Sociology

Professors Duina (chair) and Kane; Associate Professor Taylor; Assistant Professor Rocque; Lecturer Harr

The curriculum in sociology is designed to introduce students to a sociological perspective, which explores social structures and their intersections with individual lives. Courses address a wide range of social phenomena, from patterns of everyday interaction to social and political revolutions. Sociology as a discipline focuses on recognizing and analyzing social determinants that shape our lives. That focus offers a unique potential not only for understanding society, but also for social action and social change.

The courses offered in sociology include a variety of 100- and 200-level courses introducing sociology and many of the specific topics and issues addressed by sociologists. Most 200-level courses are open to first-year students and have no prerequisites. The core courses for the major also begin at the 200 level. These core courses focus on developing the skills and tools necessary for a more advanced application of a sociological perspective, preparing students for junior-senior research seminars at the 300 level.

The methods and substantive areas of sociology provide an excellent background for a wide range of careers in fields such as government, public policy, law, social research, community work, social activism, health, human services, social work, counseling, education, business, personnel, advertising, and market research, as well as a strong foundation for graduate study in sociology and a variety of applied or related areas including law, criminal justice, social work, business, public policy and public administration, urban and community planning, health care administration, public health, education, survey research administration, and journalism.

A handbook describing the major and minor in greater detail, including additional career information, is available from the department chair. More information on the department and an electronic version of the handbook are also available on the website (bates.edu/sociology).

Major Requirements. Students majoring in sociology must complete eleven courses:

1) All of the following:
SOC 204. Theoretical Foundations of Sociology.
SOC 205. Research Methods for Sociology.
SOC 405. Senior Capstone in Sociology.
SOC 457 or 458. Senior Thesis.

2) Two junior-senior research seminars (SOC 395).

3) Five sociology courses, which may include one Short Term sociology course; an independent study in sociology also may be taken to fulfill the major.

Majors planning to study abroad should consult the FAQs for study abroad on the department's website (bates.edu/sociology/).

Pass/Fail Grading Option. Pass/fail grading may not be elected for courses applied toward the major.

Courses

SOC 101. Principles of Sociology.

The course is concerned with social behavior, social institutions, and with the characteristics of sociology as a discipline. It introduces classic sociologial theories. Students become familiar with the use of such basic concepts in sociology as norms, values, roles, socialization, stratification, power and authority, deviance and control, social conflict, and social change. Enrollment limited to 40. Normally offered every year. H. Taylor, M. Rocque.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SOC 102. Microsociology: Self and Society.

An introduction to the everyday details of how people create, maintain, and respond to social structures and social relationships. Topics considered include the social construction of the self, socialization, social structure and personality, emotions, social interaction, intergroup relations, and the role of social locations in structuring individual consciousness. Enrollment limited to 40. E. Kane.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SOC 103. Macrosociology: Institutions and Structures.

Macrosociology concerns itself with broad-level topics and issues: international development, demographic trends, state formation and behavior, the relationship between politics and the economy, industries, globalization, national and international law, cultural convergence across countries, national and transnational policymaking, corruption, security issues, among others. Often, attention turns to structures and institutions for explanatory purposes. Enrollment limited to 40. F. Duina.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SOC 204. Theoretical Foundations of Sociology.

Theories of society are used in a variety of ways to make sense of the world in which we live. This course examines the evolution of sociological theory, and the history of sociology as a discipline. Major schools of social theory are compared and analyzed, with emphasis on their role as foundations of sociology. Prerequisite(s): one course in sociology. [W2] designation removed beginning Fall 2016. Enrollment limited to 30 per section. Normally offered every year. F. Duina.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SOC 205. Research Methods for Sociology.

This course is a practical introduction to the research methods used by sociologists, including survey research, content analysis, participant observation and field research, qualitative interviewing, and comparative historical research. The assumptions of various approaches to social science research are considered, along with application of methods of collection and analysis for both qualitative and quantitative data. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): SOC 204. Enrollment limited to 30. Normally offered every year. E. Kane, H. Taylor.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

SOC 206. Thinking Sociologically with Numbers.

