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General Education Concentrations

A defining component of a Bates education is a General Education program that ensures breadth and depth of study. The General Education requirements are described in the Academic Program section of the catalog.

Among the General Education requirements is the successful completion of two General Education concentrations (GECs). General Education concentrations challenge students to develop significant expertise outside their major. Each concentration consists of four courses chosen from a faculty-designed menu that is structured on the basis of a clearly articulated organizing principle. Some concentrations focus on a particular issue or topic or area of inquiry identified by several professors working across different disciplines; others are formed within a single discipline. Some concentrations may include relevant co-curricular experiences such as significant community service, orchestra, theatrical performance, or volunteer work. The required concentrations may also be fulfilled by completing a minor or a second major. General Education concentrations appear on the transcript.

The concentrations currently offered are described below, including requirements, exclusions, course lists, and eligible co-curricular components.

Concentrations
Ancient Greek (C020)
A concentration that provides students with skills and insights in Greek language and literature. H. Walker.
Requirements
Four courses, of which only two may be taken at the 100-level and only two may be taken at the 200-level. Two non-Bates courses may be applied toward the concentration if judged comparable to one of those below by the concentration coordinator and with prior approval.
The Ancient World (C054)
This concentration introduces students to peoples of the Greco-Roman and Judaic traditions in the ancient world. Students examine the history, literature, religions, social practices, and material cultures of the Greeks, Romans, and Israelites, as well as the different methodologies scholars employ to understand a distant and different past that still critically shapes the experience of the modern Western world. One non-Bates course may be applied toward the concentration if judged comparable to one of those below by the concentration coordinator and with prior approval. M. Imber.
Requirements
Any four courses.
Applying Mathematical Methods (C006)
This concentration encourages students to appreciate the utility of mathematics, make connections between mathematics and other subjects, and apply mathematical methods in a relevant discipline (e.g., natural or social sciences, arts, humanities) or in a real-world setting (e.g., traffic control, scheduling, manufacturing). P. Jayawant.
Requirements
Four courses including two from list A and two from list B, with no more than two courses from the same department/program.

List A (Mathematics-based Courses): BI/MA255A; BIO 244; ECON 250, 255; EC/MA 342; MATH 205, 206, 214, 215, 219, 220, 255B, 355A, 355B, 355C, 355D, s21, s45K, s45M, s45P; PHYS 301

List B (Application-based Courses): ASTR 104; AT/GE 110, 115; BI/NS 308; BIO 260, 270, 330, 340; CHEM 107A, 108A, 301, 302, 310; CH/ES 107B, 108B; ECON 260, 270, s21; ENVR 203; GEO 210, 230, 240; MUS 231, 232; PHIL 195, 395A; PHYS 103, 105, 106, 107, 108, 112, 115, 211, 214, 222; PLTC 310; THEA 132, 232, 236

One of the courses may be replaced by a supervised research position or internship approved by the appropriate department. In addition to the four courses or co-curricular components, students are encouraged to complete an integrative project that demonstrates mastery of applied mathematical methods. This project is usually completed in the context of a course or co-curricular experience.
Students are expected to present their project in a public forum (e.g., class presentation, conference, Mount David Summit). Students are required to consult with the concentration coordinator as early as possible for advice and guidance in
completing this project. A maximum of two courses taken abroad (one in mathematics and one in an applied discipline) may be substituted for Bates courses, with prior approval of the concentration coordinator. This concentration is not open to students who have declared a major or minor in mathematics or a major in economics.
Courses
Co-curricular Activities
Research Experience/Internship.
A supervised research experience such as an NSF Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) position or an appropriate internship may replace one mathematics-based or one applications-based course, depending on the content. Supervised by the appropriate department or program.
Archaeology and Material Culture (C025)
This concentration acquaints students with archaeology, the subfield of anthropology dealing with the study of material remains and the study of material culture from other theoretical perspectives. B. Bourque.
Requirements
Four courses, one of which must be a methodology class from the following list: ANTH 103, INDS 219, or ANTH s32. One co-curricular component involving substantial archaeological fieldwork may be substituted for a course, at the discretion of the anthropology department. One non-Bates course may be applied toward the concentration if judged comparable to one of those below by the concentration coordinator and with prior approval. This concentration is not open to students who have declared a major or minor in anthropology.
Co-curricular Activities
Fieldwork.
Substantial fieldwork on an archaeological dig supervised by the anthropology department. Supervised by the anthropology department.
Internship.
Supervised by the anthropology department.
Asian Art and Literature (C033)
This concentration focuses on Asian art history, visual cultures, and traditional literature. T. Nguyen.
Requirements
Any four courses, with not more than two courses from any one subject designation. One non-Bates course may be applied toward the concentration with prior approval by the concentration coordinator. Not open to students who have declared a major in East Asian studies, a minor in Asian studies, or who have declared the following concentrations: 046 (Japanese Society and Literature), 047 (Chinese Society and Culture), and 052 (Asian Narrative Traditions).
Asian Narrative Traditions (C052)
This concentration explores stories and strategies of storytelling in Asian traditions past and present in literature and in film and other visual arts. T. Nguyen.
Requirements
Any four courses. Two non-Bates courses may be applied toward the concentration if judged comparable to one of those below by the concentration coordinator and with prior approval. Not open to students who have declared a major or minor in Chinese or Japanese, a major in East Asian studies, or a minor in Asian studies, or to students who have declared the following concentration(s): C033 (Asian Art and Literature), C046 (Japanese Society and Culture), C047 (Chinese Society and Culture), or C050 (Women and Gender in Asia).
Bridging El Atlántico (C016)
The Spanish language has been a bridge to communicate experiences and artistic expression on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. This concentration explores the cultural production of the Spanish-speaking people of the Atlantic region, including but not limited to the courtly love tradition that emerged among Spanish-speaking Arab and Jewish poets and its modern home in Latin American popular music; issues of environmental justice, gender, and race; the development of a transnational Spanish-language cinema industry that facilitates the circulation of artists and ideas; and the tradition of human rights in Latin America and Spain. B. Fra-Molinero.
Requirements
Four courses, with no more than two from among SPAN 207, 208, and 211. Two non-Bates course may be applied toward the concentration if they are determined to be equivalent to a Bates course in the list below, or if they are judged to be appropriate by the concentration coordinator and with prior approval. This concentration is not open to students who have declared a minor or major in Spanish.
Buddhism (C002)
This concentration brings together courses on Buddhism from a variety of perspectives. J. Strong.
Requirements
Any four courses. Participation in an appropriate off-campus study program listed below may be substituted for two courses with prior approval:
ISLE Program, Sri Lanka;
SIT Program, Nepal;
Emory Tibetan Studies in Dharamsala;
Antioch College Buddhist Studies in Japan Program - Buddhist studies in Japan;
Antioch College Buddhist Studies in India, Bodhgaya, India.
One non-Bates course from other programs or institutions.may be applied toward the concentration if judged comparable to one of those below by the concentration coordinator and with prior approval.
Chemistry (C003)
This concentration exposes students to core principles in chemistry and selected additional topics that students can tailor to their interests. J. Koviach-Côté.
Requirements
1) CHEM 107A, CH/ES 107B, or FYS 398

