Academic Program

The academic program requirements described below are applicable to all ES majors in the graduating class of 2019 and subsequent years.  These requirements are also one of two options for ES majors in the graduating class of 2018.  The other option is described under ES Core Courses and Concentrations.

Environmental studies encompasses a broad range of issues that arise from the interaction of humans with the natural world. To understand these issues, students must think across and beyond existing disciplinary boundaries. The environmental studies major provides a framework for students to examine how humans experience, investigate, and interact with their environment. The curriculum includes interdisciplinary course work that encourages students to explore the social, aesthetic, ethical, scientific, and technical aspects of environmental questions and to approach these questions with more focused knowledge and methodological tools through a major concentration.. More information on the environmental studies program including the course requirements for each major concentration is available on the website (bates.edu/environment/).

Major Requirements for the Class of 2019 and beyond. All students must complete the core courses, a major concentration, a 200-hour internship, and a thesis (ENVR 457, 458) or capstone seminar (ENVR 450).

Core Courses. All of the following:
ENVR 204. Environment and Society.
ENVR 205. Lives in Place.
ENVR 417. Community-Engaged Research in Environmental Studies.

Major Concentration. Students complete one of the following four concentrations

Concentration 1: Environment and Human Culture

1. One of the following introductory science courses:
BI/GE 112. Oceanography/Lab.
BIO 124. Plants and Human Affairs/Lab.
BIO 190. Organismal Biology/Lab.
ENVR 203. Scientific Approaches to Environmental Issues/Lab.
GEO 103. Earth Surface Environments and Environmental Change/Lab.
GEO 104. Plate Tectonics and Tectonic Hazards/Lab.
GEO 107. Katahdin to Acadia: Field Geology in Maine/Lab.
GEO 109. Global Change/Lab.
PHYS 106. Energy and Environment.

2. One of the following intermediate science courses (some courses have prerequisites):
BI/ES 232. Global Change in Terrestrial Systems.
BI/ES 246. Conservation Biology.
BIO 265. Invasive Plant Ecology/Lab.
BIO 270. Ecology and Evolution/Lab.
BI/ES 271. Dendrology and the Natural History of Trees/Lab.
BIO s31. Avian Biology/Lab.
BIO s32. The Ecology and Evolutionary Biology of the Galapagos Archipelago.
BIO s37. The North Woods.
ES/GE 226. Hydrogeology.
ENVR 229. The Electric Grid.
ENVR 240. Water and Watersheds/Lab.
ES/GE s21. Field Studies in Geology.
GEO 210. Sedimentary Processes and Environments/Lab.
GEO 240. Environmental Geochemistry/Lab.
GEO s31. Limnology and Paleolimnology of Lakes in Northern New England/Lab.
GEO s36. Coastal Hazards/Lab.
GEO s39. Geology of the Maine Coast by Sea Kayak.

3. One of the following social science courses:
AN/ES 242. Environment, Human Rights, and Indigenous Peoples.
AN/ES 337. Social Movements, NGOs, and the Environment.
ECON 222. Environmental Economics.
ENVR 272. Oikos: Rethinking Economy and Ecology.
ENVR 301. Politics of Nature.
ENVR 350. Environmental Justice in the Americas.

4. One of the following methods courses:
ES/RU 216. Nature in Russian Culture.
ENVR 227. Catastrophes and Hope.

5. One of the following environmental history courses:
INDS 211. Environmental Perspectives on U.S. History.
ES/HI 390M. Maine: Environment and History.
ES/HI 390R. Nature and Empire.
HI/WS 210. Technology in U.S. History.

6. One of the following courses in literature, visual studies, and cultural studies:
AVC 285. Renaissance and Post-Renaissance Gardens and Landscape Architecture.
AVC 377A. Picturesque Suburbia.
ENG 395K. The Arctic Sublime.
ENG 395O. Poetry and Place.
ENVR 334. The Question of the Animal.
ENVR 340. Literatures of Agriculture.
ENVR 348. Nature and the Novel.

7. One of the following courses in environmental ethics:
ES/PL 214. Environmental Ethics.
INDS 228. Caring for Creation: Physics, Religion, and the Environment.

