the arts. Cross-listed in African American studies, environmental studies, and Spanish. Prerequisite(s): one 200-level Spanish literature course. B. Fra-Molinero.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

BI/ES 333. The Genetics of Conservation Biology/Lab.Conserving biodiversity is important at multiple scales, including genetic variation within species. Does a species have enough variation to evolve in a changing world? Are individuals differentially adapted to local environmental variation? In a captive population of a rare animal, which individuals should be bred to minimize the erosion of genetic variation? Lectures and labs cover the fundamentals of classical, molecular, and population genetics, applying them to current issues in biological conservation. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242 or 270. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO 330. Enrollment limited to 15. [S] [L] D. Dearborn.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ENVR 334. The Question of the Animal.Who are the animals to us? Beasts of burden, holy asses, laboratory surrogates, Aesopian figures for our political disputes, Pavlovian responders and creatures who in their suffering are moral beings, too, animals' place within the history of human thought and culture has been central, deeply contradictory, and perennially implicated in our understandings of what it means to be human. This course explores the role of animals in human life and thought, drawing on readings from literature, cultural history, ethology, and ethics. Readings and class discussions consider the roles of animals in highly diverse cultures and historical eras. Enrollment limited to 18. [W2] J. Costlow.
Interdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ENVR 337. Social Movements, NGOs, and the Environment.As emerging transnational actors, social movements and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) challenge state-centered paradigms with regard to environmental and other issues. But why do environmental movements arise in the first place? Do NGOs necessarily "do environmental good"? What solutions to the environment/development quandary do these forms of activism offer? The course first locates the context for NGOs and social movements within neoliberal globalization and the resource conflicts that emerge from its processes. Students consider topics and case studies in developed and developing countries, using them as a lens through which to understand the complexities of social and environmental change. Prerequisite(s): ANTH 101 or ENVR 204 and two additional courses in environmental studies. Not open to students who have received credit for AN/ES 337. Enrollment limited to 20. [W2] Normally offered every year. S. Pieck.
Interdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ENVR 340. Literatures of Agriculture.This course explores the ways in which agrarian life has been imagined, written about, and lived in a wide array of cultural and historical settings. Classic pastoral suggests that the life of the countryside is a life of virtue and freedom from the entanglements of politics and the city. The actual experience of farm labor is often embedded in difficult political, economic, and environmental realities, even as farmers profess deep affection for their labor and the land. Students explore a broad range of genres, from agrarian essay to historical studies, memoirs, and novels, considering how different forms of writing articulate ideals, aspirations, and realities. Students visit local farms and interview local farmers. Prerequisite(s): ENVR 205. Enrollment limited to 15. J. Costlow.
ENVR 348. Nature and the Novel.The novel is the social genre par excellence, filled with details of human lives and commentary on politics, philosophy, and morals. But novels are also ideal vehicles for thinking about nature, evocative of particular places, complex communities, legacies of injustice and possibility. Readings for this course, drawn primarily from twentieth-century authors, may include political/philosophical epic (Pasternak's Doctor Zhivago); the dystopian work of Zamiatin and McCarthy (We, The Road); feminist science fiction and agrarian visions of the good life (Atwood and Berry). Close readings of the novels are accompanied by essays in contemporary ecocriticism that help students think about what it means to read novels with environmental questions in mind. Prerequisite(s): ENVR 205. Enrollment limited to 15. C. Dekker.
ENVR 350. Environmental Justice in the Americas.This course explores issues of environmental justice in the western hemisphere by focusing on how lines of difference—especially race, class and gender—mediate people's relationships to each other and to the natural world. How do power relations shape differential access to and control over resources? What makes people more or less vulnerable to environmental changes? The course applies critical social theory to case studies from across the Americas to explore how political, economic, and cultural forces shape environmental inequalities, and how, in trying to address those inequalities, various groups challenge and broaden the assumptions and practices of modern environmentalism. Prerequisite(s): ENVR 204 and two additional courses in environmental studies or three courses in Latin American studies. Enrollment limited to 15. S. Pieck.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ENVR 360. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study per semester. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every semester. Staff.
Interdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ENVR 365. Special Topics.Offered occasionally on subjects of special interest. Staff.
ES/HI 390M. Maine: Environment and History.This course introduces students to Maine history from its beginnings to the twentieth century, emphasizing the state's most pervasive theme, the environment. From aboriginal people to European colonists, different people have relied on the state's natural resources. Indeed, the environment shaped Maine's most prevalent industries. By the twentieth century, Maine emerged as a popular vacation destination, causing many to reflect on conservation efforts. This seminar explores the significance of locality in understanding the interaction between the environment and different people through time. Students develop a deeper sense of place in our community. Enrollment limited to 15. (United States.) J. Hall.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ES/HI 390R. Nature and Empire.This seminar course explores the dynamic relationship between science, environment, and empire from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries. During this period, European colonies in Africa, India, and the Americas became laboratories for scientific and environmental experimentation, provoking confrontations between diverse cultures over patterns of land use and ideas about the natural world. Students read widely in recent historical scholarship in order to understand how the environment shaped colonial settlement and expansion; how imperial expansion then changed natural environments; and how the natural and human sciences bolstered and profited from imperial expansion. Enrollment limited to 15. (European.) (Premodern.) [W2] L. Barnett.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ENVR 417. Community-Engaged Research in Environmental Studies.Students work collaboratively to complete interdisciplinary semester-long project. Projects include work with previously identified community partners and may vary from year to year. Students evaluate literature, participate in discussions, complete written reports, and give oral presentations. Aesthetic and cultural perspectives on the environment, ethics and social justice, and scientific and quantitative approaches to environmental issues are incorporated into the project. The course deals explicitly with ethnicity, race, gender, and/or class within the context of the selected theme. Prerequisite(s): ENVR 203, 204, 205, and one of the following: AC/EN 395C; ANTH s10; AVC 283; AV/WS 287; BIO 242, 244, 270; CHEM 212; ECON 250; EDUC s26; ENG 243, 295; EN/WS 395L; ENVR 220, ENVR 229, 240, 310; ES/GE 217; ES/PL 214, HIST s40; INDS 250; PLTC s49; PSYC 218; RHET 257; or SOC 205. (Community-Engaged Learning.) Normally offered every year. Staff.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ENVR 450. Environmental Writing in the Public Sphere.Building on research from previous environmental studies courses, students in this course produce new writing for public audiences. They consider environmentally themed pieces as models for writing (e.g., advocacy scholarship, scientific writing, personal and lyrical essays, natural history); explore new media forms (radio and video essays, soundscapes, mash-ups); and examine theory on writing and web portfolios. Students' environmental writing develops through peer and professional review and culminates in a substantial piece of writing for a public audience. Web portfolios present the new scholarship and reflect on its creation, showing the process of learning, connections to environmental studies course work, and thematic links beyond Bates. Prerequisite(s): ENVR 206, 204, 205, and 417. Enrollment limited to 15. Instructor permission is required. [W3] Normally offered every year. M. Beck.