2) CHEM 108A or CH/ES 108B

3) Any two other chemistry courses, excluding CHEM 218. At least one course must be at the 200-level or above, including CHEM s37 and CHEM s42.

One non-Bates course may be applied toward the concentration if judged comparable to one of those below by the concentration coordinator and with prior approval. This concentration is not open to students who have declared a major or minor in chemistry, biology, neuroscience, biological chemistry, or the chemistry track of environment studies. Students with these majors are encouraged to pursue a chemistry minor.
Co-curricular Activities
Independent Research.
A departmentally-approved summer research experience may be applied toward this concentration. Supervised by the chemistry department.
Children, Adolescents, School (C030)
This concentration integrates the study of children and adolescents with the study of education. B. Sale.
Requirements
Four courses, from the list below, no more than two from the same department/program. Or three courses, at least one from education and one from psychology and one co-curricular experience. Students should consult the GEC coordinator about co-curricular experiences. One non-Bates course may be applied toward the concentration if judged comparable to one of those below by the concentration coordinator and with prior approval. Not open to students who declare a minor in teacher education or educational studies. Co-Curricular information: Community-based service-learning or education internship with pre-approval of concentration coordinator.
Chinese Language (C044)
This is a concentration in the study of Chinese language. S. Yang.
Requirements
Any four courses listed. Students entering Bates with proficiency in the language should begin the sequence of four courses of the concentration at the level at which they are initially placed. No more than two language courses taken in an approved study-abroad program in China may be counted toward the concentration with prior approval. Not open to students who declare a major or minor in Chinese or the following concentation(s): C047 (Chinese Society and Culture).
Chinese Society and Culture (C047)
The concentration offers courses from a range of disciplines including history, literature, religious studies, economics, and language, which focus on China. D. Grafflin.
Requirements
Four courses, with no more than two of the following: CHI 101, 102, 201, 202, 301, 302, 401, 402. Up to two non-Bates study abroad courses may be applied toward the concentration if they are determined to be equivalent to a Bates course in the list below, or if they are judged to be appropriate by the concentration coordinator and with prior approval. Not open to students who declare a major or minor in Chinese or the following concentration(s): C044 (Chinese Language).
The City in History: Urbanism and Constructed Spaces (C057)
This concentration addresses the role of urban centers in human culture from their emergence in earliest recorded history to the present. The study of urban forms, architecture, and spaces is by definition interdisciplinary, integrating social, political, historical, theoretical, geographical, technological, and aesthetic considerations. R. Corrie.
Requirements
Any four courses. One non-Bates course that focuses on urban history, design, and/or function may be applied toward this concentration if judged appropriate upon application to the coordinator. This may include supervised archaeological fieldwork, with approval of the coordinator.
Co-curricular Activities
Research project, internship, fieldwork, performance experience, volunteer work, or community work-study.
Supervised by the art and visual culture department.
Class, Inequity, Poverty, and Justice (C008)
This concentration focuses on class inequality and poverty from a social justice perspective. Courses are drawn from a variety of disciplinary and interdisciplinary perspectives, and include attention to national and international issues, the gendered and raced dynamics of class, material inequality and poverty, and social movements and social change. E. Rand.
Requirements
Four courses offered in at least two different departments or programs. At least one course must include a community engagement component, including the following: ACS 220; ANTH 339; ED/SO 242; EDUC 231, 250, s27; ED/WS 384; HIST 390W; SOC 250, 395K. One non-Bates course on a social justice theme may be applied toward the concentration if it is judged to be appropriate by the concentration coordinator and with prior approval.
The Collaborative Project (C012)
To collaborate is to labor cooperatively with others toward an intellectual goal. In this concentration, students gain experience in an array of methods used to achieve effective collaboration in different contexts. Each course emphasizes collaborative process to generate action, original work, and/or live performance. P. Johnson.
Requirements
Four courses or three courses and one co-curricular component, with a maximum of two courses from any one department/program. Students selecting MUS 290 need to complete any two sections to receive one concentration credit. Students selecting DANC 270 need to complete two sections to receive one concentration credit. One non-Bates course may be applied toward this concentration if it is determined to be equivalent to a Bates course in the list below, or if they are judged to be appropriate by the concentration coordinator and with prior approval. This concentration is not open to students who have declared concentration C023 (Improvisation and Experimentation in the Arts).
Co-curricular Activities
Music Performance.
Participation for two consecutive semesters in any one of the following ensembles may replace one course: College Choir, College Orchestra, Fiddle Band, Gamelan Ensemble, Jazz Band, Steel Pan Orchestra. Supervised by the music department.
Colonialism (C059)
Colonial expansion of European societies has had a profound effect in shaping the modern world culturally, politically, demographically, and ecologically. Its implications are addressed in one way or another by a majority of humanities and social science courses offered at Bates, and it has important implications for the sciences as well. This concentration addresses colonialism itself, allowing an examination of the commonalities and differences that have characterized the phenomenon since Roman times. B. Bourque.
Requirements
Any four courses. Two non-Bates courses may be applied toward the concentration if judged comparable to one of those below by the concentration coordinator and with prior approval.
Color: Sight and Perception (C036)
The perception of color is contextual and culturally determined. This concentration provides the opportunity to study color in theory and in practice, as cultural construct, and as concrete physical phenomenon. P. Johnson.
Requirements
Four courses, with no more than two from any one department/program. FYS 398 may be counted toward the concentration. One non-Bates course that may be applied toward this concentration if it is determinded to be equivalent to a Bates course in the list below, or if it is judged to be appropriate by the concentration coordinator and with prior approval. This concentration is not open to students who have declared a major in art and visual culture or physics.