8. Three additional courses from lists 4-7 above, two of which must be at the 300 level, or one of the following:
EN/ES 121B. The New Nature Writing.
ES/RU s20. Environmental and Culture in Russia.
ES/RE s25. Food and the Sacred.
ENVR s29. Walking: The Practice, Politics, and Pleasures of One's Own Two Feet.
INDS 208. Introduction to Medieval Archaeology.
INDS 291. Environmental Archaeology.
INDS 321. Afroambiente: Writing a Black Environment.

Concentration 2: Global Environmental Politics

1. One of the following introductory science courses:
BI/GE 112. Oceanography/Lab.
BIO 124. Plants and Human Affairs/Lab.
BIO 190. Organismal Biology/Lab.
ENVR 203. Scientific Approaches to Environmental Issues/Lab.
GEO 103. Earth Surface Environments and Environmental Change/Lab.
GEO 104. Plate Tectonics and Tectonic Hazards/Lab.
GEO 107. Katahdin to Acadia: Field Geology in Maine/Lab.
GEO 109. Global Change/Lab.
PHYS 106/ Energy and Environment.

2. One from the following intermediate science courses (some courses have prerequisites):
BI/ES 232. Global Change in Terrestrial Systems.
BI/ES 246. Conservation Biology.
BIO 265. Invasive Plant Ecology/Lab.
BIO 270. Ecology and Evolution/Lab.
BI/ES 271. Dendrology and the Natural History of Trees/Lab.
BIO s31. Avian Biology/Lab.
BIO s32. The Ecology and Evolutionary Biology of the Galapagos Archipelago.
BIO s37. The North Woods.
ES/GE 226. Hydrogeology.
ENVR 229. The Electric Grid.
ENVR 240. Water and Watersheds/Lab.
ES/GE s21. Field Studies in Geology.
GEO 210. Sedimentary Processes and Environments/Lab.
GEO 240. Environmental Geochemistry/Lab.
GEO s31 Limnology and Paleolimnology of Lakes in Northern New England/Lab.
GEO s36. Coastal Hazards/Lab.
GEO s39. Geology of the Main Coast by Sea Kayak.

3. One of the following humanistic environmental studies courses:
INDS 211. Environmental Perspectives on U.S. History.
ES/PL 214. Environmental Ethics.
ES/RU 216. Nature in Russian Culture.
ENVR 227. Catastrophes and Hope.
ENVR 334. The Question of the Animal.
ENVR 340. Literatures of Agriculture.
ENVR 348. Nature and the Novel.

4. Both of the following economics courses:
ECON 101. Principles of Microeconomics: Prices and Markets.
ECON 222. Environmental Economics.

5. One of the following politics courses:
PLTC 171. International Politics.
PLTC 222. International Political Economy.

6. One of the following methods courses:
ANTH s10. Encountering Community: Ethnographic Fieldwork and Service-Learning.
BIO 244. Biostatistics.
ECON 250. Statistics.
EDUC s26. Qualitative Methods of Educational Research.
HIST 199. Introduction to Historical Methods.
HIST s40. Introduction to Historical Methods.
INDS 250. Interdisciplinary Studies: Methods and Modes of Inquiry.
PLTC s49. Political Inquiry.
PSYCH 218. Statistics.
RHET 252. Rhetorical Theory.
SOC 205. Research Methods for Sociology.

7. Two additional social science courses from among the following:
AN/SO 232. Ethnicity, Nation, and World Community.
AN/ES 242. Environment, Human Rights, Indigenous Peoples.
INDS 211. Environmental Perspectives on U.S. History.
INDS 215 Environmental History of Japan: Pollution, Protection, and the Public Good.
ENVR 272. Oikos: Rethinking Economy and Ecology.
PLTC 202. Garbage and the Politics of Disposition.
PLTC 236. The Global Politics of Climate Change.
PLTC 248. The Arctic: Politics, Economics, Peoples.
PLTC 249. Politics of Latin America.
PLTC 258. Environmental Diplomacy.
PLTC 290. Politics in Sub-Saharan Africa.
PLTC 312 Ocean Governance: Local, National, and International Challenges.
PLTC 315. International Cooperation.
PLTC 346. Power and Protest.
SOC 235. Global Health: Sociological Perspectives.
SOC 250. Privilege, Power, and Inequality.

8. One of the following 300-level courses (some have prerequisites):
ENVR 337. Social Movements, NGOs, and the Environment.
ENVR 301. Politics of Nature.
ENVR 350. Environmental Justice in the Americas.
ES/HI 390R. Nature and Empire.
ECON 309. Economics of Less-Developed Countries.
ECON 325. Prices, Property, and the Problem of the Commons.