In this course, students learn how to think about social issues numerically. They learn the fundamentals of social statistics with a focus on interpretation, including quantitative data types, learning how to describe and present data (including data visualization), sampling, probability, and bivariate and multivariate analyses. Basic analyses such as hypothesis testing, confidence intervals, correlation, and regression are covered. Recommended background: basic math proficiency, some algebraic knowledge. Enrollment limited to 30. [Q] Normally offered every year. M. Rocque.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PY/SO 210. Social Psychology.

A study of people in social settings. Topics include conformity, interpersonal attraction, and attitude formation and change. Theoretical principles are applied to such social phenomena as social conflict, stereotyping, competition, and altruism. Prerequisite(s): PSYC 101. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 50. Normally offered every year. M. Sargent, H. Boucher.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SOC 211. Crime, Justice, and Society.

This course provides a broad overview of crime and justice from a sociological perspective. Topics include why certain behaviors are deemed criminal and others are not, how and why criminal laws are developed, why some individuals break those laws, and the role of the criminal justice system in society. The course also considers theories of crime and justice, approaches to the measurement of crime, the social factors associated with crime, and media representations and public perceptions of crime and justice. Recommended background: one course in sociology. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. (Community-Engaged Learning.) M. Rocque.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

LS/SO 226. Sports, Gender, and Nation in Latin America.

The state and civil society in Latin America have been involved in the individual practice of professional sports that channel aspirations of inclusion among different social, ethnic, and racial groups. Sports in Latin America developed into a phenomenon of mass spectatorship that supersedes and at times displaces political debate. In Latin America national and local pride are challenged by transnational sport stars in a time of increasing globalization. This course considers the history of sports in Latin America from male-dominated origins (soccer, baseball, boxing) to the more recent media attention on Latin American women in Olympic disciplines, challenging the identification of the nation with the male body. Not open to students who have received credit for LS/SO 106. Open to first-year students. B. Fra-Molinero.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SOC 230. Sociology of Health and Illness.

This course examines how social and structural forces shape health, illness, and the health care system. Through critical analysis of health and illness in the United States, the course explores the field of medical sociology. Topics include social factors associated with health and disease, disability, the organization of health care, medical ethics, and the relationship between health care and human rights. Recommended background: one course in sociology. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. H. Taylor.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

AN/SO 232. Ethnicity, Nation, and World Community.

The course explores the means by which social identities are constructed as ethnicity and nations. It focuses on how representations taken from categories of everyday life—such as "race," religion, gender, and sexuality—are deployed to give these group loyalties the aura of a natural, timeless authority. This inquiry into ethnicity and nation as cultural fabrications allows for exploration of the possibility of global community not simply in its institutional dimensions, but as a condition of consciousness. Enrollment limited to 15. C. Carnegie.
Concentrations

SOC 235. Global Health: Sociological Perspectives.

This course introduces students to the health care systems of nations in the developed and developing world. Health care takes place within culturally unique social, historical, and political contexts, which shape factors such as disease, nutrition, violence, reproductive health, and environmental and occupational hazards. The course explores how these diverse forces shape illness experience, health care utilization, organization and training of health care providers, and systems of health care delivery. Drawing on a critical perspective, this course utilizes sociological methods and theories to explore health and illness around the globe. Recommended background: one course in sociology. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. H. Taylor.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

INDC 238. Sexuality Movements.