Conflict and Threat: War and Disease (C064)
This concentration explores war and militarism, conflict and panic in the face of real and perceived threats, and the various social, cultural, political, and scientific responses to them. R. Corrie.
Requirements
Any four courses. One non-Bates course may be applied toward this concentration if judged appropriate upon application to the coordinator.
Courses
Considering Africa (C022)
This concentration focuses on North and sub-Saharan Africa. Through a variety of disciplines students develop a complex understanding of various African worldviews, social practices, art forms, political initiatives, economic challenges, and ecological issues. E. Eames.
Requirements
Four courses, with no more than two courses from any one department/program. Students are strongly advised to consider the gateway course, INDS 100. Two non-Bates courses that may be applied toward this concentration if they are determined to be equivalent to a Bates course in the list below, or if they are judged to be appropriate by the concentration coordinator and with prior approval.
Co-curricular Activities
Museum Project.
Long-term (one semester or one summer) museum project on Africa. Supervised by Alexandre Dauge-Roth.
Volunteer Work.
Long term (one semester or one summer) volunteer work with an African migrant community, including journal writing. Supervised by Alexandre Dauge-Roth.
Performance experience.
Supervised by Alexandre Dauge-Roth.
Culture and Meaning (C026)
This concentration focuses on culture and meaning, the interpretive subfield of anthropology. S. Kemper.
Requirements
ANTH 101 and any three additional courses from the list below. One non-Bates course may be substitute for courses listed below with prior approval of the coordinator. This concentration is not open to students who have declared an anthropology major or minor.
Dance (C011)
Focusing on dance as a performing art form, the concentration considers the practice of the art, its production, and an understanding of its cultural context. C. Dilley.
Requirements
Four credits in dance, including one credit in dance theory (DANC 250, AA/DN 252, FYS 353, FYS 399, FYS 437, INDS 256) and one credit in studio dance technique (DANC 240, 340, or any two half-credit courses in the DANC 270 series). This concentration is not open to students who have declared a dance major or minor.
Diasporas (C038)
The concept of the diaspora plays an extraordinarily important role in our understanding of contemporary culture. Through the diasporic processes of movement and displacement, cultures become caught up in an ongoing flow that links local communities to a rich global network of cultural practices and worldviews. These flows raise a number of questions: In what way do diasporic cultures respond to the dynamics of displacement, migration, and oppression? How might different media or diverse perspectives offer alternative understandings and expressions of these responses? In what way do diasporas from previous eras differ from those that have emerged from the contemporary contexts of globalization, the migration of refugees, and the turbulence of contemporary geopolitics? D. Chapman.
Requirements
Four courses from at least two departments/programs. Courses must include at least one course from each of the following lists:
List A: AA/AN 251; AA/EN 223, 268; AA/HI 390E;
List B: ANTH 264; ENG 260; EN/WS 121G, 395S; FRE 208, PLTC 320.
Students are encouraged to participate in service-learning experiences with local diasporas in Lewiston/Auburn and Maine. One approved co-curricular component may be substituted for one of the four required courses. One non-Bates course may be applied toward the concentration if judged comparable to one of those below by the concentration coordinator and with prior approval. As a capstone, senior concentrators present their work in the concentration at the Mount David Summit.
Co-curricular Activities
Service-Learning.
Long-term (one semester or one summer) service-learning project in a local diasporic community. Supervised by Harward Center.
Supervised research project.
Supervised by concentration coordinator.
Internship.
Supervised by concentration coordinator.
Supervised field work.
Supervised by concentration coordinator.
Supervised performance experience.
Supervised by concentration coordinator.
Early Modern World (C066)
This concentration comprises courses that address the cultural and historic developments related to Europe and its relations with the world between about 1450 and 1800. K. Melvin.
Requirements
Four courses from the list below. Courses must be from at least two different departments/programs. Two non-Bates course may be applied toward the concentration if they are determined to be equivalent to a Bates course in the list below, or if they are judged to be appropriate by the concentration coordinator and with prior approval.
Courses
English (C086)
This concentration introduces students to a range of literatures written in English, and to various genres and critical methods. S. Dillon.
Requirements
Four English courses (also FYS 299, FYS 378, FYS 412, FYS 420, and any course cross-listed with English), taught by at least three different faculty members in the department. Students must take one 100-level course (with a maximum of two). Only courses in U.S., British, or Commonwealth literature, or creative writing count toward the concentration —not literature from a foreign language. Short Term courses do not count toward the concentration. One non-Bates course may be applied toward this concentration if determined to be equivalent to a Bates English course, or if with prior approval judged appropriate by the concentration coordinator. This concentration is not open to students who have declared a major in English.
Environment, Place, History (C068)
This concentration explores the interconnections between ecological change, community history, and the social construction of place. It has a marked, but not exclusive, focus on Maine, including inquiry into Maine's transformations and conflicts over environmental, economic, and community change. The concentration is strongly interdisciplinary, mixing ecological learning, social-historical and ethnographic inquiry, and cultural studies. It includes community partnerships and public-environmental projects. D. Ray.
Requirements
Four courses, two of which must be from list A (foregrounding scientific study in geology or ecology) and two of which must be from list B (foregrounding social, cultural, historical, or literary study). At least one of these courses from list A or B must also appear on list C (courses involving significant field or community-based experience). Alternatively, students may meet the community/field requirement by completing one co-curricular component, substituting it for one of the four courses. Students should consult with the Harward Center to determine if a particular course or co-curricular experience qualifies. One non-Bates course may be applied toward the concentration if judged comparable to one of those below by the concentration coordinator and with prior approval.