Concentration 3: Ecology and Economics of the Environment

1. One of the following humanistic environmental studies courses:
INDS 211. Environmental Perspectives on U.S. History.
ES/PL 214. Environmental Ethics.
ES/RU 216. Nature in Russian Culture.
ENVR 227. Catastrophes and Hope.
ENVR 334. The Question of the Animal.
ENVR 340. Literatures of Agriculture.
ENVR 348. Nature and the Novel.

2. A second course from the list above or one of the following social science courses:
AN/ES 242. Environment, Human Rights, and Indigenous Peoples.
AN/ES 337. Social Movements, NGOs, and the Environment.
ENVR 272. Oikos: Rethinking Economy and Ecology.
ENVR 301. Politics of Nature.
ENVR 350. Environmental Justice in the Americas.

3. Both of the following biology courses:
BIO 190. Organismal Biology/Lab.
BIO 270. Ecology and Evolution/Lab.

4. One of the following intermediate ecology courses:
BI/ES 232. Global Change in Terrestrial Systems.
BI/ES 246. Conservation Biology.
BIO 265. Invasive Plant Ecology/Lab.
BI/ES 271. Dendrology and the Natural History of Trees/Lab.
ENVR 240. Water and Watersheds/Lab.

5. Both of the following economics courses:
ECON 101. Principles of Microeconomics: Prices and Markets.
ECON 222. Environmental Economics.

6. One of the following statistics courses:
BIO 244. Biostatistics.
ECON 250. Statistics.

7. One of the following intermediate economics courses (some courses have prerequisites):
ECON 223. Law and Economics.
ECON 237. Introduction to Behavioral Economics.
ECON 255. Econometrics.
ECON 260. Intermediate Microeconomic Theory.

8. One of the following 300-level courses (some courses have prerequisites):
BIO 313. Marine Ecology/Lab.
BI/ES 333. Genetics of Conservation Biology/Lab.
ECON 309. Economics of Less-Developed Countries.
ECON 325. Prices Property, and the Problem of the Commons.
ENVR 310. Soils/Lab.

Concentration 4: Ecology and Earth Systems

1. One of the following humanistic environmental studies courses:
INDS 211. Environmental Perspectives on U.S. History.
ES/PL 214. Environmental Ethics.
ES/RU 216. Nature in Russian Culture.
ENVR 227. Catastrophes and Hopes
ENVR 334. The Question of the Animal.
ENVR 340. Literatures of Agriculture.
ENVR 348 Nature and the Novel.

2. One of the following social science courses:
AN/ES 242. Environment, Human Rights, and Indigenous Peoples.
ECON 222. Environmental Economics.
ENVR 272. Oikos: Rethinking Economy and Ecology.
ENVR 301. Politics of Nature.
ENVR 337. Social Movements, NGOs, and the Environment.
ENVR 350. Environmental Justice in the Americas.

3. Four of the following introductory science courses:
BIO 190. Organismal Biology/Lab.
BIO 270. Ecology and Evolution/Lab.
CHEM 107A. Atomic and Molecular Structure/Lab.
CH/ES 107B. Chemical Structure and Its Importance in the Environment/Lab.
CHEM 108A. Chemical Reactivity/Lab.
CH/ES 108B. Chemical Reactivity in Environmental Systems/Lab.
FYS 274. Physics in the Twentieth Century/Lab.
PHYS 107. Classical Physics/Lab.
PHYS 108. Modern Physics/Lab.

3. One of the following introductory geology courses:
GEO 103. Earth Surface Environments and Environmental Change/Lab.
GEO 104. Plate Tectonics and Tectonic Hazards/Lab.
GEO 107. Katahdin to Acadia: Field Geology in Maine/Lab.
GEO 108. Global Environmental Change.
GEO 109. Global Change/Lab.

4. Two of the following intermediate science courses, only one of which may be a Short Term course (some courses have prerequisites):
BI/ES 232. Global Change in Terrestrial Systems.
BI/ES 246. Conservation Biology.
BIO 265. Invasive Plant Ecology/Lab.
BI/ES 271. Dendrology and the Natural History of Trees/Lab.
BIO s31. Avian Biology/Lab.
BIO s32. The Ecology and Evolutionary Biology of the Galapagos Archipelago.
BIO s37. The North Woods.
ES/GE 226. Hydrogeology.
ENVR 240. Water and Watersheds/Lab.
ES/GE s21. Field Studies in Geology.
GEO 210. Sedimentary Processes and Environments/Lab.
GEO 240. Environmental Geochemistry.
GEO s31 Limnology and Paleolimnology of Lakes in Northern New England/Lab.
GEO s36. Coastal Hazards/Lab.
GEO s39. Geology of the Main Coast by Sea Kayak.