ENVR 457. Senior Thesis.This course involves research for and writing of the senior thesis, under the direction of a faculty advisor. Guidelines for the thesis are published on the program website and are available from the program chair. Students register for ENVR 457 in the fall semester. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
Interdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ENVR 458. Senior Thesis.This course involves research for and writing of the senior thesis, under the direction of a faculty advisor. Guidelines for the thesis are published on the program website and are available from the program chair. Students register for ES 458 in the winter semester. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
Interdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

Short Term Courses
AV/ES s15. Photographing the Landscape.The course provides a context for studying and analyzing images of the landscape by viewing and discussing historic and contemporary landscape photographs. Questions considered include the role of the sublime in current landscape photography, beauty as a strategy for persuasion, perceptions of "natural" versus "artificial," and contemporary approaches in trying to affect environmental change. Students explore the depiction of the landscape by producing their own work, using "pinhole," black-and-white film, or digital photography. Recommended background: AVC 218 or 219. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 12. E. Morris.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ES/RU s20. Environment and Culture in Russia.This course introduces a broad range of environmental issues in contemporary Russia and invites students to consider those issues in cultural and historical context. A period of intensive preparation at Bates is followed by visits and conversations in Russia that acquaint students with ecologists, activists, governmental officials, and ordinary Russian citizens. Students spend three and one-half weeks at different locations in European Russia and the Urals, visiting sites ranging from privatized farms and peasant markets to industrial centers and conservation areas. Recommended background: one course in Russian studies or environmental studies. Enrollment limited to 15. Instructor permission is required. J. Costlow.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ES/GE s21. Field Studies in Geology.This course introduces students to field studies in geology. Three different geologic settings (bedrock geology, geomorphology, and hydrology) are the focus of three week-long field projects. Each project is followed by laboratory analysis and compilation of the field data in the form of maps, cross sections, and lab reports. Students learn how to map and analyze spatial datasets using mobile GIS field methods and ArcGIS techniques as well as methods in environmental sampling and modeling. Students examine exposures of bedrock on the Maine coast, glacial features in downeast Maine, and river systems in central Maine. This course provide students with a basic toolkit for fieldwork in geology and environmental studies. Prerequisite(s): one 100-level geology course. Enrollment limited to 30. B. Johnson, J. Eusden.
Concentrations
ENVR s22. Environmental Leadership.Traditional ideas of leadership tend to conjure images of people with exceptional abilities who are heads of states, corporations, and movements. An alternative model supports leadership as a social construct that emerges as people begin to make sense of their everyday experiences (What role do I play in shaping the world around me?) and deemphasizes personal traits (Do I have what it takes to be a leader?). This course explores current environmental issues in Maine through the lens of leadership. Students consider what it means to be a leader and how to facilitate change, build agreement, develop and communicate a vision, and plan strategically. The course provides students with practical skills for environmental leadership, an understanding of leadership styles, and the opportunity to develop confidence in their ability to take effective action. Enrollment limited to 30. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ES/RE s25. Food and the Sacred.This course provides an opportunity to explore food through ideas and practices considered sacred by Jews, Christians, Muslims, Buddhists, Hindus, indigenous peoples, and neo-pagans. Topics include feasting, fasting, farming, foraging, feeding the hungry, the five senses, and the fascinating fundamentals of dirt and water. There is a community-based learning component to this course undertaken outside class of time as well as hands-on individual and group projects. Prerequisite(s): one course in environmental studies or religious studies. Enrollment limited to 15. (Community-Engaged Learning.) C. Baker.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ENVR s27. New England Mountain Literature.Students in this course reads New England literature with particular emphasis on the mountains and the rich variety of human experiences to which they have played host. Readings include colonial narratives and poetry, Transcendentalists and nineteenth-century mountain tourists, and contemporary poetry and trail narratives, as students seek an understanding of how present experiences in the mountains are mediated by literary and cultural history. Students test new knowledge with weekly field excursions to sites in Maine, the White Mountains, and a culminating camping trip and ascent of Katahdin if conditions permit. Student responsibilities include significant reading and keeping a journal of reading and mountain experiences. New course beginning Short Term 2015. Enrollment limited to 18. One-time offering. C. Dekker.
ENVR s46. Internship in Environmental Studies.Projects may include hands-on conservation work, environmental education, environmental research, political advocacy, environmental law, or other areas related to environmental questions. Specific arrangement and prior approval of the Committee on Environmental Studies is required. Instructor permission is required. Normally offered every year. C. Parrish.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ENVR s50. Independent Study.Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study during a Short Term. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every year. Staff.