List A: ENVR 220, 240, 310; ES/GE 217, s21; GEO 103, 104, 107, s31.
List B: AC/FR 240I; ENG 395O; ENVR s22, s46; ES/HI 390M; FYS 410, 427; HIST s28; INDS 211, 219.
List C: ENVR 310, s22, s46; ES/GE s21; GEO 107, s31, s39; HIST s28.
Co-curricular Activities
Environmental Internships.
Internship in the Short Term or summer with a conservation, advocacy, policy, or stewardship group. Supervised by environmental studies.
Summer Research.
Summer-long projects on environmental or community-based research. Supervised by environmental atudies.
Harward Fellowships.
Summer-long community placements or community-based research on environmental or urban place projects. Supervised by Harward Center.
Community Work-Study.
Long term (academic year or summer) Community Work-Study placments in advocacy, conservation, stewardship, or policy groups. Supervised by Harward Center.
Volunteer Work.
Intensive volunteer work during the academic year in regional community organizations such as Lots to Gardens, land trusts, or at the Bates-Morse Mountain Conservation Area. Supervised by Harward Center.
Evidence: Documentation and Reality (C017)
This concentration is a study of documentation and representation, including consideration of persuasive strategies often employed in representations—and misrepresentations. Emphasis is on the use of images as points of inquiry, including photographs, film, broadcasts, documents, and printed matter, as well as speech and artifacts. E. Morris.
Requirements
Four courses, with no more than two from any one department/program. Either AVC 361 or AVC s31 may count toward the concentration, but not both. One non-Bates courses may be applied toward the concentration with prior approval by the concentration coordinator.
Field Studies: Natural Science (C058)
Field studies are the primary mode of data collection for natural scientists studying the Earth and its ecosystems. This concentration offers an introduction to field methods used in ecology, environmental science, and geology. Courses include a strong component of data collection and/or sampling in the field, and/or mapping from field data. J. Eusden.
Requirements
Four courses, at least one of which must be from list A, one from list B, and one from list C. Two non-Bates courses may be applied toward the concentration if judged comparable to one of those below by the concentration coordinator and with prior approval.
List A: BI/GE 112; FYS 327; GEO 103, 104, 107, 109 (introductory level courses without prerequisites that have a significant component of fieldwork);
List B: BIO 211, 221, 265, 313; ENVR 220, 240, 310; ES/GE 217, s21; GEO 210, 223, 230, 240 (upper level courses with minimal prerequisites that have a significant amount of advanced fieldwork involving original data collection and analysis).
List C: BIO s 32, s37; ES/GE s21; GEO s24, s31, s34, s36, s39 (immersion courses that are almost entirely devoted to field-based study).
Film and Media Studies (C019)
An interdisciplinary concentration that focuses on the history, theory, production, and criticism of cinema and other moving-image media. Courses examine cinema's artistic and cultural contributions, moving-image media as practices of social significance, and techniques of directing, acting, and editing sound and image. J. Cavallero.
Requirements
Four courses, with no more than two from the same department/program. Students are encouraged to take one course with a film production component, such as FRE 235, THEA 242, THEA 371. Two non-Bates courses may be applied toward the concentration if judged comparable to one of those below by the concentration coordinator and with prior approval.
Courses
Filmmaking in Cultural Context (C075)
Students study filmmaking as a manifestation of a specific culture. M. Reidy.
Requirements
Completion of two film production courses at the Queen Mary (London) or Prague film study abroad program and completion of two additional courses. Completion of this concentration requires approval by Bates to study abroad and admission by the program/university abroad. Declaring this concentration does not guarantee such approval by Bates or such admission by the program in question. Two non-Bates courses may be applied toward the concentration.
French and Francophone Studies (C034)
This interdisciplinary concentration encompasses the language, literatures, and cultures of the French-speaking world. It aims to develop increased linguistic proficiency in oral and written French and knowledge of the rich cultural production of the French-speaking regions of the globe over time using a variety of critical approaches. M. Rice-DeFosse.
Requirements
Four courses, one of which must be from list A, one of which must be from list B, and one of which must be from list C. Only one of the following courses, taught in English, may be counted toward the concentration: FYS 318, HIST 224, or CM/HI 102. One co-curricular component may be substituted for one of the courses from list A or C. Co-curricular components include applicable internships, supervised research, projects, or fieldwork; a supervised performance experience; or supervised volunteer work or community work-study.
List A (Language): FRE 201, 205, 235, 271, s28; FYS 318.
List B (Literature): AC/FR 240I; FRE 240E, 240F, 240G, 250, 251, 360, 365, 371, 372, 373, 374, 375, 376, 377, 378, 379, s28, s39, s50; FYS 318.
List C (Culture and Civilization): AC/FR 240I; CM/HI 102; FRE 207, 208, 240E, 240F, 240G, 360, s24, s28, s36, s38, s39; FYS 318; HIST 254; INDS 100. One non-Bates course may be applied toward the concentration if judged comparable to one of those below by the concentration coordinator and with prior approval. This concentration is not open to students who have declared a major or minor in French.
Co-curricular Activities
Community Service.
Significant community service in the French-speaking community, such as participation in the Franco-American Oral History Project, over the course of one semester, one Short Term, or one internship period may be substituted for one course. Supervised by French and Francophone studies faculty. Center.
French in Nantes (C088)
The Bates Fall Semester Abroad in Nantes consists of intensive language instruction, cultural immersion in a modern European city, and focused study of the interplay of history and French identity in and beyond France. J. Hall.
Requirements
Successful completion of the Bates Fall Semester Abroad in Nantes. In the event that a student fails one of the FSA courses, the student may still earn credit for this concentration by passing a course offered in the French program at Bates.
The Geosphere (C007)
The Earth is in a constant state of change. Creation and destruction of the lithosphere with attendant earthquakes and volcanoes and interactions of the atmosphere and hydrosphere producing climate change illustrate the interconnection of the geosphere and humankind. The study of geologic processes spans scales of time measured in minutes to billions of years; such studies are a key to understanding past, present, and future global and planetary environmental changes. To fully understand and appreciate such changes, the courses in this concentration emphasize the integration of field- and laboratory-based inquiry both in New England and, remotely, on more distant worlds. J. Eusden.