This course introduces students to social movement theory and interest group politics in the United States via the case study of gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) politics from the immediate post-World War II period to the present, and examines the relationship of sexuality to the racial and gender dynamics of American identity-based social movements. The course traces the development of research methodologies to study collective action from early rational choice models to resource mobilization theory to new social movement models and political opportunity and process models. How the LGBTQ movements drew upon, expanded, and challenged foundations established by both African American civil rights and feminism is also explored. A range of source materials includes political science, sociology, and history monographs and articles, primary source documents, literature, and film. Cross-listed in politics, sociology, and women and gender studies. Enrollment limited to 30. (Identities and Interests.) (Institutional Politics.) [W2] S. Engel.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SOC 239. Medicine and the People's Health: Social Movements for Health Justice .

This course considers how social movements address and redress health inequalities and the experience of illness, often by contesting medical knowledge and authority. Health-based social movements regularly seek the recognition or rejection of a certain disease, disorder, or disability, and the revision of medical knowledge and practice related to diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Other movements bring attention to the social, political, and economic circumstances that create and perpetuate health inequalities, and how race, class, gender, sexuality, nation/ality, and other intersecting inequalities inform and exacerbate health disparities. Emphasis is placed on social movements attending to the social determinants of health and illness. New course beginning Winter 2017. Enrollment limited to 30. One-time offering. B. Harr.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ED/SO 242. Race, Cultural Pluralism, and Equality in American Education.

Through thematic investigation of school segregation, desegregation, and resegregation, this course explores the question: What would equal educational opportunity look like in a multicultural society? In light of contextual perspectives in educational thought, the course confronts contemporary debates surrounding how the race/ethnicity of students should affect the composition, curriculum, and teaching methods of schools, colleges, and universities. Specific issues explored may include bilingual education, college admission and graduation, achievement testing, and shool funding. A thirty-hour field experience is required. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 25. (Community-Engaged Learning.) H. Tran.
Concentrations

SOC 250. Privilege, Power, and Inequality.

This course addresses inequalities of race, class, gender, and sexual orientation, primarily in the United States but with some attention to international inequalities as well. Topics include patterns in the distribution of privilege, power, and resources in society; the ideologies and beliefs surrounding unequal distributions; and the role of organizations, social movements, public policy, and law in challenging inequality. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. (Community-Engaged Learning.) E. Kane.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

SOC 260. Economic Sociology.

Most, if not all, economic activity—whether it takes place at the level of individuals, organizations, or markets—requires rules, norms, and institutions. Efficiency alone cannot account for the existence and nature of those rules, norms, and institutions. Beliefs, values, power structures, perceptions of self-interest, political structures, history, and numerous additional factors hold explanatory potential as well. This course investigates these factors. In the process, students explore some of the most important theoretical frameworks in sociology and politics such as rational choice theory, historical institutionalism and statist theory, and some key topics in sociology such as international development. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30 per section. F. Duina.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SO/WS 270. Sociology of Gender.

This course focuses on the social construction of gender through a consideration of a series of interrelated social institutions and practices central to gender stratification. Emphasis is placed on the intersections between gender inequality and inequalities of race/ethnicity, class, sexual orientation, and nation. Recommended background: one previous course in the sociology or women and gender studies. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. (Community-Engaged Learning.) E. Kane.
Concentrations

SOC 360. Independent Study.

Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study per semester. Normally offered every semester. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SOC 365. Special Topics.

A course or seminar offered from time to time to small groups of students working on special topics. Instructor permission is required. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PY/SO 371. Prejudice and Stereotyping.

Two issues that have long held the interest of social psychologists and that are of great social importance are prejudice and stereotyping. This course explores traditional and contemporary social psychological research on unconscious and covert forms of prejudice as well as cognitive and emotional functions served by stereotyping. The course concludes with an examination of the challenges to prejudice reduction and stereotype change. Prerequisite(s): PSYC 218. Enrollment limited to 50. (Diversity.) M. Sargent.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ED/SO 380. Education, Reform, and Politics.

