Ladd Library applies the following guidelines when making copies used in library reserves:
- In preparing materials for Library reserve lists, Library staff members include Web links for resources that are freely available on the Web or are licensed for Web use by Bates, rather than making photocopies available on reserve.
- When copies are made, 1 copy for 10 students in a class (up to 10 for a large class) of an excerpt from a published work will be placed on reserve.
- The same materials may not be used for more than one course.
- All copies made for library reserves must include a citation to the original source and a copyright notice.
- Course packs available in the College Store will not be placed on reserve.
- It is recognized that under many circumstances, materials that may require permission of the copyright owner must be placed on reserve quickly, allowing little time for obtaining permission. This should not be a regular occurrence. In such cases, photocopied materials should include an indication that permission has been sought or received.
- A copy of a copyrighted work should not be placed on reserve for more than one semester (consecutively or separated by intervening semesters) without seeking permission. Permission must be granted for each subsequent semester’s use unless otherwise indicated by the copyright holder.
- Faculty members should not repeatedly photocopy excerpts from one periodical or author without seeking permission.
Regarding the extent of a copyrighted work that may be copied, a 1976 memorandum of agreement between publisher’s representatives and representatives of the academic community included guidelines as to “the minimum and not the maximum standards of educational fair use.” At the time of this agreement, the parties emphasized that these guidelines were “not intended to limit the types of copying permitted under the standards of fair use under judicial decision and which are stated in Section 107 of the Copyright Revision Bill. There may be instances in which copying which does not fall within the guidelines stated below may nonetheless be permitted under the criteria of fair use.”
Ladd Library adheres to the standard specified in this agreement in assessing fair use of copies of materials made available for a single semester for Ladd Library reserves. At a minimum, faculty members may use the following for a single semester without seeking permission:
- one chapter from a book
- one article or short work from an anthology
- a chart, graph, diagram, drawing, cartoon or picture from a book, periodical, or newspaper
- up to three articles from one issue of a periodical
Reserve materials substantially in excess of these minimum guidelines should be carefully considered in terms of fair use, and when fair use is not indicated, should be used in Library reserves only if permission is obtained from the copyright holder.
For a more complete discussion of this issue, please see: United States Copyright Office. Reproduction of Copyrighted Materials by Educators and Librarians. Circular 21. September 1995/Web rev June 1998.