Requirements
Any four courses chosen from the following list. One non-Bates course may be applied toward the concentration. This concentration is not open to students who have declared a major or minor in geology.
German Language and Culture (C071)
This concentration expands students' knowledge of the German language and the cultures of German-speaking countries. C. Decker.
Requirements
Four courses. One course from the Bates Fall Semester Abroad in either Austria or Germany may count as noted below. No non-Bates courses may be applied toward the concentration. This concentration is not open to students who have declared a major or minor in German or concentrations C073 (German in Berlin) or C082 (German in Vienna).
German in Vienna (C082)
The Bates Fall Semester Abroad in Vienna consists of intensive language instruction, cultural immersion in a modern and diverse European capital, and focused study of the interplay of politics and culture in Austria and central Europe. C. Decker.
Requirements
Successful completion of the Bates FSA in Vienna. In the event that a student fails one of the FSA courses, the student may still earn credit for this concentration by passing a course offered in the German program at Bates.
Globalization (C014)
Globalization may be defined as the set of economic, political, social, technological, and cultural changes that give rise to growing interdependence and interactions among people, cultures, and corporations scattered around the world. It is one of the defining paradigms of the early twenty-first century, and perhaps the most controversial. Students in this concentration examine the phenomenon of globalization—its positive and negative aspects—from a variety of disciplinary perspectives. D. Riera-Crichton.
Requirements
Four courses from at least three departments/programs, including at least two courses from among the following: ANTH 339, AN/SO 232, AS/EC 241, ECON 221, PLTC 125, PLTC 224, PT/WS s32, SOC 260. Up to two comparable non-Bates courses preapproved by the concentration coordinator may be applied to the concentration.
Hazards in Nature (C063)
For human populations, living on planet Earth means living with the risk of natural hazards and living with the unintended consequences of our interactions with the natural world. Earthquakes, floods, and climate change, and emerging infections, invasive plant species, and environmental toxins are examples of global challenges presented by the physical and biological world. The courses offered in this concentration explore this interface between human populations and the natural world.
M. Retelle.
Requirements
GEO 103 and 104, and any two other courses. One non-Bates course may be applied toward the concentration with prior approval.
The Human Body (C027)
This concentration focuses on knowledges acquired through observation, articulation, and experience of the body. R. Corrie.
Requirements
Any four courses. Any two in DANC 270 or DNTH 270 courses complete one concentration credit. One non-Bates course may be applied toward the concentration if judged comparable to one of those below by the concentration coordinator and with prior approval. Dance majors and minors are limited to three concentration credits in dance.
Courses
Identity, Race, and Ethnicity (C037)
The goal of this concentration is to encourage students to think in an interdisciplinary manner about the construction of racial and ethnic identities in social, cultural, and political contexts. L. Danforth.
Requirements
Any four courses. One non-Bates course may be applied toward the concentration if judged comparable to one of those below by the concentration coordinator and with prior approval.
Courses
Improvisation and Experimentation in the Arts (C023)
This area of inquiry emphasizes the development of creative work in response to various modern and postmodern practices. Improvisation is a working method that emphasizes the moment, bringing past experience to bear in the concrete immediacy of the present. Experimentation typically involves innovating or even undermining the status quo. Students working in this concentration experience these generative methods—including chance operations, contact improvisation, sampling, gesture invention, appropriation, and quotation—across multiple disciplines. P. Johnson.
Requirements
Four courses, with no more than two courses from any one department/program. Any two studio dance courses from among 270A, 270C, or 270H count as one concentration credit. No non-Bates courses may be applied toward the concentration. This concentration is not open to students who have declared concentration C012 (The Collaborative Project).
Japanese Language (C043)
A concentration in the study of modern Japanese language. K. Ofuji.
Requirements
Any four courses. Students entering Bates with proficiency in the language should begin the sequence of four courses for the concentration at the level at which they are initially placed. No more than two language courses taken in an approved off-campus study program in Japan may be counted toward the concentration. Two non-Bates courses may be applied toward this concentration if judged appropriate upon application to the coordinator. Not open to students who declare an East Asian Studies major (Japanese track), a major or minor in Japanese, or the concentration C046 (Japanese Society and Culture).
Japanese Society and Culture (C046)
This concentration offers courses in a range of disciplines including history, literature, religious studies, economics, and language, all of which focus on Japan. S. Strong.
Requirements
Four courses, including no more than two of the following: JPN 101, 102, 201, 202, 301, 302, 401, 402. Up to two courses on an approved study-abroad program in Japan may be counted toward the concentration with prior approval. This concentration is not open to students who declared a major or minor in Japanese, a major in East Asian studies, or a minor in Asian studies, or who declare the concentration C043 (Japanese Language).
Language and Literacy (C085)
This concentration explores the interplay between discourse and literacy, focusing on such themes as childhood language and literacy development, atypical or nontraditional forms of language and literacy growth, expressive forms of language through literature, and oral and written narratives. A. Charles.
Requirements
Four courses, with at least one from List A and no more than two from any one program or department. One course from List B may be replaced by a community-based co-curricular experience, with the pre-approval of the concentration coordinator. One non-Bates course may be applied toward the concentration if it is determined to be equivalent to a Bates course in the list below, or if they are judged to be appropriate by the concentration coordinator and with prior approval.