The United States has experienced more than three centuries of growth and change in the organization of public and private education. This course examines 1) contemporary reform issues and political processes in relation to school, research, legal, policymaking, and student/family constituencies and 2) how educational policy is formulated, implemented, and evaluated. The study of these areas emphasizes public K–12 education but includes postsecondary education. Examples of specific educational policy arenas include governance, school choice (e.g., charter schools, magnet schools, and vouchers), school funding, standards and accountability, and college access. A thiry-hour field experience is required. Prerequistes(s): EDUC 231. Enrollment limited to 18. (Community-Engaged Learning.) M. Tieken.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SOC 395. Junior-Senior Research Seminars.

These seminars provide advanced coverage of specific topics in sociology. Special attention is paid to the theories and methods adopted by sociologists to investigate these topics. Each seminar requires a substantial research project, related to the seminar theme. Prerequisite(s): SOC 204 and 205.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SOC 395A. European Integration: Politics, Society, and Geography.

The European Union (E.U.) represents one of the most remarkable achievements of the contemporary world. This seminar first reviews the history and structure of the E.U. It then examines a series of topics related to the political, social, and geographical dimensions of European integration. These topics include the drivers of integration, the transformation of domestic policies and institutions, the demands of E.U. law, the rise of a European identity, the consequences of expansion in Eastern and Central Europe, the salience of regions, and the E.U. on the international scene. Comparisons with South America's Mercosur conclude the seminar. Students are exposed to numerous theoretical tools and methodologies, including institutionalism, rational choice theory, intergovernmentalism, and comparative methods. Prerequisite(s): SOC 204 and 205. Enrollment limited to 15. [W2] F. Duina.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

SOC 395C. Research Seminar in Criminal Policy.

The seminar is concerned with the application of knowledge gained from criminological theory and research to the administration of the criminal justice system and the evaluation of criminal justice programs. The seminar is intended to advance a student's ability to carry out individual research. Prerequisite(s): SOC 204 and 205. Enrollment limited to 15. [W2] M. Rocque.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SOC 395E. Sociology of Health Professions.

This seminar draws on theoretical perspectives and research methodologies employed by two major subfields of sociology, the sociology of work and medical sociology. Health professionals in the United States work in rapidly changing technological, political, economic, and demographic environments. Students explore these and other issues facing health professionals, such as job satisfaction, stress, and efforts to balance work and family. They examine a wide range of health occupations, including (but not limited to) physicians, nurses, dentists, allied health professionals, and practitioners of complementary medicine. Students draw on a diverse range of theoretical frameworks and both qualitative and quantitative research methods employed in the study of health professions. Prerequisite(s): SOC 204 and 205. Enrollment limited to 15. [W2] H. Taylor.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SOC 395G. Comparative Sociology.

Comparative sociology studies social institutions, economic systems, political systems, cultures and norms, legal systems, public policy, social change, and behavior in two or more settings. Comparisons can be qualitative or quantitative in nature and are usually driven by a desire to test theories or hypotheses. Topics of study may include the upset of globalization on nation-states, social movements, war and violence, place and cultural specificity, postcolonial dynamics, urbanization, immigration. The seminar regional intergration. The seminar introduces students to comparative sociology through an examination of recent exemplary works and the completion of individual projects related to each student's interests. Prerequisite(s): SOC 204 and 205. Enrollment limited to 15. [W2] F. Duina.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SOC 395H. Social Inequality and Public Policy.

How are social inequalities in the United States both reduced and exacerbated by public programming, ranging from health care initiatives to work-family policies? This course explores public policies that affect diverse facets of social life, including marriage and family, education, health care, and work. Emphasis is placed on how such macrolevel forces shape individual lives, and particularly how policy intersects with inequalities based on race/ethnicity, class, gender, age, and sexual orientation. Students conduct individual research, drawing on a diverse range of theoretical frameworks and both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Prerequisite(s): SOC 204 and 205. Enrollment limited to 15. [W2] H. Taylor.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SO/WS 395I. Race, Class, Gender, and Family.