5. One of the following methods courses (some have prerequisites):
BIO 244. Biostatistics.
CHEM 212. Separation Science/Lab.
DCS s20. Introduction to Computer Programming.
ES/GE 217. Mapping and GIS/Lab.
ENVR 220. GIS across the Curriculum.
DCS s20. Introduction to Computer Programming.
MATH 255A. Mathematical Models in Biology.
MATH 255B. Mathematical Modeling.

6. One of the following 300-level courses (courses have prerequisites):
BIO 313. Marine Ecology/Lab.
BI/ES 333. Genetics of Conservation Biology/Lab.
ENVR 310 Soils/Lab.
GEO 310. Quaternary Geology/Lab.
GEO 315. Glacial Geology/Lab.
GEO 320. Coastal and Estuarine Processes.
GEO 340. Stable Isotope Geochemistry/Lab.

The Thesis. All students must complete a one- or two-semester thesis. Theses must build in some significant way upon the courses that students take as part of their major concentration. Students write proposals for thesis in the winter semester of the junior year. In some years, ENVR 450, Environmental Writing in the Public Sphere, may be available as an alternative to thesis.

The Internship. Every student must complete a 200-hour internship in an environmentally oriented organization by the end of the fall semester of their senior year. Internships at academic research organizations, those requiring only physical labor, and those at summer camps are generally unacceptable.

Major Requirements for Classes of 2016, 2017, and 2018. Students majoring in environmental studies must fulfill core requirements of four courses, a major concentration, a one- or two-semester thesis or a W3 course, and a 200-hour internship. Students may apply designated Short Term courses toward their major requirements. It is recommended that students complete ENVR 204 and 205 and introductory science as early as possible, preferably within their first two years. These courses are not open to seniors. In addition to ENVR 204 and 205, the environmental studies committee recommends that all students interested in environmental studies take a related course in biology, chemistry, physics, geology or environmental science during their first year.

Students are advised that there may be limits on second majors or minors and on double-dipping certain courses, but these differ by major concentration. For example, the geology minor is not available in combination with the Ecology and Earth Systems concentration; no more than two courses from a Politics major may also count in the Global Environment and Social Change concentration. Students should examine the concentration requirements for details and consult with the advisor for the environmental studies major concentration in question.

Students should note that there may be flexibility in requirements due to changes in the curriculum.

Students interested in environmental education are advised to take a minor or general education concentration in education in addition to their major in environmental studies. Students are encouraged to consider study abroad, although the program reserves the right to restrict study abroad to one semester. No more than one course from abroad can count toward the major, regardless of the number of semesters abroad.

Core Requirements.
1) Required courses:
ENVR 204. Environment and Society.
ENVR 205. Lives in Place.
ENVR 417. Community-Engaged Research in Environmental Studies.
ENVR 457, 458. Senior Thesis, or ENVR 450. Environmental Writing in the Public Sphere.

In addition, each student completes natural science and courses for breadth as described within a chosen major concentration.

2) Courses in the Major Concentration. Major concentrations focus on a particular aspect of environmental studies. The program website provides information regarding the courses required of each major concentration. The major concentrations are:
Ecology and Earth Systems.
Ecology and Economics of the Environment.
Environment and Human Culture.
Global Environmental Politics

The Thesis. Majors must complete a one- or two-semester thesis or an alternative W3 course. In some years, ENVR 450, Environmental Writing in the Public Sphere, may be available as an alternative to thesis. Theses and W3 portfolios in ENVR 450 must build in some significant way upon the courses that students take as part of their major concentration. Students write proposals for W3 placement in the winter semester of the junior year.

The Internship. Every student must complete a 200-hour internship in an environmentally oriented organization by the end of the fall semester of their senior year. Internships at academic research organizations, those requiring only physical labor, and those at summer camps are generally unacceptable.

Pass/Fail Grading Option. Pass/fail grading may not be elected for courses applied toward the major.