List A: EDUC 245, 255, s27
List B: AC/FR 240I, AN/RE 134, AV/AS 246, ENG 121W, FYS 318, FYS 428, HIST s10, INDS 342, PSYC 374, RHET 100, RHET 265, RHET s16, THEA 263.
Co-curricular Activities
Community-Based Service Learning.
Community-based service-learning arranged with preapproval of the concentration coordinator. Supervised by the education department. Supervised by .
Latin (C010)
This concentration advances students' skills and insights in Latin language and literature. M. Imber.
Requirements
Any four courses. Two non-Bates courses may be applied toward the concentration if judged comparable to one of those below by the concentration coordinator and with prior approval. Majors in classical and medieval studies may pursue the concentration only if Latin is not used to fulfill their major requirements.
Latin American Studies (C072)
This concentration offers courses in various disciplines that focus on Latin America, including the Caribbean. It provides students with a range of perspectives, covering the period from initial European encounters to the present. B. Fra-Molinero.
Requirements
Four courses from at least two departments/programs, including at least one course from list A.

List A: AA/SP 450, ANTH 330, ENVR 350, HI/RE 390Y, HIST 390H, PLTC 320, 333, SPAN 342, 343, 449, 490F.
List B: AA/AN 251, AN/ES 242, FYS 385, HIST 181, 279, 282, INDS 321, s25, s38, PLTC 209, 249, s13, SP/WS 323, SPAN 215, 250, 330.

One non-Bates course may be applied toward the concentration if judged comparable to one of those below by the concentration coordinator and with prior approval. If studying abroad in Latin America, up to two non-Bates courses may be applied to the concentration if the above conditions are met. This concentration is not open to students who have declared:
a) a major in Latin American studies
b) a major in History with a primary concentration on Latin America
Learning and Teaching (C084)
This concentration is designed for students who wish to explore K–12 teaching, but do not wish to commit to the full Teacher Education minor. The concentration integrates practical experience with a framework that connects the teacher, student, and subject matter. B. Sale.
Requirements
Four courses including EDUC 343, one other course in education specified in the list below, and two courses from departments listed below in a subject other than education. The field placement associated with EDUC 343 is at a grade level determined by the student's teaching interest. The two non-education courses are selected according to what the student proposes to teach. Students interested in listed fields other than the natural sciences must take their additional two courses from the same department. Students interested in the natural sciences may take any two courses from the following list: NS/PY 200 and any biology, chemistry, geology, and physics courses, one of which must be designated [L]. Up to two non-Bates courses in disciplines outside of education may count toward the concentration with prior approval. Not open to students who declare a minor in teacher education.
Material Culture (C083)
Material culture has been defined from numerous perspectives most notably anthropology, archaeology, art history, cultural theory, and history. Since the 1970s in particular, scholars in these and other disciplines have used material culture sources of evidence to explore the everyday lives of ordinary citizens. The term material culture refers both to the psychological role, the meaning, that all physical objects in the environment have to mean something to people in a particular culture and to the range of manufactured objects that are typical within a socio-culture and form an essential part of cultural identity. Generally speaking, the phrase "material culture" refers to the "things" of our daily lives. This can mean things we purchase, create, or otherwise come by. Our material lives range from our bodies to the clothes we wear, the specific objects we use, the food we eat, and the places we go. In essence, it is the "stuff" of our daily lives—products of culture. M. Beasley.
Requirements
ACS 100 or 280 and three additional courses.
Courses
Medieval Worlds (C051)
An interdisciplinary exploration of the medieval West, medieval Islam, and Byzantium, 300–1500 C.E. S. Federico.
Requirements
Any four courses. One non-Bates course may be applied toward the concentration if judged comparable to one of those below by the concentration coordinator and with prior approval. A college-level Latin course may be substituted for one of the four required courses.
Modern Europe (C024)
This concentration encourages students to improve their ability to communicate in one of four languages spoken in Europe, and to increase their knowledge of the dynamic nature of European development from World War I to the present. D. Browne.
Requirements
Four courses, two courses in one European language (French, German, Russian or Spanish), and then two more courses, at least one of which must come from a department different than the one in which the student received the language credits.
List A: FRE 101, 102, 201, 205, 207, s36;
List B: GER 101, 102, 201, 202, 233, 234, 241, 242, 254, 270, 356, 358, s25;
List C: RUSS 101, 102, 201, 202, 301, 302, 306;
List D: SPAN 201, 207, 208, 216, 217

One language course in French, German, Russian, or Spanish, and one course in modern European history, politics, sociology completed on a Bates-approved study-abroad program in Europe may be applied toward the concentration if judged comparable to one of those below by the concentration coordinator and with prior approval of the concentration coordinator.
Courses
Music and Culture (C080)
This concentration provides opportunities to examine and consider the ways that music and culture shape each other. Individually and collectively, the courses cover a vast range of musical traditions and their cultures, as well as introducing many ways of combining musical, historical, anthropological, and cultural-theoretical tools of analysis.