This seminar focuses on current debates in the research and policy literatures on social inequality and family. Potential topics include family policy, poverty, domestic violence, the division of labor in households, reproduction, partnerships, parenting, children's experiences within families, and the integration of work and family. All of these topics are addressed with attention to the role of intersecting social inequalities in structuring family experiences, including race, class, gender, sexuality, and nation. Prerequisite(s): SOC 204 and 205. Enrollment limited to 15. [W2] E. Kane.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SOC 395K. Knowledge, Action and Social Change.

This seminar explores the politics of knowledge and the potential role of research in advancing social justice and social change. Students consider competing perspectives on the public relevance of academic research, including debates within sociology and feminist studies. With those debates as context, students conduct publicly-engaged work through community-based research projects on issues related to social inequality. Prerequisite(s): SOC 204 and 205. Enrollment limited to 15. (Community-Engaged Learning.) [W2] E. Kane.
Concentrations

SOC 395L. Political Sociology.

This course offers an in-depth examination of core issues in political sociology. Students consider the formation of nation-states, nationalism, postcolonialism, neoliberalism, and welfare states dynamics; international organizations, social movements and revolutions, democracy, and regime change; violence and power. Students encounter a variety of theoretical perspectives (primarily institutionalist, cultural, power-centric, and rational choice) and methodological approaches. The course culminates with the completion of individual research projects on selected topics. Prerequisite(s): SOC 204 and 205. Enrollment limited to 15. [W2] F. Duina.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SOC 395M. Race, Crime, and Punishment in America.

This seminar examines how race and crime—as well as race and punishment—are intertwined from historical and contemporary perspectives. Students consider crime and deviance from an empirical and theoretical view as well as patterns of punishment that disproportionately affect various racial and ethnic groups. Students seek to understand how the present is informed by the past, and they contribute to the scholarly conversation with individual research projects. Prerequisite(s): SOC 204 and 205. Enrollment limited to 15. [W2] M. Rocque.
Concentrations

SOC 395R. Crime and Justice over the Life-Course.

In this seminar, students examine how crime and deviance emerge over the life of individuals, how they changes, and how they eventually dissipate. Traditionally, crime has been explored "cross-sectionally," that is, at one time and place. Do people who start committing crimes early in the life end up trapped in a life of crime? Do the elderly engage in deviance? How can a career criminal ever stop offending? Students select a particular issue early in the semester to study in detail, result in an original empirical analysis project. The goal of the seminar is not only to fully understand life-course criminology research in America but also to advance this work in new and innovative ways. Prerequisite(s): SOC 204 and 205. Recommended background: SOC 101. Enrollment limited to 15. [W2] M. Rocque.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SOC 401. Law and Community Internships.

Part-time internships in local courts and other agencies concerned with the legal system. Enrollment is limited to available positions. Prerequisite(s): SOC 116. Instructor permission is required. (Community-Engaged Learning.) Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SOC 405. Senior Capstone in Sociology.

Sociology examines the causes and consequences of social behavior, providing the tools to understand the relationships between individual lives and larger social structures and inequalities. This course is a capstone reflection on the discipline of sociology and the application of the sociological imagination to understanding the world. This intensive culminating experience synthesizes and integrates materials from prior sociology courses, as well as exposes students to current controversies in the discipline. Discussions focus on core sociological concepts, theories, and methods, applying them to different substantive areas in the field. Prerequisite(s): SOC 204 and 205. Recommended background: one course from the SOC 395 series. Normally offered every year. H. Taylor.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SOC 457. Senior Thesis.

Individual and group conferences in connection with the writing of the senior thesis. Students register for SOC 457 in the fall semester. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SOC 458. Senior Thesis.

Individual and group conferences in connection with the writing of the senior thesis. Students register for SOC 458 in the winter semester. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

Short Term Courses

HI/SO s16. Crime and Deviance in the American Civil War.