Any four courses. One non-Bates course may be applied to the concentration, if judged comparable to one of those below, with pre-approval by the coordinator. Not open to students who declare a major or minor in music. J. Parakilas.
Requirements
Any four courses.
North Atlantic Studies (C045)
An interdisciplinary study of the societies and physical environments of the North Atlantic, whose regions are parts of a complex and historically dynamic maritime system linked by interactions among peoples of both world hemispheres. M. Jones.
Requirements
Four courses, two of which must be from list A (Environment) and two of which must be from list B (Society).
List A: BI/GE 112, 113; BIO 313; ENVR 240; GEO 103, 109, 240; INDS 219.
List B: ANTH 222, 247, s32; ES/HI 390M; CM/HI 209; HIST s28; INDS 208, 219; PLTC 125, 248.
One approved co-curricular component may be applied toward this concentration with prior approval. Two non-Bates course may be applied toward the concentration if judged comparable to those below by the concentration coordinator and with prior approval.
Co-curricular Activities
Research project, internship, or supervised fieldwork.
Supervised by concentration coordinator.
Philosophy (C042)
This concentration introduces students to the reflective enterprise that is philosophy. There is a sense in which Philosophy is the original interdisciplinary subject. In the words of the twentieth-century American philospher Wilfrid Sellars: "The aim of philosophy, abstractly formulated, is to understand how things in the broadest possible sense of the term hang together in the broadest possible sense of the term." As such, philosophy attempts to understand how all of the many descriptions and explanations of things that are given by the other disciplines are related to one another. D. Cummiskey.
Requirements
Any four courses. Two non-Bates courses may be applied toward the concentration if judged comparable to one of those below by the concentration coordinator and with prior approval. This concentration is not open to students who have declared a philosophy major or minor.
Philosophy and Psychology (C031)
This concentration is intended to acquaint students with scholarly work on questions of interest to both philosophers and psychologists, and to facilitate students' own clear thinking on such issues. Given the breadth of the disciplines of philosophy and psychology, a wide variety of issues is addressed in these courses. Topics include moral judgment, moral responsibility, sensation and perception, the self, theory of mind, and the relationship between mind and brain. Students consider such issues from both disciplinary perspectives. D. Cummiskey.
Requirements
Four courses from the list below, two of which must be from philosophy and two of which must be from psychology. FYS 288, 352, 362, 380, or 382 may be substituted for one of the philosophy courses and FYS 308 may be substituted for one of the psychology courses. Two non-Bates course may be applied toward the concentration if judged comparable to one of those below by the concentration coordinator and with prior approval.
Physics of the Large and Small (C056)
Physics is the study of matter and energy. A very small number of fundamental physical principles provide a coherent and unified understanding of an enormous variety of phenomena, ranging in scale from the subnuclear to the cosmological. Any set of physics and astronomy courses illustrates these principles and their coherence. J. Smedley.
Requirements
Any four courses. Two non-Bates courses may be applied toward the concentration if judged comparable to one of those below by the concentration coordinator and with prior approval. One independent study, pre-approved by the coordinator, may also count towards the concentration. Not open to students who declare a major or minor in physics.
Post/Colonial Issues in French and Spanish (C032)
The French and Spanish empires left linguistic, cultural, and sociopolitical legacies throughout the world. Colonial territories and postcolonial nations have responded to colonial power structures through self-inquiry and contestation. The courses included in this concentration approach colonial and postcolonial issues in French and Spanish through various critical perspectives. The concentration requires intermediate proficiency in both French and Spanish. K. Read.
Requirements
Four courses, at least one of which must be from French and at least one of which must be from Spanish. Students are expected to have at least an intermediate level of proficiency in both languages. An approved co-curricular project may substitute for one course or two non-Bates courses may be applied toward this concentration if judged comparable to one of those below by the concentration coordinator and with prior approval. This concentration is not open to students who have declared a major or minor in French or Spanish.
Co-curricular Activities
Community-based Project.
An approved community-based project may replace one course Supervised by concentration coordinator.
Producing Culture: Arts and Audience (C061)
Composers, choreographers, directors, curators, and producers often interact with performing artists, studio artists, and writers in order to engage audiences. What is produced, for whom, and in support of which values? Work in this concentration considers the interrelationship between cultural producers and cultural consumers. T. Nguyen.
Requirements
Any four courses from at least two departments/programs. One non-Bates course may be applied toward the concentration if judged comparable to one of those below by the concentration coordinator and with prior approval.
Public Health (C065)
This concentration explores public and community health from interdisciplinary perspectives, looking at such issues as medical practice; public policy concerning health care; sociology of race, class, and gender; and cultural constructions of health and sickness. It aims to expose students to public health issues at global, national, and local levels. It may include community-engaged learning, courses from abroad, community-based research, and internships. R. Austin.
Requirements
Four courses (or three courses and one co-curricular activity) including at least one from List A (foregrounding science) and at least one course from List B (foregrounding the social sciences and the humanities). No more than one of these courses may be 100-level and no more than two courses can come from any single department or program. First-year seminars do not count as 100-level courses, so students may include one first-year seminar and one 100-level course. Up to two non-Bates courses may be counted if are judged equivalent to the courses listed below, or if they contain substantial public health content and have been approved beforehand by the concentration coordinator. One independent study, pre-approved by the coordinator, may also count towards the concentration. A co-curricular experience may substitute for one concentration requirement when the experience has a significant academic component, is supervised by a facutly member, and is pre-approved by the concentration coordinator. Students declaring this concentration may not also declare concentration C027 (The Human Body).

List A: BIO 108, 118, 127, 260, 314, 315, 321, 338, 340, 350, 351, s23, s25, s28, s35, s40; BSAR 015, CHEM 125; ENVR 203.
List B: ANTH 220; ECON 222, 335; ENVR 350; FYS 419; INDS 267, s15; PHIL 213; PLTC 423; PSYC 303, 316, 362, 372; PT/WS s14; PY/WS 343; SOC 230, 235; WGST 335, 400C.
Courses
Queer Studies (C009)
Queer studies looks at sexuality and gender while foregrounding non-normative or anti-normative perspectives. Queer studies includes considerations of lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, and genderqueer history, culture, and politics, with mindful attention to the limits and alternatives to those time- and culture-bound terms. E. Rand.
Requirements
Four courses, one of which must be at the 300 level. One non-Bates course may be applied toward the concentration if it is determined to be equivalent to a Bates course in the list below by the concentration coordinator and with prior approval. Ordinarily, a non-Bates course may not be substituted for the required 300-level course.
Racisms (C041)
Racism is a system of ideas and practices that deny the humanity of individuals who are ascribed to certain groups and collectivities. The practice of racism has deep historical roots and there is not one single type of racism. Religious, social, scientific, political, and cultural discourses have contributed to racist regimes. S. Houchins.
Requirements
Any four courses, no more than two of which may be from the same department/program. One course should be at the 300 level. With prior permission of the concentration coordinator two non-Bates courses may be applied toward the concentration if judged comparable to one of those below, but, ordinarily may not be substituted for the required 300-level course.
Courses
Religious Studies (C001)
This concentration focuses on different aspects of religious studies. M. Bruce.
Requirements
Any four courses. One non-Bates course may be applied toward the concentration if judged comparable to one of those below by the concentration coordinator and with prior approval. Not open to students who declare a major or minor in religion or religious studies.
Renaissance: Arts and Letters (C035)
The literature and visual arts from the late fourteenth through the early eighteenth centuries in Europe and its American colonies helped shape many of our contemporary cultural models. The Renaissance marked a shift in worldview: Humanism shaped the centrality of the individual; religion once again became an ideological battleground; new national states developed capitalism; slavery took hold in the Americas; technology advanced the spread of empire; and national languages acquired a new prestige. B. Fra-Molinero.
Requirements
Four courses, at least one of which must be from List A (courses in the visual arts) and at least one of which must be from List B (courses in literature and textual culture.) No more than two courses from the same department/program. Two non-Bates course may be applied toward the concentration if judged comparable to those below by the concentration coordinator and with prior approval.

List A: AVC 271, 272, 280, s18, s20; AV/CM 251, 265, 376C, 376D.
List B: ENG 121U, 209, 211, 213, 214, 222, 226, 395G; ES/HI 390R, FRE 250, 371, 372, 375; HI/RE 390Y; HIST 140; INDS s38; SPAN 340, 441.
Russian Language (C069)
This concentration encourages the study of the Russian language, culture, and literature. D. Browne.
Requirements
Four of the following courses. Up to two courses in Russian language, culture, or literature taken in an off-campus study program may substitute for up to two courses with the approval by the coordinator. Not open to students who declare a major or minor in Russian, or Bates Fall Semester Abroad in Russia (C078).
Russian in St. Petersburg (C078)
The Bates Fall Semester Abroad in Russia concentration is an intensive, study-abroad experience based in St. Petersburg, which focuses on the study of Russian language, culture, and politics. D. Browne.
Requirements
Four courses. In the event that a student fails one of the Fall Semester Abroad courses, he or she may still earn credit for this concentration by passing a course offered in the Russian program at Bates.
Shakespearean Acting (C074)
Students study the techniques for playing the plays of William Shakespeare in the playwright-actor's historic context, London. M. Reidy.
Requirements
Successful Participation abroad in the British American Drama Academy Program or the London Drama Academy Program and two of the following: THEA 101, 261, 263, 362, or 364 or TH/WS 264. Students should recognize that completion of this concentration requires approval to study abroad by Bates and admission by the program/university abroad. Declaring this concentration in no way guarantees such approval by Bates or such admission by the program in question. Two non-Bates courses may be applied toward the concentration.
Co-curricular Activities
Theater Performance.
Acting in an approved classical play. Supervised by the concentration coordinator.
Sound (C005)
This concentration is a wide-ranging exploration of the nature of sound. Topics include the physical nature of sound production, organismal perception of sound, and sonic elements in the performing arts. J. Smedley.
Requirements
Four courses, with a maximum of two course credits from the music department. Students selecting MUS 270 or 290 need to complete any two sections to receive one course credit. Only one of the following courses may be counted toward the concentration: BIO 102, 103, s27, or FYS 372. One music performance co-curricular component may substitute for one music course. Two non-Bates courses may be applied toward the concentration if judged comparable to one of those below by the concentration coordinator and with prior approval.
Co-curricular Activities
Music Performance.
Participation for two consecutive semesters in one of the following ensembles: College Choir, Gamelan, Jazz Band, Orchestra, Steel Pan Orchestra; or in private instruction. Supervised by music department.
South Asian Studies (C087)
This concentration introduces students to different aspects of the history, culture, religion, literature, and art of South Asia, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Southeast Asia. J. Strong.
Requirements
Any four courses. Two non-Bates courses may be applied toward the concentration if judged comparable to one of those below by the concentration coordinator and with prior approval. Participation in the SITA (South India Term Abroad) Program may be substituted for two courses with prior approval. Not open to minors in Asian studies.
Spanish in Tarragona (C089)
The Bates Fall Semester Abroad in Tarragona consists of intensive language instruction, cultural immersion in a modern European city, and focused study on the history and culture of Spain and its regions. K. Melvin.
Requirements
Successful completion of the Bates Fall Semester Abroad in Tarragona. In the event that a student fails one of the FSA courses, the student may still earn credit for this concentration by passing a course offered in the Spanish program at Bates.
Theater Arts (C028)
This concentration serves as an introduction to the study and making of theater. M. Reidy.
Requirements
Four courses in theater, one of which must be THEA 101. One non-Bates course may be applied toward the concentration if judged comparable to one of those below by the concentration coordinator and with prior approval.
The Translated World (C067)
In this concentration, students explore national literatures as well as literatures from different historical epochs in translation. Students consider how these literatures represent culturally distinct experiences and contribute to a complex understanding of global imaginations, values, and societies. L. Maurizio.
Requirements
Any four courses. One non-Bates course may be applied toward the concentration if judged comparable to one of those below by the concentration coordinator and with prior approval.
Visible Ideas: 2D and 3D Design (C029)
A design is a plan. In art, the study of design is the study of the relationship between idea and physical form, and how this interaction expresses content. These courses emphasize ways to track and manipulate the relationship between the essential elements of visual language, including line, color, light, volume, scale, and space. E. Morris.
Requirements
Four courses, with no more than three from any one department/program. One non-Bates course may be applied toward the concentration if judged comparable to one of those below by the concentration coordinator and with prior approval.
Water and Society (C070)
Water is essential to life. Consequently, people often live along the coast, the banks of rivers, the margins of lakes or in regions with groundwater resources for drinking, irrigation, industry, recreation, and the food supply. Water is also one of the most highly politicized resources on earth and has been the source of numerous and continuing conflicts among humans. Our dependence on water necessitates that we share and preserve this resource, yet increasing pressures on our water bodies are resulting in reduced access to potable water, collapse of marine ecosystems, and a decrease in biodiversity. This concentration explores the connections between humans and water and includes scientific, aesthetic, economic, political, and ethical perspectives. B. Johnson.
Requirements
Four courses, no more than two of which are from the same department or program. Two non-Bates course may be applied toward the concentration if judged comparable to one of those below by the concentration coordinator and with prior approval.
Women and Gender in Asia (C050)
Focusing on gender issues, this concentration affords students a context for studying women, men, and their interactions in an Asian context. L. Dhingra.
Requirements
Any four courses. One non-Bates course may be applied toward the concentration if judged comparable to one of those below by the concentration coordinator and with prior approval.
Women and Writing (C060)
This concentration focuses on women's writing across cultures and in different time periods. The concentration includes both historical and theoretical perspectives on women's writing. J. Costlow.
Requirements
Four courses, one of which must be at the 300 level, and at least two of which must be from the following list: ENG 121H, 238; EN/WS 297 395L; FRE 372, 376; INDS 255, 325, s37; SPAN 344. One non-Bates course may be applied toward the concentration if judged comparable to one of those below by the concentration coordinator and with prior approval.
Writing Spain (C018)
This concentration offers students a framework for exploring in depth the plurality and diversity of the literary production of Spanish-speaking writers from the Iberian Peninsula from the Middle Ages to the present. Courses examine writing in Spain as a mode of aesthetic expression, as a means of affirmation and contestation of individual and national identities, and as a force for revolution and reaction. D. George.
Requirements
SPAN 216 plus three additional courses. One non-Bates course which may be applied toward the concentration if judged comparable to one of those below by the concentration coordinator and with prior approval. This concentration is not open to students who have declared a minor in Spanish.