This course examines deviant behavior through a historical lens, focusing on the American Civil War (1861-1865). The study of the Civil War is based primarily on movies, texts, discussion, and visits to local landmarks and museums. Students discuss what types of deviance and crime occurred in during wartime and use a sociological lens to analyze why the behaviors occurred and what consequences they had. They apply current thinking in criminology and sociology to understanding crime and deviance in the 1860s. The course is an exploration of how wartime shapes our attitudes, behaviors, and life chances. Enrollment limited to 15. (Community-Engaged Learning.) (Modern. ) (United States.) M. Rocque.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SOC s20. Social Inequality in Childhood and Youth.

This course explores how race, class, gender, and sexuality shape lives through out childhood and youth. With attention to the active agency of children and youth as well as the constraints created by structures of inequality, the course addresses the social construction of childhood from infancy through late adolescence. Students engage these topics through readings, multimedia materials, class discussion, and community-engaged learning placements working with children and youth. Recommended background: one or more courses addressing social inequality in African American studies, American cultural studies, women and gender studies, or one of the social sciences. Enrollment limited to 20. (Community-Engaged Learning.) E. Kane.
Concentrations

RE/SO s22. The Meaning of Work.

The question of the meaning of work stretches across time and continents and engages a wide range of philosophical, theological, social, psychological, economic, and organizational themes and theories. Most of us spend most of our waking hours working, yet we rarely pause to consider work's realized or possible meanings. This course is intended to be such a pause: a moment to stop and reflect on the phenomenon that is arguably at the foundation of human civilization and the human psyche. The course explores issues of value, purpose, function, organization, justice, community, and sustainability in relation to work. It also considers the varied ways in which work and American life and identity co-determine each other. In addition to a wide range of written texts, sources include film, first-person interviews, and a community-engaged learning project. Enrollment limited to 30. (Community-Engaged Learning.) Normally offered every year. D. Ray.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ED/SO s24. Community Organizing for Social Justice.

This course introduces students to the basics of community organizing. Class sessions and field trips focus on the practice of organizing: students learn the fundamental principles of the organizing cycle and develop basic organizing skills, including relationship building, public narrative, and leadership. Through readings and documentaries, students learn about organizing theories and key social movements, and they hone their emerging skills through workshops with local organizers. Students apply these skills and knowledge to an on-campus organizing project designed to further social or political change at Bates. Recommended background: EDUC 231. Enrollment limited to 15. Instructor permission is required. (Community-Engaged Learning.) M. Tieken.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SOC s26. Life Course and Aging.

This course explores the aging experience, focusing on early adulthood, middle age, and late life. Students are introduced to the social forces shaping the aging experience, paying particular attention to how race and ethnicity, gender, and social class influence the life course. Topics include key transitions in the life course produced by the intersection of individual lives with institutions such as family, health care, and the workplace. The course applies the theoretical perspectives and methodological techniques of life-course sociology to an exploration of life trajectories and the meanings of age. Enrollment limited to 20. H. Taylor.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SOC s27. Studies in Crime Prevention.

Current efforts to deal with crime consist principally of law enforcement and punishment. Punishable offenses increase and punishments become more severe with, some argue, little effect on the overall state of crime. An alternative effort is to prevent crimes. The course explores the variety of crime prevention practices, from those that direct attention to offenders' behavior to those that—taking into account that most crimes involve not only an offender but also a victim and a situation surrounding both—seek to alter that critical situation. Major topics include community policing, crime analysis, and crime prevention through environmental design. Enrollment limited to 20. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PT/SO s30. War, States, and Social Change.

In this course students examine sociological perspectives on war, peace, empires, nation-states, revolutions, and reforms, drawing on recent theories of the sociology of war, political sociology, and comparative-historical sociology. In the second half of the course, special attention is given to the post-World War II period and the twenty-first century. Enrollment limited to 30. (Governance and Conflict.) Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SOC s50. Independent Study.

Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study during a Short Term. Normally offered every year. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations