Summit Abstracts 2004


Friday, April 2, 2004

ABSTRACTS (alphabetical order)


Abigail Adams ’04

Georgia Nigro, Psychology

Case Study on Autism

I am presently completing my service learning at the Margaret Murphy Center for Children (MMCC).  The MMCC serves children with autism ages two through thirteen. The center focuses on each child’s disabilities and creates the most effective plan to enhance their development.  My poster presentation outlines a case study of a three-year-old girl with autism and the progress she has made in the last year.  Tactics such as the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and a schedule board have all helped to further her development and growth; therefore they are discussed at length.


Tahsin Alam ’04

Áslaug Ásgeirsdóttir, Political Science

Microcredit as a System for Poverty Alleviation

My presentation is a combination of my research work done on my independent study and senior thesis on the Grameen Bank.  The bank has used the process of giving collateral-free loans to the destitute poor to encourage a practice of self-sustenance and the rise out of poverty.  I have done extensive research at the Grameen Bank inBangladesh both in the field and at its headquarters, thanks to the financial assistance provided from the Stangle Grant for Research in Economics and Law (summer 2003).

John Anderson ’04

Rachel Austin, Chemistry and Environmental Studies

Effects of Carbaryl Pesticides in Maine

Since the publication of Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring, the use of pesticides has been regulated and subject to public criticism.  However, because of a choice America made long before Carson released her exposé to the world, pesticides have become deeply rooted in the American agricultural and horticultural community.  This poster represents a year-long exploration into the effects of carbaryl and its pesticide family on the state ofMaine.  The poster presents laboratory research focused on the preparation of silver-doped zeolites as catalysts expected to increase the rate of photodecomposition for carbaryl.

Lynne Antinarelli ’04

Amy Bradfield, Psychology

What’s on Your Warm-Up Mix?

There have been many studies that look at the effects of music on tasks.  Previous research has found music to have an effect on mood, arousal, and spatial tasks.  This study looks at the effects of music on athletic performance among forty-eight varsity athletes from Bates College.  The first step was to pick pieces of music that were significantly different or equal in the categories of arousal, energy, familiarity, and enjoyment.  Once the pieces of music were selected, they were used in a Latin Square Design to be played in the experiment.  The experiment consists of two independent variables, genre and arousal level of music, each of which has two levels.  This produces a two (Arousal: High vs. Low) x two (Genre: Rap vs. Classical) fully randomized between subjects factorial design, where the number of free throws made by the participant is the dependent variable.  The hypothesis is that the higher the level of arousal in the music, the better the athletic performance will be, regardless of musical genre.

Christina Austin ’05 and Caitlin Vincent ’05

T. Glen Lawson, Chemistry

The Effect of Caffeine on DNA Repair

Caffeine has been identified among DNA repair inhibition agents as an enhancer of radiation toxicity and carcinogens.  Our experiment aims to explore the potential inhibitory effects of caffeine on DNA repair, in situations of exposure to the drug both before and after UV irradiation.  We sequenced the gene encoding Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker’s yeast) pyruvate dehydrogenase.  Analysis of this gene sequence provides a good idea of inhibition of repair mechanisms by caffeine, since it is certain that the cell will make some effort to repair any damage caused by the UV exposure.  We expect that the longer the yeast cells are exposed to caffeine, the more mutations they will have in the gene of interest.  We also expect that the yeast culture treated with caffeine post-radiation will have a smaller degree of DNA mutation as compared to the pre-radiation treatments.

Sarah Barnes ’04

Diane Haughney, Political Science and Environmental Studies

Chilean Seasonal Female Farmworkers and Pesticide Exposure:  An Analysis of Barriers to Protection

As is the case in many Latin American countries, the success of Chile’s fruit export sector has been fueled by several factors, including the comparative advantage of a cheap labor force exploited under neoliberal policies first imposed by a repressive military dictatorship that lasted from 1973 to 1989 and continued by the democratic governments that followed.  While the industry has brought macroeconomic gains to the country, the largely female temporary workforce that forms its base suffers in dehumanizing work conditions, the most dangerous of which is frequent exposure to toxic pesticides.  Though they face frequent acute intoxications to chemicals proven to cause cancer, neurological problems, and birth defects, these temporeras are virtually powerless against a political system dominated by conservatives and a government committed to the interests of business and the neoliberal model.  This project explains the various factors that serve as barriers to protection from pesticide exposure for these women and possible alternatives and solutions to this serious injustice.

Amanda Beck ’04

Rebecca Sommer, Biology

Cloning and Sequencing of Normal and Splice Variant Full-Length cDNA for the Chick β1-adrenergic Receptor

The sympathetic nervous system controls cardiac function in mammals through adrenoreceptors that mediate the physiological effects of the neurotransmitter catecholamines, including epinephrine and norepinephrine, hormones and drugs.  At least nine human adrenoreceptor subtypes have been found to exist, including the β-adrenergic receptors that are involved in various central nervous system processes, including learning, memory, adaptation to stress, smooth muscle tone, metabolism, the respiratory system, and the cardiovascular system.  Malfunctions in the regulation of the β-adrenergic receptor system have been correlated with the development of depression and other psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases, asthma, and congestive heart failure.  This investigation attempts to clone and sequence both normal and splice variant full-length cDNA for the chick β1 adrenergic receptor.  Specifically, the promoter region is targeted through the use of a technique of chromosomal genome walking.

Andrew Beckington ’04

Curtis Bohlen, Environmental Studies

Regional Conservation Planning:  A Balancing Act between Biodiversity and Humans

Regional conservation planning is an attempt to balance human needs while still protecting biodiversity on a large scale by designating areas that can be developed for human use and, likewise, areas that need to be preserved for biodiversity conservation. Recently regional conservation planning has begun to take hold throughout the world in the effort to conserve biodiversity.  Understanding what regional conservation plans have achieved thus far and how to improve them is important.  This study focuses on regional conservation plans in California, South Africa, and Central America, among other places.

Erin Bednarek ’05

Heather Lindkvist, Anthropology

Health in Samoa

Samoa has a very high prevalence of Type II diabetes, which commonly has an adult onset and can typically be controlled by diet and exercise.  The disease is related to lifestyle changes and genetics in Samoa.  This project was undertaken to determine the extent to which diabetes is a problem in Samoa and to discover what efforts are being made against it.  Observations were completed at the Diabetes Clinic at the NationalHospital in Motootua and consisted of informal and formal interviews and discussions with the staff and observation of operations and patients.  Many interviews were completed with those in government and non-governmental organizations.  Time was spent in rural villages in order to see what actions the nurses were taking against diabetes.  A survey was distributed to the general public to determine if they were being educated about lifestyle diseases and if so, whether or not they were keeping a balanced diet and exercising as promoted.

Erin Bertrand ’05

Rachel Austin, Chemistry

Mechanistic Inquiries into Environmental Hydrocarbon Degradation by Microbacterial Metalloenzymes

A relatively wide variety of bacteria in both the terrestrial and marine environments possesses the ability to degrade hydrocarbons.  The magnitude of their role in the global carbon cycle is not, however, well understood.  Despite the wide range of bacteria that can accomplish this transformation, only four enzymes are known that can catalyze the oxidation of alkanes.  We have developed a method of mechanistic screening to investigate alkane-degrading organisms, entailing the use of diagnostic substrates on whole cells which, once metabolized, can be analyzed to explain the mechanism of metalloenzme function in hydrocarbon degradation, specifically the lifetime of the radical intermediate generated in these processes.  Recent experimentation has shown that the method of substrate introduction significantly alters measured radical lifetime, thus calling into question the finer points of this promising whole-cell approach to mechanistic inquires.

Renée Blacken ’05

Thomas Tracy, Religion

Singing in the Primitive Baptist Church in Southern Appalachia

For my senior thesis in religion, I have been studying the relationship between music and identity.  My focus is on the specific singing practices of the Primitive Baptists in Southern Appalachia and how their style of singing, distinct from other Christian worship singing, reflects the social, cultural, geographical, and theological values of the Primitive Baptist community.  I also consider the evolution of the shape-note singing tradition in this region and examine its relationship to Primitive Baptist worship song.  A poster offers background information on the history of the music and the theology of the Primitive Baptists, and shape-note and Primitive Baptist songbooks are on display.  The presentation includes a performance of shape-note songs and Primitive Baptist hymns byBates College’s shape-note singers, Northfield.

Renée Blacken ’05, Susan French ’04, and Lauren Randall ’04

Thomas Wenzel, Chemistry

Carboxymethylated Cyclodextrins and Their Lanthanide Complexes as Chiral NMR Solvating Agents

Cyclodextrins are cyclic oligosaccharides characterized by a tapered, hydrophobic cavity and torus-like structure.  They are of particular interest due to their ability to form host-guest inclusion complexes and their potential to serve as chiral solvating agents for enantiomeric substrates.  An investigation of the carboxymethylation of hydroxyl groups in alpha, beta, and gamma CD is underway.  Several methods of functionalization are being pursued to determine which yields the greatest discrimination of substrate.  These include established procedures for the indiscriminate carboxymethylation at the 2-, 4-, and 6-positions, and selective addition of a CM group to the 2- and 6-positions individually. Results from the addition of paramagnetic lanthanide cations to a series of selectively carboxymethylated CDs is expected to induce greater shifts in the NMR spectrum of the guest compound and provide information as to the geometry of association between the substrate and the cavity of the modified CD.

Rachel Booty ’04

Beverly Johnson, Geology and Environmental Studies

Soil Lead Determinations in Three Urban Community Gardens, Lewiston, Maine

Elevated lead levels in urban soils are a major source for increased blood lead levels in residents via hand-to-mouth ingestion and dust inhalation.  Children are particularly susceptible to the adverse developmental effects associated with high blood lead levels. Lead in urban soils has accumulated significantly during the past century from the use of leaded gasoline, and leaded paint.  Lewiston, Maine is a city with a very old housing stock; only 2% of homes in the downtown residential neighborhood were built after 1978 when the use of leaded paint on the exteriors and interiors of homes became illegal.  The community has recently initiated an urban gardening program.  Community gardens provide a plethora of benefits to residents, including improved physical and psychological well-being and individual leadership opportunities within the neighborhoods.  This study is the first to assess the total lead concentrations in the community gardens as a means to assess the potential hazard of soil lead to the Lewiston community.  Soil samples were collected from three urban lots in Lewiston to evaluate the extent of lead contamination at the sites.  These lots have been community gardens for varying periods of time (Knox Street garden, 4 summers; Blake Street garden, 1 summer; and Pierce Street lot, to become a garden in the 2004 season).  Samples from all of the three gardens indicate lead concentrations higher than native levels that may present a risk to community members.

Jacqueline Bowie ’05, Jessica Edgerly ’06, Erika Millstein ’06, and Kathryn Nolan ’06

William Ambrose, Biology

Using Mollusk Growth to Assess Recent Environmental Changes in Coastal Alaska

We related annual growth of the marine clam Serripes groenlandicus, the marine gastropod Neptunea heros, and the freshwater mussel Andonta grandis, to temperature, precipitation, and, for the marine taxa, ice cover.  Specimens were collected fromKotzebue Sound, and the nearby Kobuk River in Alaska, during the summers of 2002 and 2003.  Andonta grandis and Serripes groenlandicus were aged using external/internal growth lines and we derived a standard growth index (SGI) for every year for each species based on the Van Betalanffy growth curve.  We used ridges onNeptunea’s operculum to determine age.  SGIs were derived based on these markings and the Gompertz growth curve.  The growth of A. grandis was significantly related to summer temperatures (June-September) and annual precipitation.  But temperature explained only 11.8% of the inter-annual growth variability, while precipitation explained only 2%.  Summer temperature, however explained nearly 60% of inter-annual growth variability of S. groenlandicus.  Neptunea’s data analysis and arctic oscillation correlations are still pending.

Christina Browne ’04

Amy Bradfield, Psychology

The Effect of Extra-Legal Factors in the Capital Punishment System

In my senior thesis in political science and psychology, I examined the influence of extra-legal factors in the capital punishment system.  I attempted to address the current lack of research and political theory with the ability to evaluate the intersecting elements of an individual’s identity.  I specifically examined how juror perceptions and sentencing of female offenders were affected by the variations of the offenders’ race (black vs. white) and their sexual orientation (homosexual vs. heterosexual).

Mike Buffo ’04

Sharon Kinsman, Biology and Environmental Studies

Whitebark Pine (Pinus albicaulis) in Subalpine Forest of the Cascade Range: A Case Study of Forest Structure with Management Recommendations

Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is a subalpine species native to the western American and Canadian cordillera whose population is declining because of successional replacement by shade-tolerant species, and the exotic fungus white pine blister rust (Cronartium rubicola).  Whitebark pine is an important food source for birds and mammals in subalpine forests.  The forest structure of three sites in the Cascade Rangewas described using site descriptions, canopy, and recruitment data.  In undisturbed plots whitebark pine was found only on the rockiest sites and forms an edaphic climax.  In disturbed areas whitebark pine was found in all areas but is seral to subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa).  Future subalpine forest management must mimic natural fire frequency, and allow planting of blister rust resistant seedlings to maintain the role of whitebark pine in subalpine forests.

Andrew Byrnes ’05 and William Fox ’05

Matthew Côté, Chemistry

The Nanotechnology Project:  Electronics

Students in Chemistry 199, The Nanotechnology Project, have undertaken the design and construction of a simple, low cost, scanning and tunneling microscope (STM).  If successful, the microscope will produce images of the surface of a conductive sample revealing nanometer-scale features.  This poster focuses on the electronic aspect of the project.  The goal is to design and construct the circuitry needed to control the STM probe’s movement as it scans the sample’s surface.  By using a feedback loop to monitor the tunneling current and adjust the microscope tip in relation to the sample, the STM Probe can track nanometer scale features on the sample’s surface.  A three-dimensional map of the probe’s path constitutes an image of the sample.

Shoshoni Caine ’05 and Jevede Harris ’05

T. Glen Lawson, Chemistry

The Effects of 8% Ethanol on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SOD2 Gene

The SOD2 gene codes for the SOD2 mRNA, which translates to MnSOD protein.  This protein catalyzes the destruction of radioactive oxygen species produced during ethanol stress. Ethanol-stress was found by Alexandre, et. al. (2001) to activate the normally repressed SOD2 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker’s yeast).  Gene expression was observed after 60 minutes of ethanol exposure, but not after 30 minutes.  We will determine a more precise gene activation time during this 30-minute to 60-minute period by exposing yeast grown overnight to 8% ethanol, and using RT-PCR to determine positive gene expression in the cells.  Seven treatments will be prepared and exposed to ethanol for 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, and 60 minutes, respectively.  We expect that the expression of the SOD2 gene will begin closer to the 60-minute period.  In addition, we intend to establish whether the intensity of SOD2 gene expression is time dependent.

Rebecca Castle ’04

Amy Bradfield, Psychology

The Effect of Suspicion and Photospread Type on Eyewitness Identification

False identifications occur with frequency; inaccurate witnesses have the same certainty as accurate witnesses; and sometimes false convictions based on faulty eyewitness accounts have led researchers to search for the best process for making identifications (Wells, 1993).  To date, it is the sequential method that is superior in reducing false identifications.  The present study questions whether the sequential method is always the superior method.  Previous research suggests that if one is suspicious and later has to make an identification, the witness’s accuracy in remembering the suspect increases, despite the identification procedure being used.  To test this hypothesis, participants viewed a short, silent video clip (the suspicious half knowing that they will have to later make an identification) and then made an identification of the person in the video on a randomly assigned sequential or simultaneous photospread.  No instruction warnings were be provided.  This was followed by a brief questionnaire including questions on other variables of interest besides accuracy, such as confidence, ease of identification, their view of the person’s face, their attention, if they would testify, their basis for making an identification, their suspicion, and the clarity of the person’s face in their mind. Results show both suspicion and lineup type have an effect on identification decisions.

Joseph Chan ’04

Karen Palin, Biology

HIV/AIDS Awareness in China

In recent years, the HIV/AIDS prevalence rate has skyrocketed in China.  The United Nations projected that at the current rate of infection, China will be home to over ten million HIV/AIDS carriers by 2010.  One of the main conjectures about the rapid transmission of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in China is the lack of creditable and accurate primary HIV/AIDS education.  The objective of this study is to discern the knowledge, sources of knowledge, and attitude, and to identify misconceptions about HIV/AIDS among China’s educational elite, its graduate-school-level students, through a comprehensive, self-administered, written survey.  An identical survey was also administered among a group of United States college students.  The assessment of HIV/AIDS knowledge between these two sub-populations revealed a dramatic difference between the effectiveness of these two nations’ health educational systems; furthermore, the assessments also exposed the future trends in transmission and prevalence of HIV/AIDS between these two nations.  Finally, my study highlighted and rationalized several solutions that could mitigate the rapid transmission of HIV/AIDS in China.

Swita Charanasomboon ’04

Georgia Nigro, Psychology

Relational aggression among Elementary School Girls, an ethnographic study in an After School Program at Lewiston Public Housing

Using ethnographic methods including taking field notes and interviewing, I investigated relational aggression that is prevalent among the third and fourth grade girls in the afterschool program.  According to previous research, boys tend to physically aggress more than girls, but girls tend to socially aggress more than boys.  Since overt aggression as an expression for anger is not encouraged among girls, girls let out their anger in these subtle, but equally hurtful, ways.  Relational aggression uses the friendship as a tool to hurt another girl, by threatening the friendship.  My field work indicates that social aggression may take the form of socially excluding one girl for the whole day, talking behind one girls’ back, ganging up on one girl to tease her, or threatening to end the friendship to get what one wants.  I propose that girls use social aggression to alleviate boredom, seek attention, gain some power, and bond with other girls.  An interesting twist to this study is that the subjects are Somali and live in subsidized housing, thus are of a different religion, race, and class than the middle-class Caucasian American girls on whom most of the relational aggression data is based.

Jessica Ciak ’05 and Anna Sleeper ’05

T. Glen Lawson, Chemistry

The Effects of Varying Concentrations and Time Exposure of Arsenite (III) Oxide on the Citric Acid Cycle

Through consumption of contaminated water, accidental ingestion, and malicious poisoning, arsenic has been known to cause death at exposure levels as low as 400 μg/L. It exists in various oxidation states, including arsenate [As(V)] and arsenite [As(III)], with arsenite as the more toxic of the two.  Arsenite disrupts the sulfhydryl group on lipoic acid, the essential cofactor of the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase.  Arsenite poisoning is fatal because this enzyme catalyzes the initiation and rate-limiting step of the citric acid cycle.  This cycle is crucial for producing ATP, the main energy source for eukaryotes. Our goal is to verify the inhibitory effects of arsenic on pyruvate dehydrogenase and lipoic acid.  By comparing arsenite concentration and its exposure time to enzyme inhibition, we hope to determine the relative toxicity.  We hypothesize that with increased incubation time and concentrations of arsenite, we will observe a decrease in overall enzymatic activity.

Justin Cidado ’04

Paula Schlax, Chemistry

Small RNA Molecules and Translational Regulation

RpoS is the sigma factor that initiates the general stress response in Escherichia coli (E. coli).  Since RpoS is such a vital element to the survival of the bacteria, it is highly regulated through various mechanisms on the transcriptional, translational, and post-translational levels.  I have focused on the regulatory effects of small, non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) on the translation of RpoS by creating a cDNA library of synthetic ncRNAs and determining the effects that each has on the expression of RpoS.

John Clare ’04

Curtis Bohlen, Environmental Studies

Wolf Reintroduction in Maine

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service first began examining wolf reintroduction into the northeastern United States (and particularly Maine) in 1992.  While future plans were cancelled following delistment of the Eastern Grey Wolf in 2003, many groups continue to advocate for reintroduction.  This study focuses primarily on the ecology surrounding wolf reintroduction into Maine, with particular focus on habitat suitability within the Northeast, a reintroduction’s effect on the surrounding environment (specifically prey species), and the presence of coyotes (Canis latrans) and coyote/wolf hybrids as a barrier to reintroductory success.

Seamus Collins ’04

John Rhodes, Mathematics

Mathematical Modeling of Molecular Evolution

Over the past thirty years, Darwin’s theory of evolution has shifted its focus from the larger scale of individual organisms to a molecular level.  Natural selection may only occur if variability exists among individuals on the molecular level.  Many of these variations are a direct result of random errors during the complex copying mechanism by which new generations are formed.  As a result of these random mutations, species that arise from a common ancestor will gradually accumulate variations in their nucleic acid sequence.  Therefore, these individuals will have similar, but not identical, DNA.  Now that we are able to recognize the genetic diversity between two related organisms, the next step is to reconstruct the evolutionary relationship between species by comparing their DNA.  Our goal is to develop a mathematical model of DNA mutations that arise throughout evolution by using matrix algebra and probability.  Markov matrices can be used to describe the mutations that occurred during the evolutionary development of one nucleic acid sequence from its ancestral form.  This model can be used to uncover mutations masked by subsequent mutations and to infer both the evolutionary tree relating sequences and the mutation process that occurred along it.

Sarah Connell ’04

Henry Walker, Classics and Classical and Medieval Studies

Hero and Goddess

My presentation explores the connections between the ancient Celtic sovereignty goddess figure and the immortal women in the Odyssey, particularly Circe.  Medieval Irish texts reflect an ancient Celtic tradition in which a mortal king gained sovereignty by symbolically marrying or sleeping with a supernatural woman who represented the kingship, the otherworld, and the land over which the king reigned.  The sovereignty goddess reflects an Indo-European tradition, and she appears in a number of Irish and Welsh texts.  She appears in the Irish tale, The Voyage of Máel Dúin, which has a number of structural similarities with the much earlier Odyssey.  Circe has a significant number of traits in common with the sovereignty goddess, but the Greek tradition does not have any notion of a man gaining kingship by sleeping with a goddess.

Saida Cooper ’04

Paul Kuritz, Theater

The Search for Signs of Intelligent Life in the Universe

This one-woman comic play of social commentary by Jane Wagner is a senior thesis performance.  It chronicles society’s morals, needs, and desires through the central character Trudy, a bag lady on the streets of New York City, and seven other unique characters whole lives are seen through Trudy’s eyes.  Under the guidance of the director, Michael Rafkin (founding artistic director of the Mad Horse Theatre Company and affiliate artist at Portland Stage), each of these eight characters has been explored and developed through distinctive vocal and physical rhythms and behaviors.

Noah Corwin ’04

Frank Chessa, Philosophy and Environmental Studies

Cultural Demand and Environmental Impacts of the Alpine Ski Industry in the United States

My research explores how and why people choose certain types of Alpine skiing environments in the United States.  I have broken down these Alpine skiing options into four types:  corporate ski areas, small/local market and individually owned ski areas, private ski clubs, and backcountry skiing/mountaineering.  I describe each one, as well as the environmental implications related to each skiing type.  I also describe the intersection of environmental values and the ski industry in general.

Eduardo Crespo ’04

Felicia Fahey, Spanish

Parlando, the Illegal Italian:  Diasporas and Globalization from Below

This is a critical analysis of most salient observations and main conclusions from a research project conducted in Rome, Florence, and Milan during the spring of 2003.  The study scrutinizes the construction of a transnational identity by Ecuadorian nationals who emigrated and settled in Italian cities over the past decade.  Initially, this research intended to analyze the concept of the diaspora by observing the Ecuadorian communities inRome.  At the time, the study conceptualized the diaspora as the cultural response from immigrants trying to cope with socially assigned subaltern positions at both individual and community levels.  As the research progressed in Italy the focus on diaspora no longer applied.

Catherine Crosby ’04

Kathryn Low, Psychology

The Role of Control in Perception of Pain between Males and Females

The purpose of this study is to examine the role of gender and perceptions of control on pain sensitivity, pain tolerance, and pain threshold.  Seventy to eighty male and femaleBates College students voluntarily participated in the study.  A cold pressor task was administered in which participants submerged their non-dominant hand into a 32° bucket of water for as long as possible.  Half of the participants were locked into the bucket with a wooden device so that they were unable to withdraw their hand from the bucket without the help of the experimenter.  The other half were not locked in and could remove their hands without the help of the experimenter.  It was hypothesized that women would have higher pain tolerance and threshold than men when locked in, and lower tolerance and threshold in the unlocked condition.  Results showed that men have significantly higher pain tolerance than women; however, control over the painful stimulus influenced women’s pain tolerance but not men’s.  Other variables such as varsity athletic status also influenced pain perceptions.

Jeffrey Davis ’04

Joseph Pelliccia, Biology

DNA Fingerprinting: DNA Analysis for Criminal Court Cases and Its Acceptance in Our Judicial System

This study examines in detail how DNA analysis has evolved through the past twenty years, and provides a history of DNA evidence in court cases.


Derek Depelteau ’04 and John Sullivan ’04

T. Glen Lawson, Chemistry

Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cells Transfected with Escherichia coli DnaK, the Hsp70 Homolog, Endure Greater Thermal Stress

Given that, (1) Escherichia coli has a higher maximum heat shock protein (Hsp) induction temperature than Saacharomyces cerevisiae, (2) DnaK is a homolog of Hsp70 and (3) many of the cochaperones needed for DnaK function also have eukaryotic homologs, we plan to transfect yeast cells with a plasmid containing the prokaryotic DnaK gene and test the thermotolerance of cells containing the plasmid against yeast cells that do not carry the plasmid.  We are interested in determining if the homology between the prokaryotic DnaK and the eukaryotic Hsp70 is sufficient to allow the DnaK chaperones to assist in cytoprotective function.  Secondly, if the DnaK plasmid is successfully integrated into the yeast cell and transcribed, we expect that the yeast cells will gain a higher thermotolerance both with and without preconditioning.  It is our goal to determine whether a prokaryotic protein that maintains homology with a similar protein in mammals, can in fact be used to strengthen the stress response of another organism.

Derek Depelteau ’04

Joseph Pelliccia, Biology


This poster examines the biochemistry, side effects, and social implications of testosterone as a muscle enhancement steroid.

Dana DiGiando ’04

Rachel Austin, Chemistry

Comparative Study of Toxic Metals

This thesis addresses two case studies of metal toxicity: lead contamination in soils and tributyl tin’s role in the development of reproductive defects in dogwhelks on Bailey Island, Maine.  Lead poisoning has been a primary environmental health issue for the past quarter-century and, increasingly, attention has focused on soils as a reservoir for lead. Phytoextraction, or the use of plants to remove contamination, has potential to decrease the amount of lead in soils without great cost or invasive procedures.  Spinach has shown promise as a lead accumulator.  Besides being inexpensive and non-exotic, when coupled with chelating additives, it has the possibility of being relatively effective.  Tributyl tin (TBT) enters the marine environment through its use as an antifouling biocide.  TBT causes imposex in female dogwhelks, leading to sterility and possible death.  At Land’s End, Bailey Island, the populations of dogwhelks on the east and west sides of the cove have radically different imposex frequencies.  This study examines the difference in TBT levels between the two populations to attempt to draw a correlation between the TBT and the imposex levels.  Results show that while there is a difference in TBT levels, it is not enough to cause the difference in imposex levels.

Erica Dodd ’04

Shepley Ross, Mathematics

The Bengal Tiger:  A Mathematical Model

Tigers are the most endangered cat species in the world.  While tigers numbered over 100,000 a century ago, today, there are only about 3,500 left in the wild, of which theBengal tiger, located in India and surrounding areas, is the best known tiger.  Although there are many funds, reserves, and protection laws to save the Bengal tiger, poaching continues to deplete their numbers and bring them closer to extinction.  Incorporating data obtained from the Wildlife Protection Society of India and the Wildlife Trust of India, I am creating a mathematical predator-prey model of the Bengal tiger, taking into account one of its main food sources and poaching.  Numerical solutions, their accuracy, and conclusions based on the model’s behavior are presented.

Rebecca Dolan ’04

Rebecca Fraser-Thill, Psychology

Eating Disorder Symptomatology and Reasons for Exercise in College Athletes and Nonathletes

This study is designed to replicate and extend a recent study by DiBartolo and Shaffer (2002), which addresses the issue of eating disorder symptomatology and psychological well-being (self-competence and reasons for exercise) in athletes and nonathletes at a small, Division III, all-female liberal arts college.  DiBartolo and Shaffer found that overall, the female athletes held healthier attitudes about their bodies, their eating habits, and themselves in general than the female nonathletes.  The purpose of the present study was to replicate and extend these findings.  The same measures of body image, eating disorder symptomatology, and reasons for exercise were used to assess athletes and nonathletes at Bates College, a coeducational Division III college.  DiBartolo and Shaffer’s data regarding female athletes and nonathletes were compared to the data collected at Bates, and data were also collected on male athletes and nonathletes, to see how they compare to the females.

Christina Doukeris ’04

Antonio Planchart, Biological Chemistry

Assessing Testis Specificity of the TCP 10a-related Sequence of Mouse Chromosome 17 through DNA-Protein Complex Formation

This thesis project includes a description of electrophoretic mobility shift assay acrylamide gels to determine DNA protein complex formation for a specific zonucleoticle sequence.  Spermatogenesis is the complex, multi-staged process in which mature and functional spermatozoa are produced.  During this process, both testis-specific and non-specific genes are transcribed and expressed.  Chromosome 17 harbors several testis-specific genes whose expression is believed to be crucial for proper spermatozoa development.  Further exploration of the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of these genes may lead to a greater understanding of their relevance to male fertility.  A specific 20 nucleotide region, known as Tcp10a-related sequence (Tcp10Ars), is found upstream of the start site of transcription of both chromosome 17 tcp10a and Tctex1 genes. Allegedly, this sequence is necessary for proper expression of both Tcp10a and Tctex1 during spermatogenesis.  Knowledge of the testis-specificity of the Tcp10bt

Gene, a gene related to Tcp10a, leads to the hypothesis that the Tcp10ars element is active in regulating the expression of Tcp10a and Tctex1 in the testis.  This research attempted to further characterize the Tcp10ars motif for testis-specific protein binding through electrophoretic mobility shift assays using double stranded Tcp10rs radiolabled oligonucleotide.  Nuclear protein samples from testis, liver, brain, and NIH 3T3 cells were purified by polyethylenimine extraction protocol. Nuclear extracts were allowed to form complexes with radiolabeled Tcp10ars oligonucleotides and subsequently electrophoresed through non-denaturing polyacrylamide gels.  The gels were exposed to image plates and scanned for further analysis of DNA-protein binding.  DNA-protein complex formation was observed with nuclear extracts from testis, liver, and brain, as well as testis cytoplasm extracts.  No binding was present with the NIH 3T3 protein samples.  The observed binding indicates that there are proteins present within some of the tissues that bind Tcp10ars.  The present study, however, is not sufficient to conclude that the observed protein binding specifically acts to activate Tcp10a or Tctex1 gene expression.  Additional investigations using DNA microarrays, reporter constructs, and Northern blot analysis will be needed to determine if the nuclear proteins are binding to regulate gene expression in the various tissues.

Suzannah Dowling ’05

Leslie Hill, Political Science and Women’s and Gender Studies

Internship at the Maine Coalition against Sexual Assault

The Maine Coalition against Sexual Assault (MeCASA) is the only statewide agency serving to provide legislative advocacy, educational programs, and support services forMaine’s sexual assault crisis centers and their clients.  This past summer I received a service-learning grant which allowed me to serve as their intern.  My poster presentation describes my main projects as an intern, which included researching the organization’s history, performing legal research, and helping organize a fundraiser.  In addition to my internship with MeCASA, I also volunteered as an advocate with the local sexual assault crisis center, so that I could see both the work of a non-profit advocacy group as well as deal with the issue of sexual assault on a volunteer basis.  My poster presents both aspects of my summer experience, to showcase what non-profit organizations do, and how their work translates into real-world experiences.

Elise Duggan ’05, Christina Maki’ 05, and Jessica Otis ’05

Karen Palin, Biology

The Correlations between Lead Exposure and the Need for Special Education inLewiston, Maine

We are conducting a pilot investigation of the relationship between lead exposure and the need for special education services in Lewiston, Maine.  A survey was sent to the parents of 150 students in grades K-3 at Longley Elementary School in Lewiston, Maine.  This survey asked parents if their children have been at risk for lead exposure, screened for lead poisoning, the results of the screening and if they use special education services. The results of this study will be used to plan further work to identify a possible link between lead exposure and the need for special education services in Lewiston, Maine.

Brian Dupee ’06, Kathryn King ’05, Elizabeth Moses ’06, and Hallie Preston ’06

Gregory Anderson, Biology

Distribution and Abundance of Eastern White Pine; Range Pond State Park, Poland,Maine

The purpose of this investigation was to describe patterns of age, size, spacing, and mortality of an eastern white pine stand in Range Pond State Park.  All living pines with a 28 m x 36 m plot were measured for age, stem diameter, height, and distance to nearest neighbors (live or dead).  Standing dead pines were measured for stem diameter, categorized by height relative to the main canopy height, and assigned to mortality classes based upon the degree of deterioration of the tree.  Historical land use of the site was determined by examination of aerial photographs dating back to 1949.  We identify the environmental and biological factors most likely to have influenced the stand since it became established, and speculate as to the causes of the unusually high mortality rate in the population.

Ashley Ellison ’04

Peter Rogers, Environmental Studies

Does Radiation Left Over from Nuclear Testing Affect Succession?

Bikini Atoll is a ring of islets located in the middle of the Pacific roughly halfway between Hawaii and Japan.  Between 1946 and 1958 the United States used the atoll as a test location for nuclear weapons.  During these years twenty-three nuclear devices were detonated at the atoll, one being the largest nuclear blast ever detonated by the United States.  Succession is the process by which species colonize a land mass.  Processes important for island succession are reviewed and then used to address if radiation remaining from the nuclear testing affects these processes.  Through the review of many surveys and studies conducted on the atoll, it was discovered that though radioactive atoms still reside on the atoll, the radiation does not affect floral or faunal succession.

Daisy Fischer ’04

T. Glen Lawson, Chemistry

Ubiquitination of the Encephalomyocarditis Virus 3C Protease by a Ubc5a-Dependent E3 Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase

The encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) 3C protease is degraded by the ubiquitin/26S proteasome system.  The sequence 34LLVRGRTLVV41 in the 3C protease functions as a signal for recognition by the ubiquitin-protein ligase E3α.  While E3α is responsible for the majority of ubiquitin-3C protease conjugate synthesis, extensive mutation of the mapped primary destruction signal does not completely eliminate this ubiquitination.  We have demonstrated that a second, Ubc5a-dependent E3 ligase also recognizes the EMCV 3C protease.  We attempted to map features of the EMCV 3C protease required for recognition by this second E3.  An EMCV 3C protease with an extensively mutated E3α- recognized destruction signal was subjected to further mutagenesis.  Evaluations of the mutated proteins, prepared by in vitro translation, revealed that the secondary ubiquitination signal resides in the N-terminal half of the protein.  The elimination of the primary signal sequence was shown to completely eliminate ubiquitination.  These results suggest that features of the Ubc5a-dependent E3 recognition motif may overlap with those required for recognition by E3α.

Daisy Fischer ’04 and Kathryn King ’05

Karen Palin, Biology

Implementation of Grove Health Visits at the B Street Health Center Applied to Weight Management

The purpose of this service-learning project is to assist the B Street Health Center in the research and implementation of group health visits specifically in the area of weight management.  Group health visits have been implemented in other health facilities as a result of the pressure felt by providers to treat an increased number of patients at lower costs.  These programs have also allowed patients greater access to providers as well as more educational opportunities and social support networks with fellow patients.  Weight management is a health concern in Maine; recent statistics from the CDC show the obesity rate increased by 72% between 1990 and 2000.  There are numerous health concerns surrounding obesity including diabetes, heart disease, stroke, cancer, sleep apnea, osteoarthritis, gallbladder disease and fatty liver disease.  The goal of this project is to aid the physician in the construction of regular group health visits targeting weight management and surrounding ailments.

Mara Fleischer ’04

Kathryn Low, Psychology

The Differences in Shoplifting Rates for Eating Disorder Subtypes: Binge Purge, Restrictive Eating, and Control Groups

Many research studies have found that shoplifting is often related to certain types of eating disorders.  Although these studies suggest a possible association between bulimia nervosa and shoplifting, none of these studies have investigated differences in shoplifting rates for eating disorder subtypes.  Therefore, to assess the significance of shoplifting among eating disorder subtypes, 100 participants were asked to complete three anonymous measures that included:  a general information sheet, the Eating Disorder Inventory, and a shoplifting measure.  Due to recent research, I anticipate finding a significant correlation between binge/purge eating disorders (BNNP, BNP and ANBP) and shoplifting.  However I do not expect to find a significant correlation between restrictive eating (ANR) and shoplifting, or a significant correlation between the non-disordered group of individuals and shoplifting.

Jacob Friedman ’04

Georgia Nigro, Psychology

The Effectiveness of Short-Term Family Mediation at a Local Youth Shelter

The New Beginnings shelter provides temporary residence for adolescents aged twelve to seventeen who are homeless, from a troubled family, or in need of emergency shelter. New Beginnings tries in a number of ways to help the adolescents deal with a variety of problems.  For those who have familial disputes and issues, New Beginnings offers a mediation program.  In this program, a neutral party ensures that both the child and the parents/guardian have an equal chance to speak their mind, and that both sides feel that they are being heard.  The goal is to create an environment in which there is a balance of power between the two parties so that all issues are addressed in a calm, productive manner.  In this study, the effectiveness of the mediation program was evaluated.  Phone interviews were conducted with parents/guardians who had participated in mediation. They were asked a variety of questions concerning the positive and negative qualities of the mediation, and their perception of its short and long term benefits.

Jacklyn Fullerton ’04, Elizabeth McNamara ’05, and Ann Pickard ’04

Karen Palin, Biology

Refugee Health Care:  A Comprehensive Packet for Medical Practitioners Providing for Somali Populations

We are collecting information for health centers to further their understanding of Somali medical needs and cultural differences.  Recent Somali immigration to Lewiston, Maine, calls for the transformation of clinical practice.  In conjunction with the B street HealthCenter and interviews with members of the Somali community, we have focused on several pertinent health issues that are prevalent in the Somali population.  Packets obtained from Vermont and Massachusetts Departments of Health were used as models in creating a condensed version to easily aid medical practitioners.

Julie Gage ’04

Heather Lindkvist, Anthropology

Acculturation of Somali Students in the English Language Learning Classroom atLewiston High School

This presentation examines how the English Language Learning (ELL) classroom atLewiston High School facilitates the adjustment of Somali students to life in the United States.  As refugees who came to Lewiston as secondary migrants, Somali students face a host of challenges in their daily lives that make their learning experiences significantly different from those of their peers.  Using fieldwork such as participant observation and interviews, as well as research in ELL and refugee education, my study has examined the interactions with the ELL classroom at Lewiston High School.  Through various activities and learning styles, the classroom has provided many Somali students with a process of acculturation that has allowed them to create a shared sense of community despite adverse conditions.  This presentation provides both a description and an analysis of the ELL classroom and the ways in which acculturation has been attempted and achieved.

Jessica Gagne-Hall ’04

Jane Costlow, Russian and Environmental Studies

Prison Gardens

My research examines how gardens can be used as therapy for prison inmates and former inmates, and how gardens can decrease the number of people that return to prisons and jails by providing job skills.  One successful prison garden program is the Garden Project, based in San Francisco, California.  Some of the successes of the Garden Project are described.

Eve Gasarch ’05, Rugiatu Jalloh ’05, and Eric Ursprung ’04

Karen Palin, Biology

A Health Report Card for Use at the B Street Health Center

Over the past three months, our group has sought to design and implement a “Health Report Card” for use by doctors at the B Street Clinic in Lewiston, Maine.  The report card is aimed at preventative measures to optimize the overall wellness of patients in underserved communities.  It borrows elements from a more sophisticated model, the Franklin Scorekeeper, but it is not intended to be nearly so sophisticated, nor is it focused solely on cardiovascular wellness.  The report card is filled out by the nurse or attending physician on the computer.  Two copies of this report are maintained.  One is the master record which will be kept at the office, and the other is the patient copy.  This patient copy will give the patient an easy way to track their health history, and an idea of what steps they can take to improve their prognosis.  The patient receives a certain number of points for maintaining various aspects of their health within generally accepted guidelines.  These health variables, such as weight, cholesterol and blood pressure, are factored into a grade point system which determines a letter grade for that year of health.

Evan Gillespie ’04

Leslie Hill, Political Science and Environmental Studies

Environmental Management in South Africa

The central research question of my thesis asks why environmental racism fails to figure prominently in modern South African environmental policy and discussions.  Nearly all aspects of life in South Africa hold a racial component – a remnant of 350 years of racial oppression – yet there is little discussion of the legacy of racism and the environment. My presentation addresses the history of South Africa and the ramifications of the racist political and economic system on the environment.  The primary question is, why do the government and scholars seem to disregard the explicit racial component of today’s environmental problems?  I suggest that the government’s decision to not address the historical context of environmental degradation is deliberate.  Addressing the past would force the government to approach environmental management in a way that runs counter to the current goals of the state.

Nicholas Goldfrank ’04

Georgia Nigro, Psychology

Teaching Effective Strategies for Coping with Losing at Games

This poster describes a service-learning project at the Margaret Murphy Center for Children, a school for children with autism or other special needs.  The focus of the poster is an empirical study about teaching/helping children develop strategies to avoid being a “sore loser.”

Beth Greene ’04

Michael Sargent, Psychology

The Effect of Gender-Stereotypic Commercials on the Athletic Performance of Female Children

Living in a world surrounded by mass media, today’s children are more and more influenced by the images in the environment around them.  Looking at television alone, children may be influenced by both the programs and the commercials they watch.  Many studies have shown that the content of commercials is gender-biased, with males dominating the screen.  One potential consequence is that females may react differently to gender-stereotypic commercials than males, perhaps as a result of stereotype threat activation.  This study investigates how gender-stereotypic television commercials may affect the athletic performance of young females.  It is expected that participants in the stereotype condition will display high levels of anxiety, which will inhibit athletic performance.  On the other hand, participants in the counterstereotype condition are expected to display low levels of anxiety, resulting in better athletic performance than the former group.

Brian Greenleaf ’05 and Keith Hengen ’06

Matthew Côté, Chemistry

The Nanotechnology Project:  Mechanical Design

A course called The Nanotechnology Project was introduced this year.  A small course focused on group thought and cooperative work, its six class members were assigned to research, design, and build a scanning tunneling microscope.  An STM is capable of “seeing” atoms at the scale of fractions of a nanometer.  In order to expedite the process of construction, the six person class broke into teams of two, each assigned to focus on one of the three areas of STM design:  mechanical, electronic, and software.  While the three groups worked independently, close communication and collaboration ensured that the final products would combine smoothly.  This poster presents the mechanical theory and the process of construction behind STM microscopy, including the specific device produced in class.  The main objectives, which our design had to achieve, were coarse and fine positioning and ultra-high positioning stability on the nanometer scale.


Aimee Grimmelmann ’04

Meredith Greer, Mathematics

Mathematical Modeling of the Influenza Pandemic of 1918

The Influenza Pandemic of 1918 killed over 500,000 people in the United States and infected millions more throughout the world.  Many different methods have been used to model epidemics throughout the years.  In 1927, Kermack and McKendrick proposed a continuous time deterministic model to represent disease outbreaks.  Their SIR model examined the rates of change between the susceptible (S), infective (I) and removed (R) subgroups within a fixed population using differential equations with constant infection and removal rates β and α, respectively.  In 1956, D.G. Kendall used the infection parameter β (R), where β was a function of the size of the removed population, to find an exact solution for the SIR model.  Discrete time deterministic models are also used to model epidemics.  In 1975, Spicer used this type of model to predict influenza’s spread inEngland and Wales.  My thesis compares these models using data from the pandemic.

Julio Guevara ’07

Felicia Fahey, Spanish

The Necessity of Exile in the Poetry of Manuel Luna

The presentation explains the necessity of exile in the writings of the Salvadoran poet, Manuel Luna.  It also examines the impact of exile on the Salvadoran people and its social and cultural consequences.  The talk is presented in Spanish.

Sara Gusky ’07

Felicia Fahey, Spanish

Seasons of Emotion in Pablo Neruda’s “El barco de los adioses.”

Exploring the relationship between identity and culture, the Spanish diaspora focuses on the theme of reinventing one’s identity post-exile or displacement.  By evaluating the different aspects of the Spanish diaspora through the literature of the African, indigenous, political, Jewish, and Latin diasporas, this course offers insight into the various emotional standpoints of recreating a native culture outside of the native environment.  My presentation highlights the emotional evolution within a mythical space as portrayed in Pablo Neruda’s poem, “El barco de los adioses.”  As the imagination’s sacred and protected reserve, the mythical space provides a mental refuge for the displaced.  I examine Neruda’s use of the mythical space as an outlet for emotional freedom, which consists of emotional tumult and tranquility.  I use Neruda’s seasonal imagery as a metaphor for the seasons of emotions that approach with each stage of the diaspora.

Jennifer Hanley ’05

Dolores O’Higgins, Classics and Classical and Medieval Studies

The Perversion of Ritual in the Iliad

The majority of classics scholars argue that the Iliad only contains instances of positive, ordered ritual.  However, in order to justify their theory they blatantly ignore several significant passages within the Iliad that contradict their argument.  I disagree with the current view.  In my paper, I draw several examples from the text to show that the Iliadreveals the extreme perversion of ritual through its desecration of sacrifice, feasting, and funerary rites.

Andrew Hardy ’04

Jennifer Koviach, Chemistry

Toward a Flexible Synthesis of Polyacetylene Spiroketal Enol Ethers

Synthesis of a polyacetylene spiroketal enol ether analog of Tonghaosu, which is found to naturally occur within the genus Chrysanthemum as a secondary metabolite, is begun. The starting material for the synthesis is D-ribofuranose.  This method is convenient because of the low number of synthetic steps as opposed to previous syntheses, as well as the option for C6, C7 functionality.  The ability to equilibrate diasteriomers following total synthesis of the Polyacetylene spiroketal enol-ether is also discussed.

Abigail Harris ’04

Peter Rogers, Environmental Studies

Border Life:  The Relationship between Miti Mirefu and Ndarakwai Ranch, Tanzania

Using the rural poverty ideas of Chambers and research on private wildlife conservation efforts in Africa, this thesis evaluates a series of questions about a connection between the small community of agricultural farmers and a private wildlife ranch in northeasternTanzania.  How does living next to Ndarakwai Ranch, the private wildlife ranch, presently contribute to or lessen the disadvantages these rural agricultural households face?  What relationship can be formed between the private ranch and community to minimize these disadvantages?  My thesis is based on interview data that I collected while abroad in Tanzania in the fall of 2002.

Martha Horan ’04

Lisa Maurizio, Classics and Classical and Medieval Studies

The Western Flower: An Analysis of Ovid in Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream

Shakespeare’s uses of Ovid in A Midsummer Night’s Dream are more widespread than generally acknowledged.  Not only does Shakespeare clearly use the plot of Ovid’sPyramus and Thisbe to compose his own play within his play, Shakespeare uses Ovid’s major symbol from the tale of Pyramus and Thisbe, the transformation of a mulberry tree, as the model for the western flower.

Elizabeth Irvine-McDermott ’04

Felicia Fahey, Spanish

The Natural World as an Alternative Home for the Exiled

The world “diaspora” is used to identify the experience of exile and displacement of certain ethnic, political, or racial groups from their homeland.  The term has come to include not only the economic expulsion and massive migration of various groups around the world, but also the study of the development of cultures in a transnational setting.  My portion of the panel presentation explores the idea of the natural world as an alternative “home” for people forced from their homeland.  The concept that nature supersedes the political boundaries imposed by humans is considered through its representation in various literary works.


Laurie Jacobs ’04

John Kelsey, Psychology

Effects of Pre-exposure and Medial Septal Lesions on Cocaine-Mediated Taste Aversion


Nils Johnson ’07 and Jeffrey Woltjen ’07

Matthew Côté, Chemistry

The Nanotechnology Project:  Software

Six Bates students enrolled in Chemistry 199, The Nanotechnology Project, knowing nothing about nanotechnology, let alone the components that make up a scanning tunneling microscope.  By day three of the class, the students were divided into three groups that would design specific parts of the microscope.  Halfway through the semester, the combined efforts of the software, electronics, and mechanics teams yielded a functioning prototype.  The cost of the instrument, not including the computer and interface card, was less than $200.  The task of the computer software team was to write a LabView program that controls multiple dimensions of the microscope’s motion and displays the nanometer-scale details of what the microscope is viewing.  This poster describes the computer software we designed to control the instrument.



Julia Judson-Rea ’04

Kimberly Ruffin, English

Generating Cross-Cultural Dialogue within Environmental Studies

Gary Paul Nabhan writes, “Ever since I worked as a student intern at the first Earth Day’s headquarters in 1970, I have wondered why the so-called Environmental Movement is so clumsy at reaching out to speak to (non-white people)… That gap has shrunk some since 1970, but few folks are content that it has shrunk enough.  More than anything else, I want to imagine a dialogue between cultures living in the same homeground.”  To help this dialogue take place, we have investigated the role of race and ethnicity in environmental studies discourse, primarily through theory and the cultural production of non-white artists.  Our central question has been:  how can attention to race and ethnicity intensify cross-cultural dialogue about environmental histories, images, and issues?



Julia Judson-Rea ’04

Peter Rogers, Environmental Studies

“The Greens Are Back in Town”:  Reasons behind the Success of the Tasmanian Greens

In 1972 the world’s first Green Party, the United Tasmania Group, won 3.9% of the vote in a state election.  Thirty years later, in a 2002 state election, the Tasmanian Greens won 18.1% of the vote, the highest ever by a Green Party.  This thesis investigates three influences on the Tasmanian Greens and the cause of their recent electoral successes. These factors include the strong ethical and philosophical base established by the United Tasmania Group, the intra-party politics and leaders of the Tasmanian Greens, and the nature of political relationships between the Greens and other parties in the Tasmanian state and electoral systems.  It also examines a shift in Tasmanian culture and an increase in post-material values resulting in a new consideration for environmental politics.  The Tasmanian experience is critical to the global Green movement, not only because it is the world’s oldest Green Party, but because newly forming parties can look to the Tasmanian Greens as a model for success.



Melissa Kay ’04

Michael Sargent, Psychology

Predicting Student Alcohol Use with the Implicit Association Test (IAT)

Study 1 used four separate Implicit Association Tests (IATs) to examine students’ implicit alcohol attitudes.  Based on Jajodia and Earleywine’s (2003) results that positive alcohol expectancies better predicted students’ alcohol use than negative expectancies, it was hypothesized that the same would be true for Bates students.  Furthermore, it was predicted that associations on the IATs would better predict unplanned alcohol use than planned use.  Also, the IATs should better predict alcohol use in more impulsive individuals since their alcohol use is probably more often unplanned.  The only significant results were that more extraverted people drink more and people who planned to drink more actually drank more (ps <.05).  Study 2, which employs a different measure of alcohol use and impulsivity, is currently underway.



Benjamin Kercsmar ’04

Cheryl McCormick, Psychology

Male Signaling Honesty, Female Mate Choice, and Maternal Contribution to Offspring in Swordtail Fish (Xiphophorus helleri)

Reproduction is at the heart of survival, and at the heart of reproduction is mate choice. Choosing the right mate can greatly enhance a female’s offspring.  Males of many species signal their fitness through body size, ornamentation, or courtship behavior.  Ideally the signal would reflect the true fitness of the male, but this is not always the case. The female relies on these signals to choose a mate, to determine how much he will contribute to her offspring.  The more fit her mate, the more resources she can offer to her offspring. By modifying the male signal-body size via the extended tail “sword” and measuring the quality of their mate’s offspring, I attempted to draw a correlation between male signals and female contribution to offspring in swordtail fish, Xiphophorus helleri.


Samara Khalique ’04

Kathryn Low, Psychology

Psychosocial Attributes as a Predictor of Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors in Females

Several studies have shown that hostility, defensive hostility, depression, and stress may be risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic functioning.  The metabolic syndrome is a clustering of risk factors for both CHD and diabetes, which involve elevated levels of fasting insulin and glucose, visceral obesity, HDL-C, triglycerides, and blood pressure. Many of these studies have focused primarily on older at-risk males and females.  Thus, this study examined psychosocial attributes (i.e., hostility, stress) and whether they are related to the metabolic syndrome in young adulthood.  The correlation between psychosocial attributes and the metabolic syndrome risk factors (i.e., high blood pressure, glucose) in 40 young adult females at Bates College was examined.  Based on previous research it was hypothesized that psychosocial factors such as hostility, depression, social desirability, and cortisol would be associated with metabolic syndrome risk factors. Multivariate analyses indicate depression as being one of the most prominent predictors for metabolic syndrome risk factors in young adult females between the ages of 18 and 23 years.



Brian Kile ’04

Matthew Côté, Chemistry

Parallel Fabrication of Metal Oxide Nanostructures

Size-tuneable nanostructures are the basis for the field of nanotechnology. Nanostructures are currently being used in a wide variety of applications to enhance current miniaturization technologies.  Metal oxide nanostructures are more powerful in that they combine the properties of metal oxides with those of nanostructures.  Parallel fabrication methods such as atomic layer deposition can be used to fabricate large numbers of nanostructures simultaneously.  Atomic layer deposition of titanium dioxide from titanium tetrachloride and water has been combined with masking technology to create highly ordered arrays of titanium dioxide nanostructures.



Gianna King ’04

Michael Sargent, Psychology

Alcohol Expectancies and the Role of Television:  Does Perceived Realism Affect Attitudes about Alcohol?

Research indicates that viewing alcohol in the media may play a significant role in the formation of attitudes about alcohol and drinking behavior.  Prior studies have also suggested that the perceived realism of the media is a crucial factor in how people internalize media messages.  This experiment investigates how the perceived realism of television content affects students’ alcohol expectancies (which are a reliable predictor of drinking behavior).  Participants in the experiment view a 15-minute video, which is a collection of clips from a British reality show containing alcohol.  To manipulate perceived realism, half of the participants are told they are viewing a reality show, while the other half are told they are viewing a film in which actors parody reality television. Participants then complete several measures, which assess both implicit and explicit attitudes about alcohol.



Kathleen Kolstad ’04

Jennifer Koviach, Chemistry

Effects of Tetrandrine (TET), Isolated from the Chinese Herb, Stephania tetrandra, on NMDA Receptor Subunits Expressed in Xenopus laenis Oocytes

Tetrandrines (TET) is a primary active compound found in the traditional Chinese herbal medicine, “Feng Fang Ji.”  Tetrandrine is a well-characterized calcium channel antagonist.  The compound’s inhibitory effects have been primarily studied in smooth muscle cells.  The purpose of this study is to isolate TET from the root of Stephania tetrandra and explore the compound’s ability to inhibit NMDA mediated neural excitation.  This study will contribute to understanding the mechanism of TET’s action as an ion channel antagonist as well as explore TET’s potential as a therapy against stroke-induced cellular excitotoxicity.



Katherine Kopeikina ’04 and Daniel Robarts ’04

Cheryl McCormick, Psychology

Effects of Adolescent Stress on Nicotine-Amphetamine Cross-Sensitization

During specific, critical periods of brain development, environmental factors can cause long-lasting changes.  Stress during prenatal and neonatal stages of life have been shown to create long-term physical and behavioral changes in rats, but until recently the adolescent stage has not been considered.  Some of the neural circuitry that is changed by stress also mediates the effects of psychostimulant drugs, such as nicotine, amphetamine, and cocaine.  To further examine the long-term effects of adolescent stress, we stressed adolescent rats and later, in adulthood, tested their behavioral response to nicotine and amphetamine.  Findings suggest a general trend for stressed females to show greater locomotor activity to nicotine than the control females, whereas stressed and control males did not differ.  There was an interaction between sex of the animals and stress in the response to amphetamine, with a significant sex difference between stressed and control rats:  stressed males tended to be less active than control males when given amphetamine, and stressed females tended to be more active than control females when given amphetamine.  These findings suggest neuronal changes occurring in the reward pathway of the brain during stress, altering later reactions to drugs such as amphetamine.



Katherine Lantz ’04

Georgia Nigro, Psychology

Preventing Child Abuse

This presentation reports on a semester-long service learning project at Advocates for Children (AFC), Androscoggin County’s child abuse prevention center.  My project concerns the way in which AFC presents its messages to the public, whether or not those messages are effective, and how they compare with other child abuse prevention center messages.


Cali Lanza-Weil ’06

Joseph Hall, History, and Steve Hochstadt, History

Twenty Years of Hillel at Bates

My presentation focuses on research conducted in History s40, Introduction to Historical Methods.  Initially my research concerned the Jews of Lewiston/Auburn, and then evolved to focus on the first twenty years of Hillel on the Bates campus.



Timothy Larson ’05

Joseph Hall, History, and Steve Hochstadt, History

The Abolitionist Roots of Oren B. Cheney, the Founder of Bates

My presentation focuses on research conducted in History s40, Introduction to Historical Methods, about the abolitionist philosophy of Oren B. Cheney, the founder of Bates College.



Justin Levesque ’04

Antonio Planchart, Biological Chemistry

Identification of Proteins That Interact with M. xanthus CsgA Signalling Protein Using the Yeast Two-Hybrid System

Myxococcus xanthus is a gram-negative soil bacterium capable of undergoing a developmental cycle when nutrient conditions become limiting.  Development results in the aggregation of M. xanthus cells and the formation of spore-containing multicellular fruiting bodies.  The protein product of the csgA gene, CsgA, governs aggregation and sporulation of M. xanthus through a process known as C-signalling.  The mechanism of C-signalling is unknown.  In this work, the yeast two-hybrid system was utilized to screen an M. xanthus library for proteins that interact with CsgA.  Four positive candidates were identified and sequenced.  The sequences are identical and match a predicted gene within the M. xanthus genome.  The gene is homologous to hemN and is predicted to encode an oxygen-independent coproporphyrinogen-III oxidase.



Justin Levesque ’04

Antonio Planchart, Biological Chemistry

Construction of a Novel Synj2 Plasmid

Synaptojanin 2 (Synj2) encodes a type II 5-phosphatase that regulates development in many organisms, including mice and humans.  Synj2 contains an N-terminal Sac-1-like domain, a central inositol polyphosphate 5’-phosphatase (IPP5Pase) domain, and a praline-rich carboxyl terminus.  Both the Sac-1 and the IPP5Pase domains are catalytically active; mice with mutations in these sites show neurological and reproductive defects (Planchart 2004).  An ORF in the 3’ region of Synj2 can be alternatively spliced, producing a truncated form of Synj2 (termed Synj2Assac1) that excludes part of the catalytic Sac-1-like domain (Khvotchev and Sudhof 1998).  The exact enzymatic properties and subcellular location of Synj2Asac1 are unknown.  The purpose of this project is to construct a plasmid with the pcDNA3.1 cloning vector and PCR amplifiedSynj2Assac1 using Pfu Turbo polymerase.  The inclusion of a FLAG-tag will help in recovery of the expressed protein.  Characterization of the enzymatic properties of Synj2Asac1 will then be possible.


Jeffrey Levinson ’04

Mark Semon, Physics

New Variables for Quantum Interference

This thesis investigates two new dynamical variables for describing quantum interference:  the modular momentum and the modular position.  These variables were introduced in 1969 but have received little attention.  The first part of the thesis reviews the theory of the double slit experiment, while the second part reviews the scalar Aharonov-Bohm effect and its experimental verification.  Then the modular momentum is introduced and shown to be the only variable known to change in the effect.  Other properties of the modular momentum are derived and its physical significance is established.  The modular position is then introduced and shown to commute with the modular momentum, proving that certain functions of position can commute with certain functions of momentum.  The thesis ends with a discussion of how modular variables might be used as the basis of a non-local theory of interactions that describes quantum interference experiments.  In this way, the thesis develops a new dynamical formulation of the scalar Aharonov-Bohm effect using modular variables.



Jesse Lewin’04

Heather Lindkvist, Anthropology

Interactions between Somali Secondary Migrants and Physicians in Lewiston, Maine: An Ethnographic Field Study in Refugee Health Care and Cultural Competency

This thesis aims to determine what factors influence the health care of Somali secondary migrants in Lewiston, how Somalis understand American health care, and how American physicians understand and interact with Somalis.  Medical anthropologists have studied the physician-patient relationship in Western biomedicine extensively over the last two decades.  Research has focused on the various hegemonic forces involved in shaping this encounter, and implicitly the respective roles of the participants.  These studies have demonstrated that certain cultural, linguistic, intercultural, and interactional elements influence the physician-patient relationship and have the potential to create difficulties in achieving accurate diagnosis and treatment.  Such barriers to diagnosis and treatment may be exacerbated when the patient is an immigrant or refugee and the provider is not knowledgeable about the patient’s cultural background and health beliefs.  Studying this interaction continues to be important especially with current demographic transformations in the United States, and locally with the influx of nearly 1,200 Somali secondary migrants to Lewiston, Maine.  Using documentary research and semi-structured interviews with Somali secondary migrants and local physicians, this thesis examines the interaction between Somali patients and Western-trained physicians in order to examine the shortcomings of the present system and to promote increased communication and understanding.



Grace Fei Liu ’06

John Yu Zou, Chinese and Zheng Gu, Visiting Curator, Museum of Art

Snapshots of Lewiston

My photographs explore the cultural heritage of Lewiston, reflecting the changes in economy and lifestyle in this small city in New England through images of architecture, landscape, and people.


Brent Mann ’04

Jennifer Koviach, Chemistry

Synthesis of 2-Deoxyglycosides through Acid-Mediated Conjugate Addition

2-deoxyglycosides are ubiquitous among natural products and are key members of many antibiotics, and anti-cancer agents.  The synthesis of such molecules can be a tricky endeavor due to the lack of a control element at the C-2 position.  We have developed a procedure using acid mediated conjugate addition to form disaccharides in significant yield.  We have also developed two multi-step methods for the preparations of D-amicetose, and L-axenose.  These two monosaccharides will be combined to form a 2-deoxy sugar which has never before been synthesized.



Kathryn Mannle ’04

Peter Rogers, Environmental Studies

Ecotourism Opportunities and Challenges at Masoala National Park, Madagascar

Numerous challenges and opportunities exist for ecotourism at Masoala National Park, a coastal forested area in northeastern Madagascar.  Many factors make Masoala National Park a prime ecotourist destination, including the possibility of viewing its endemic species.  However, limitations on ecotourism development include poor infrastructure and difficult access, a challenging climate including a hurricane season, and past national political instability.  For several months in 2001 and 2003, interviews, participant observation, and archival research were used to investigate the park’s guide association, visitor, and resident attitudes toward Masoala National Park, and ecotourism as a method of park and rural development.  Actual or potential benefits received from the park, including ecotourism revenues, were found to influence the perceptions of Masoala National Park held by residents living in the park periphery.  An overview of the current state and future potential of ecotourism at Masoala Nation Park is presented, along with possible steps to be taken to improve ecotourism initiatives.



Rachel Martin ’04

Kathryn Low, Psychology

Endorsement of the Protestant Ethic and Body Dissatisfaction

Body image, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating have been increasing concerns in contemporary culture.  Research has explored sociocultural influences on body esteem, including, family, peers, and an American ideology, the Protestant ethic.  A recent study done by Quinn and Crocker (1999) looked at the Protestant ethic as a possible contributing variable to women’s dissatisfaction with weight.  The Protestant ethic is an ideology that includes the belief that individual hard work leads to success and that lack of success is caused by the moral failings of self-indulgence and lack of self-discipline (Quinn & Crocker, 1999).  The current study looks at a fairly homogenous liberal arts college sample to test the influence of the Protestant ethic on body image in men and women.  Both men and women seem to endorse the Protestant ethic equally, but men seem to be more aware of the thin ideal.  The Protestant ethic is more closely associated with internalization of media images in men than in women.  Similar to previous research, women with higher body mass index (BMI) and high scores on the Protestant ethic were most dissatisfied with their bodies.  For men, lower BMIs were associated with greater dissatisfaction.



Elizabeth McConnell ’04

Amy Bradfield, Psychology

How Race Affects Jury Comprehension of Judge’s Instructions

In previous research, Sargent and Bradfield (in press) asked:  Does a defendant’s race affect how jurors will evaluate the facts of a trial?  They found highly motivated jurors relied on alibi strength in deciding the case regardless of the race of the defendant. However, jurors paid more attention to the black defendant’s case regardless of their level of motivation.  This thesis applies these findings to juror comprehension of judge’s instructions.  Judge’s instructions are often complicated and jurors rely on superficial, peripheral cues when judging cases.  In this thesis, two variables were manipulated:  race of defendant (black v. white) and motivation of the participant (high v. low).  It is hypothesized that those participants in the high motivation condition will attend to and therefore comprehend the judge’s instructions better than those participants in the low motivation condition, except when the defendant is black.  When the defendant is black, regardless of the level of motivation, participants will pay closer attention to the judge’s instructions presumably because of the modern racism theory.



Jennifer McGill ’04

Lisa Maurizio, Classics and Classical and Medieval Studies

Female Characters in Greek and Noh Drama

This project examines the similarities and differences between female characters in Euripides’ Hecuba and Sotoba Komachi, focusing on the female protagonists’ status as outsiders, the type of conflict that they typically encounter within the plays, and the audience’s reaction to those characters.



Kelton McMahon ’05

William Ambrose, Biology

Contributions of Local Food Items to the Diet of Fundulus heteroclitus

Stable δ 13C and δ 15N isotope analysis and gut content analysis of Fundulus heteroclitustrapped at three locations along a major creek and in a pool in the middle of a salt marsh in southern Maine were used to determine the contribution of local food items to F.heteroclitus diet.  In general, Fundulus consumed significantly more plant than animal matter.  Abundance of Ulva lactuca was significantly higher in stomachs from the most landward site as compared to the middle pool site and the site nearest the ocean, and leaf particles were significantly more abundant in stomachs from the most landward site as compared to the other three sites.  Stomach content data were compared to stable isotope data.  Based on stomach contents, Fundulus within different regions of the marsh appear to feed on food available at those locations rather than traveling to distant regions of the marsh to feed.



Julia McQuade ’04

Georgia Nigro, Psychology

The Facilitative Effects of Drawing and Puppets on Children’s Reports of Positive and Negative Events

This thesis examines how young children narrate experienced emotional events.  In particular, it looks at children’s narratives using three different interview techniques. Previous research suggests that when interview techniques reduce the social demands placed on children, they report more information about emotional experiences.  This study builds upon past research that has found that drawing during recall enhances the reports of young children.  In addition, it investigates whether puppets could similarly reduce social demands during an interview.  In this study, five- and six-year-old children from a local elementary school experience an event in their classrooms that includes two interruptions, one positive and one negative that are similar in length, causality, and temporal sequence.  Following the event, children are assigned to a drawing, puppets, or verbal recall condition and individually interviewed about what they remember.  The results of this thesis will add to our understanding of the effectiveness of drawing as a narration tool, resolve the question of whether nonspecific props, such as puppets, enhance children’s reports, and clarify questions about children’s narrations of positive and negative experienced events.



Saul Miller ’04

Michael Sargent, Psychology

The Effect of Processing Goals on the Memory of Ambiguous Behaviors

Previous research – on which the present studies are based – has shown that attempting to form an impression while learning about a person’s behaviors often leads to better memory for those behaviors than attempting to memorize them.  However, Experiment 1 indicated that this may not be true when the person about whom we are forming impressions performs behaviors that are ambiguous.  The purpose of Experiments 2 and 3 was to confirm that it was the ambiguity of the statements that explained why the typical effect of impression formation instructions was not replicated in Experiment 1.  This goal is accomplished by experimentally manipulating the ambiguity of the statements (within-subjects in Experiment 2 and between-subjects in Experiment 3).  The purpose of Experiment 4 was to determine if the typical effect of impression formation instructions can be replicated with even ambiguous statements, provided that perceivers are given a prior expectancy about the target individuals, and that this expectancy serves to disambiguate the statements.



Elizabeth Morrill ’04

Peter Rogers, Environmental Studies

Women’s Fuel-Wood Collection in Northeastern Tanzania

This study is focused on women’s fuel-wood collection in the Usambara Mountains, Tanzania.  The research done for this thesis examines women’s use of fuel-wood but to a greater extent, women’s control, access, and use of resources within their community.  At the site of this study, the Sagara Community Forest in the Usambara Mountains, is becoming degraded through agricultural expansion, low-level logging, and fuel-wood collection.  Although women’s practices only make up a small amount of degradation, it affects the health of the forest and the supply of fuel-wood for women.  The goal of my work is to look at the influences on women’s fuel-wood collection, and in a broader context their rights, responsibilities, and roles within the environment.  The guiding perspective is through feminist political ecology in examining how gender is tied in with the politicization of the land, and distribution of resources.  Qualitative research methods were used in the work, consisting of gender resource mapmaking, interviews, and participant observation.



Jurgen Nebelung ’04

Michael Daley, Economics and Environmental Studies

Motivations for Green Design in Homes

As the demand for fossil fuels grows, individuals are looking for ways to reduce their portion of the demand.  There are many ways we can accomplish this.  One way is through building more resource-efficient, green homes.  This research investigates the motivations for green design.  It also highlights the design techniques and technologies that are built into many green homes to help make them more resource efficient not only in their operation but also construction.  Finally, I pose some reasons why green design is not more prevalent in our society.



Joseph Northrup ’05 and Lani Stinson ’05

Joseph Pelliccia, Biology

Abundance and Distribution of the Macroinfauna at Long Sands Beach; York, Maine

The sand of intertidal beaches supports an assemblage of small invertebrates.  Patterns of distribution of these organisms are poorly known.  If the natural variation in the system can be understood then these organisms may be useful as indicators of human perturbations on sand beaches.  For this study animals were collected from several tidal elevations.  Collections were made along transects perpendicular to the shoreline during spring and neap tides to compare species distribution and abundance during different tidal regimes.  Longshore transects were used to examine differences in species distribution and abundance along the shore at the same tidal elevation.  Additional collections were taken to assess temporal changes in abundance resulting from the mobility of these organisms.



Matthew Ondra ’04

Lee Abrahamsen, Biology

Metallothionein in Cadmium Detoxification and Bioremediation

This presentation focuses on the detoxification and bioremediation of the heavy metal cadmium by use of the protein metallothionein.  Metallothionein is a heavy metal binding protein naturally found in eukaryotes as well as many prokaryotes.  In the body metallothionein functions in metal detoxification as well as regulation of essential metals such as zinc and copper.  While heavy metals cannot be broken down, metallothionein is capable of binding these toxic metals to make them less reactive.  Research has been done with this protein in efforts to increase its expression and use it as a bioremedial agent in minimizing the toxic effects of cadmium contamination from industrial refineries and batteries.



Katherine Papadonis ’04

Rebecca Fraser-Thill, Psychology

Early Head Start:  The Benefits of Family-Style Meals

This presentation is part of a final paper/presentation of Psychology 340, Infancy.  After spending time volunteering at the Lewiston Early Head Start Center, I integrated an aspect of the program with recent scientific research in the field of psychology, focusing on how Early Head start fosters the developmental and nutritional needs of infants and toddlers through the implementation of family-style meals.  Relevant scientific literature demonstrates a connection between psychological research and this aspect of Early Head Start.  The presented scientific studies related to childhood eating and nutrition are focused in two areas:  1) parental perceptions of children’s eating behaviors; and 2) family meal practices.



Aram Parsegian ’04 and Randi Rawson ’04

John Kelsey, Psychology

Effects of Varying Durations of Abstinence on the Expression of Locomotor Sensitization in Cocaine-Addicted Rats

Previous studies in both self-administration and locomotor sensitization models have shown that expression of cocaine and amphetamine addiction increases across abstinence periods as great as three months or more.  These studies indicate that the expression of addictive behaviors, rather than decreasing during abstinence, may actually grow.  We replicated this “incubation” phenomenon using locomotor sensitization in response to cocaine and examined the possible role of memory.  Rats previously sensitized to cocaine showed the predicted linear increase in the expression of locomotion in response to a challenge injection of cocaine following 3, 8, and 15 days of abstinence.  Injections of saline during the first 5 days of abstinence eliminated this incubation effect, indicating that this incubation effect can be extinguished.  This incubation effect and its elimination have implications for the maintenance and treatment of drug addiction.



Morgan Patterson ’04

Frank Chessa, Philosophy and Environmental Studies

The Creation and Development of a Climbing Ethic in New England

This project proposes a revolutionary look at the creation and development of rock climbing ethics in the New England region.  Climbing has a rich international history that has greatly impacted the styles and ethics of ascents in New England.  Generational boundaries, technological advancements, and the development of strong community bonds and distinctive ethics have brought climbing from the mythical “Mountain Man” to the everyday lives of New Englanders.



Jessica Perrie ’05

Lee Abrahamsen, Biology

Are Heifer Project International Cows Healthier?

The long term goal of Heifer Project International (HPI) is to improve the socioeconomic level of Tanzanian farmers and to ultimately improve human health. The purpose of this study was to assess the overall health of cows provided to families in the village of Ngejisosia, Tanzania, by HPI, compared to non-HPI cows in that village.  Farming efficiency, milk production, disease presence, and parasite load were assessed.  Farmers were given questionnaires to evaluate farming efficiency and fecal samples were taken from their cows to assess parasite load.  I predicted that farming efficiency, milk production, disease presence, and parasite load would be better on HPI farms, compared to non-HPI farms.  Results supported this hypothesis.  Overall, HPI farmers thought that their farming techniques were more efficient than non-HPI farmers.  I concluded that Heifer Project International Tanzania (HPIT) provided adequate education in animal health and husbandry to its clients in the village of Ngejisosia for maintaining healthy livestock.


Tory Peterson ’04

Bonnie Shulman, Mathematics

A New Twist:  Different Models for the Tacoma Narrows Bridge Collapse

On November 7, 1940, the Tacoma Narrows Bridge began undergoing vertical oscillations that changed to a twisting motion and led to the failure of the bridge.  I have looked at several models to explain the cause of the collapse.  Many use the Tacoma Narrows Bridge disaster as the canonical example of resonance.  While resonance may be qualitatively correct, the source of the periodic external forcing frequency that would produce this phenomenon has not been convincingly established.  Today’s numerical solvers enable us to find numerical solutions and experiment with different parameters and initial conditions that may have influenced the behavior of the bridge.  I experiment with both uncoupled (vertical and torsional motion are independent) and coupled nonlinear models, and investigate whether vertical motions can lead to torsional motions, to explain the unusual twisting that eventually led to the bridge’s collapse.



Toby Pinn ’04

Joseph Pelliccia, Biology

Lethal White Foal Syndrome:  An Equine Genetic Puzzle

Throughout history horses have been selectively breed to isolate specific traits and achieve valued coat color patterns.  Among these patterns is the overo coat type.  The term overo refers to jagged white markings on the horse’s abdomen that extend dorsally to, but not over, the midline.  One challenge that breeders have faced in achieving overo offspring is the production of progeny with Lethal White Foal Syndrome (LWFS).  Foals with LWFS are almost completely white due to an absence of melanocytes; they die within days from intestinal obstruction.  Horses displaying the overo pattern do not exhibit pure breeding, and for this reason an overo x overo cross can produce LWFS offspring.  Although a recessive model of autosomol inheritance was originally suggested for LWFS, research most strongly supports a dominant spotting gene as responsible for LWFS in the homozygous form.  Genetic analysis has identified the cause of LWFS in the homozygous form.  Genetic analysis has identified the cause of LWFS to be a dinucleotide missense mutation in the endothelin B receptor gene (EDNRF), a component of the endothelin-signaling pathway.  One anomaly associated with LWFS is the lower incidence of reported LWFS foals than predicted by the genetic model. Santschi et al. proposes that modifier genes are the source of this variance.


Stephanie Praino ’04

Curtis Bohlen, Environmental Studies

Aldo Leopold and Ideas of Sustainability

My presentation explores the developing conservation ideologies of Aldo Leopold and his land ethic, through his life work and career as an ecologist and educator, in relation to present-day interpretations of sustainable development.  I believe that many of Aldo Leopold’s principles behind his conservation philosophy and practices represent ideas similar to those key notions of education and long-term planning found in the broad spectrum of sustainable development philosophy.  However, the concept of sustainable development lacks this foundation of ethical respect and treatment for the environment beyond human welfare, which remains at the core of Aldo Leopold’s land ethic.



Bradley Proctor ’04

Joseph Hall, History

What Say Banjer?  The Shared Black and White Banjo Traditions of the American South

This research concerns the history of the banjo in the United States South.  Originating in Africa, the banjo was codified into its currently recognizable form by African slaves in the Americas during the seventeenth century.  Sometime in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, whites in the Southern United States began to play the instrument as well, learning primarily through apprenticeship to slaves and free blacks.  In the twentieth century, the blues developed out of the African American banjo tradition, and bluegrass emerged out of the European-American banjo tradition.  Though both are distinct musical forms, they share characteristics often ignored when studied separately.  Despite socially ingrained racism and substantial political barriers to white and black interaction, both the black and white banjo traditions were defined by a sharing of culture between the two groups.



Susannah Pugh ’04

Georgia Nigro, Psychology

Creative Dance/Movement with Children

This presentation describes a psychology service-learning thesis at the Dance Center in Auburn, where I worked in Creative Movement Dance class with children aged four to seven years.  I created a pamphlet for parents detailing the appropriate developmental stages of their children as they relate to the physical and mental growth relevant to dance class and I focused on developmental models of early childhood’s relation to physical growth through dance.



Aaron Putnam ’04

Michael Retelle, Geology

Recent Sedimentation of a Transect of High Arctic Isolation Basins; Queen Elizabeth Islands Archipelago, Nunavut, Canada

An observed twentieth-century global warming trend has spurred controversy concerning anthropogenic influence.  Annually laminated sediments preserved in high Arctic coastal lakes provide a high-resolution proxy for paleoenvironmental change, and may provide valuable information concerning this debate.  Before deriving climate information from these sediments, however, it is important to understand the controls on the depositional processes.  This study examines the recent sedimentation of five Arctic coastal lakes in the southern Queen Elizabeth Islands Archipelago, (Q.E.I.), Nunavut, Canada.  All lakes are all coastal inlets (termed “isolation basins”) that have favorable conditions for the preservation of undisturbed annually laminated sediments or “varves” that provide a chronology for paleoclimate reconstruction.  Surface cores recovered from each basin, sampling the most recent deposition, were analyzed for physical and biological properties.  Correlations of cores between lakes provide high-resolution a reconstruction of recent climate history in the southern Q.E.I., and current natural sedimentation processes.



Talya Rabina ’04

Georgia Nigro, Psychology

Best Practices for Administering Adaptive Skiing

I developed a best-practice rubric for administering an adaptive ski program at a small ski mountain in Auburn, Maine.  This rubric was developed based on data collected from large and well-established adaptive ski programs throughout the United States.  The research includes forms of training, evaluation of students, safety precautions, volunteer organization, and teaching methods.



Jason Rafferty ’05

Heather Lindkvist, Anthropology

Siofua Malōlōina:  Bringing “Health” to Samoa’s Rural Villages

Through the many rural facilities and services offered by the Samoan Department of Health, on-governmental organizations, and community organizations, access to health care has become possible for everyone.  However, maintaining a high level of care in the rural areas of the country is the biggest challenge, especially as rural hospitals are faced with a lack of clinicians, essential resources, and very poor facilities.  Although scaled back, health services are still being provided to all areas with most of the responsibility falling on a limited number of nurses.  In recent years, the Department of Health has implemented an “integrated” or community-based approach to preventative and educational services.  Surveys show that this approach is effectively making people aware of health risks and their responsibilities towards prevention.  Maintaining the high quality of life in Samoa requires creative planning, such as developing partnerships between governmental and non-governmental organizations, and looking at ways to get community members more involved in the pre-hospital setting.



Lauren Randall ’04 and Ayana Sawai ’04

T. Glen Lawson, Chemistry

Effect of pH on Antibiotic Resistance of E. coli Genome Mutated with Transposon CamR and KanR

Our project investigates the effect of pH on antibiotic resistance of the E. coli genome mutated with transposons CamR and KanR, which code for resistance to the antibiotics chloramphenicol and kanamycin, respectively.  We formed E. coli mutants by infection with a transposon and verified the results via PCR and gel-electrophoresis.  Non-transposed E. coli and transposed E. coli were tested to see if they could grow in the presence of an antibiotic at three pHs.  We do not expect the non-transposed E. coli to grow.  If the transposed E. coli grows, this implies that it is a good pathogen in the presence of the antibiotic.  If the transposed E. coli does not grow that implies that the E. coli is no longer an effective pathogen in the presence of the antibiotic.  This project is a model system for E. coli as a pathogen and may possibly lead to information regarding the risk of evolving antibiotic-resistant pathogens via transposons.



Regina Readling ’04

Paula Schlax, Chemistry

RNA Interference and Its Application to Developing Therapeutic Techniques

Short interfering (siRNA) molecules are 21-23 nucleotide double stranded RNA duplexes that have symmetrical overhands of 2 to 3 nucleotides in length complete with 5’-phosphate and 3’ hydroxyl groups.  Findings have shown that synthetically made duplexes can be specifically designed and applied for efficient mRNA degradation of target genes.  These results suggest that siRNA duplexes can potentially be used as a tool for sequence- specific regulation of gene expression in functional genomics as well as in biochemical studies.  In addition, this mode of RNA interference (RNAi) provides possible new alternatives to antisense or ribozyme techniques, as well as demonstrating great potential for applications to that of developing therapeutics.



Jennifer Reynolds ’04

Antonio Planchart, Biological Chemistry

Genetic Analysis of Transmission Ratio Distortion in t haplotype Mice

The t haplotype is a mutant form of mouse chromosome 17 that results in male sterility if homozygous, and transmission ratio distortion (TRD) when heterozygous.  TRD is characterized by a high transmission (up to 99%) of the t haplotype from males to their offspring.  Several factors, including the responder, distorters and sterility factors, located within inversions comprising the t haplotype are responsible for the male-specific effects observed.  Synaptojanin2, located in the proximal part of chromosome 17, is mutated in thaplotypes.  Inserting a wild-type copy of Synaptojanin2 through transgenic technology restores fertility in male mice.  To determine the effects of the transgene on TRD, the transmission of chromosome 17 to offspring from males with and without the transgene was determined by PCR analysis.  The transgene had no effect on the transmission of chromosome 17 indicating that Synaptojanin2, while rescuing sterility, is not involved in TRD thus separating these two phenomena.



Nassime Ruch-Kamgar ’04

Georgia Nigro, Psychology

Evaluation of the Bullying Prevention Program Used by Advocates for Children

I am currently completing my service-learning thesis at Advocates for Children, an agency that runs many prevention programs in Lewiston public and private schools.  For the past four years, Advocates has been collecting pre-test/post-test data from the students about their bullying prevention program.  I am evaluating these data in the hope of learning more about the effects of the program and possibly discovering possibilities for improvement of the program.



Colin Schless ’04

Jane Costlow, Russian and Environmental Studies

A Study of “Nature” Healing

The area of human culture in which I study the role of “nature” is an alternative healing program called Two Roads of Maine.  Two Roads is an organization that takes physically ill or traumatized persons out into the wilderness, where the organization uses a variety of methods to “heal” the participants.  The process borrows from Shamanic and Buddhist traditions, yet conducts its practices in its own unique ways.  I study the role that “nature,” or the “wild” aids in the healing process of individuals.  This includes references from thinkers such as Trigant Burrough and Edward O. Wilson.



William Schmitt ’05 and Juyoung Shim’05

T. Glen Lawson, Chemistry

The Mutagenic Effects of Benzopyrene and UV Light on the pUC18 Plasmid amprVector

Our group intends to investigate the effects of selected mutagens on the E. coli pUC18 plasmids containing the ampicillin resistance gene (1076bps) coding for the β-lactamase enzyme.  The objective of this research is to uncover the distinct mutagenic effects of both benzopyrene and UV light on the open reading frame of the ampr vector. Mutagenesis may be performed by exposing competent bacterial colonies, previously transformed with the ampr plasmid in the presence of ampicillin, to either of the two mutagens and allowing sufficient time for the mutated DNA strains to replicate. Approximately one half of the colonies containing the MUTATED plasmid will then be tested with a Kirby-Bauer Disk Diffusion Test.  Those sub-colonies destroyed by ampicillin indicate the presence of significant mutations in the plasmid DNA coding forβ-lactamase.  Therefore, the mutated plasmids of the remaining half of the colonies will be extracted for sequencing.  The sequence of the mutated plasmid DNA will be compared to the already obtained sequence of the non-mutated plasmid DNA strain (from NCBI).  These comparisons will allow conclusions to be drawn on the specific nucleotide mutations in the DNA experienced from exposure to benzopyrene or UV light.



Claire Schneider ’04

Rebecca Fraser-Thill, Psychology

Why Do Adolescent Boys and Girls Differ in Their Experiences of Aggression?  An Investigation through the Lens of Self-Construal Theory

Study 1 investigated the relationship between self-construal and self-reported experiences of physical and social aggression and victimization in adolescents.  Eighth-grade participants completed the Relational-Interdependent Self-Construal scale (Cross, Bacon, & Morris, 2000) measuring the degree of interdependence of their self-construal (i.e., how much they thought of themselves in terms of their relationships with close others), and the Revised Peer Experiences Questionnaire (Prinstein et al., 2001) on which eighth graders reported how often they experienced physical aggression, physical victimization, social aggression, and social victimization.  Results indicated that girls scored higher on the RISC scale, suggesting that they have more interdependent self-construals than boys. The only gender difference on the RPEZ was in social victimization, as girls reported being the victim of social aggression more than boys.  No correlation existed between scores on the RISC and RPEZ, signifying that physical and social aggression were unrelated to self-construal.  In study 2, eighth graders were primed with either an independent or interdependent self-construal, and completed the RPEZ again to investigate whether priming affects reported aggression.



Hillary Schwab ’04

Peter Rogers, Environmental Studies

British Columbia’s Community Forest Pilot Agreement

This thesis examines British Columbia’s Community Forest Pilot Agreement (CFPA) using the theoretical tools of common property theory and political ecology.  Forestry has been an economic mainstay for British Columbia since its establishment in the nineteenth century.  As an export-led economy, the forest industry has been characterized by long-term industrial government-issued forest leases and corporate concentration of forest land.  The history of British Columbia forestry leaves a legacy of largescale environmental and social impacts on all citizens of that province, including labor, communities, First Nations, NGOs, industry, and government.  In a dwindling market with increased international competition, British Columbia has been forced to develop innovative technologies and land tenures to secure its niche in the global forest market. This strategy has involved a multi-faceted approach from the local to the provincial scale. The revitalization of forestry in the province has involved significant legislative change involving many actors who had previously been left out of the government/industrial strategies of the past (i.e. communities and First Nations).  As forestry is being redefined in the province, projects like the CFPA seek to give these groups more say in the management of their resources.  By applying the theoretical tools of common property theory and political ecology to specific case studies, this thesis aims to analyze how the CFPA does or does not alter from the traditional forestry model of British Columbia.  It argues that while the CFPA does raise significant issues of inclusion in the province’s forestry discourse, it continues to restrain community management of provincial forests within the given policy framework.


Rebecca Seifers ’04

Frank Chessa, Philosophy and Environmental Studies

The Ethics of Ecotourism

Ecotourism is an industry that claims to uphold certain moral standards.  It formed as a reaction to the immoral actions of the tourism industry that have caused large-scale environmental destruction and social problems.  But, does the ecotourism industry today demonstrate ethical concern for the environment and local cultures?  Or, has the use of the label “ecotourism” become merely a marketing strategy for resorts to attract customers looking for a “green” alternative?  My research analyzes many ecotourism companies finding a range of ethical concern in the industry.  Using specific resorts as examples I illustrate the range of ethical concern found in the ecotourism industry today.



Luke Selby ’05 and Sarah Tolford ’04

T. Glen Lawson, Chemistry

Analysis of Mutagenesis to the CAP Binding Site of lac Promoter

All prokaryotic organisms use glucose, a six carbon sugar, as their primary energy source.  In no glucose environments Eschecheria coli (E. coli) activates a series of linked genes known as the lac operon in order to metabolize lactose, another six carbon sugar energy source.  The lac operon is roughly 6000 base pairs in length, and contains a repressor gene; an operator sequence, the three genes required to metabolize lactose; and a terminator sequence.  The lac promoter is a DNA sequence that allows the binding of a CAP-cAMP complex, which is indicative of low cellular energy levels.  This binding increases the production of genes required to metabolize lactose.  Using Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP) as a reporter, we will mutate a conserved DNA sequence in the lac promoter (-44 CCCC -41).  We expect to see a decrease in EGFP production with any deviation from this conserved sequence.



Melanie Shaw ’04

Pamela Baker, Biology

Chemical Applications in Orthodontics

My thesis explores the relationship between chemistry and orthodontics.  Focusing on the alveolar bone, it shows how teeth move as a result of orthodontic appliances.  The force caused by these appliances manipulates the bones, thus causing the teeth to move.



Juyoung Shim ’05

Pamela Baker, Biology

Effects of Herbal Medicine on Periodontal Disease

One of the most remarkable developments in recent years in health community in the United States is the emergence of medical therapies and procedures commonly referred to as alternative medicine, such as acupuncture and phytotherapy (treatment with natural herbs). Chinese herbal medicine in particular is gaining popularity in Western culture as an alternative approach to the development of pharmaceutical applications.  This study investigated two herbal medicines, Huang Qi (astragalus membranaceus) and Hunag Lian (Rizoma Copidis), for their effectiveness in preventing periodontopathic microorganisms.  Periodontal diseases are chronic inflammatory diseases that can result in degeneration of the gum structure that support the teeth and the loss of the alveolar bone of the jaw.  Those herbs are common component of Chinese herbal formula and have been presented as an immune stimulant useful for defensive shields for pathogens. Therefore we can examine the action of the herbs by measuring of the alveolar bone loss between control group and treatment group.  We employed the mouse model and they were infected with a bacterium called Porphyromas gingivalis which is an oral anaerobic bacterium associated with periodontal disease in human.  After two weeks from infection,Huang Qi and Hunag Lian were fed to mice in treatment group for six weeks in their drinking water.  After the termination of the mice, the blood was collected for the ELISA test and the alveolar bones of each mouse were measured at 14 different sites (7 sites at each site) under the microscope using video image technique.  The analysis from the data demonstrates if the herbs had any protective effect on bacterial infection and if they did, how well they prevented alveolar bone loss.

Caroline Smith ’04
Amy Bradfield, Psychology
Eyewitness Confidence:  How Does It Influence a Photospread Administrator?
Two studies examined how an eyewitness’s confidence could be used by an investigator to influence the identification decisions of subsequent eyewitnesses.  In Experiment 1, participant eyewitnesses (PWs, N = 50) viewed a live staged crime.  Approximately one week later, participant investigators (PIs, N = 50) administered photo lineups to a confederate eyewitness (CW), who identified the same photo each time with either high or low confidence.  PIs subsequently administered the same photo lineup to PWs.  Each lineup procedure was surreptitiously videotaped.  Results showed that CWs were rated as significantly more confident in the high versus low confidence condition, and there were significant differences in identification choices of PWs across photos.  In the low confidence condition, the photo identified by the CW was identified by the PW significantly more than the other photos; this finding was not obtained in the high confidence condition.  Ratings of PW confidence, PI influence, and fairness of procedure, yielded not significant differences across high and low confidence conditions.  In Experiment 2, participant observers (POs, N = 61) viewed 43 digitized videotaped photo lineups.  POs rated PIs as significantly more fair in the high confidence condition than in the low confidence condition.  Results suggest that the same investigator should not be administering photo lineups to multiple eyewitnesses in an investigation.


Sociology Thesis Panel

Emily Kane, Sociology

Social Inequality and Social Change

In this panel, we explore a variety of contemporary social problems in the context of their links to social inequality and social change.  Our presentations address educational policy, international trade agreements, the juvenile justice system, and the social dimensions of anorexia nervosa.  We analyze these social problems with a focus on inequalities of race, class, nation, and/or gender.  We also emphasize implications for social change, ranging from public policy responses to social movement and community initiatives to individual narratives of recovery from anorexia.

Emily Barko ’04:  Narratives of Anorexia:  A Qualitative Analysis

Elizabeth Jackson ’04:  The Role of NGOs in the Emergence of Transnational Social Movements:  A Look at the Movement Opposing the Free Trade Area of the Americas

Tanya Schwartz ’04: The ABC’s of Success:  The Effects of Parents, Schools and Communities on Young Children’s Academic Achievement

Heather Tompkins ’04: Pathways Home:  Aftercare for Girls in the Juvenile Justice System


Kara Stenback ’05

Michael Oliver, Economics

Endowment Management

My research investigates endowment management among universities.


Johanna Sterzel ’04

Georgia Nigro, Psychology

A Case Study:  The Effects of Exercise on the Self-Stimulatory Behaviors of a Nonverbal Child with Autism

A four-year-old nonverbal boy with low-functioning autism exhibited self-stimulatory behaviors.  Stereotypy, hyperactivity, and noncompliant behavior hindered his ability to benefit from a structured learning program at the Margaret Murphy Center for Children with developmental disabilities in Auburn, Maine.  An intervention of mildly strenuous outdoor jogging was introduced into his learning program to test whether the exercise had any differential effects on academic performance.


Kathyrn Stevens ’04

Georgia Nigro, Psychology

Interpreting Federal Educational Reform in a Local Context:  Three Teachers’ Lived Experiences with the No Child Left Behind Act

Over the past few decades, the federal government has made several attempts to close the socioeconomic and race-related achievement gaps among the nation’s students through standards-based school reform.  Despite these efforts, the gaps remain.  Although the problem of educational inequality has been studied from many different angles, inadequate attention has been paid to what teachers think about this dilemma, particularly when it comes to creating and sustaining successful reform.  Psychologists possess a unique combination of evaluative, clinical, and organizational skills, and thus can offer useful perspectives on these issues.  This thesis presents an analysis of three teachers’ experiences with the most recent federal educational reform, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB).  Through three case studies, I aim to understand the interpretive processes that staff employ in response to large-scale educational change and highlight NCLB’s strengths and weaknesses through the eyes of the teachers.  I conclude with a discussion of the implications for future educational policy.



John Sullivan ’04

Antonio Planchart, Biological Chemistry

Spatial and Temporal Expression of Tcte1L and Tctex1, Dynein Light Chain Paralogs

This project is designed to examine the tissue-specific and developmental expression patterns of the genes Tcte1L and Tctex1 that encode similar dynein light chains.  Dynein light chains are components of larger protein complexes known as dyneins that function as molecular motors and are capable of performing a variety of cellular functions.  For example, dyneins are involved in the processes of chromosome segregation, the movement of organelles within the cell, transport along nerve axons, flagellar and ciliary motility and play a role in establishing the left-right organ asymmetry during mammalian development.  To better characterize the expression patterns of Tcte1l and Tctex1 we plan to use mice, arrange timed matings and remove the developing embryos at various time points in their 21-day developmental program.  The embryos will be used mainly for in situ hybridization of antisense mRNA to identify expression patterns of  Tcte 1l.  The antisense mRNA will carry a fluorescent tag and will bind the complementary sense mRNA produced by our gene of interest if it is active during that developmental stage. My presentation will expand on this general outline and provide slides of embryos that have been successfully hybridized and demonstrate expression.


Lucia Tiererova ’06

Robert Allison, Religion

The Watermark Initiative:  Database of Papers and Watermarks

The Watermark Initiative (WMI), a joint project of Bates professor Robert Allison and Information and Library Services staff member James Hart, was founded because of the need to design and develop a distributed database of historical papers and watermarks. Modern researchers need flexible tools for data storage that are accessible throughout the world.  Storing descriptions of watermarks and papers in electronic form provides a suitable means of preserving and disseminating data, and greatly enhanced search capabilities while avoiding the need for bulky printed catalogs.  The WMI is now collaborating with several related projects and organizations around the world (i.e., Digital Scriptorium; the Ancient Biblical Manuscripts Center in Claremont, California; and the Patriarchal Institute for Patristic Studies in Thessaloniki, Greece).  These collaborative efforts toward interoperability are raising questions of compatibility and adaptability that we need to address by revising and developing the fields and structure of our database.  We are currently preparing a version which should go through testing with real data.  In addition to our database, stored in FileMaker, we have also developed a World Wide Web interface to it, and are looking into new applications, including forensics and deterrence of theft of rare books, documents and works of art on paper.



Sarah Tolford ’04

Lee Abrahamsen, Biology

A Protein Purified from Hyacinth Beans Has Potential for Treating Cancer

FRIL, Flt3 receptor-interacting lectin, is a plant lectin purified from hyacinth beans which has been shown to activate proliferation of certain cells and preserve quiescent primitive stem cells for one month in culture.  This lectin, therefore, has numerous possible clinical applications for treating cancers and enhancing organ and stem cell transplantation.  In order to gain FDA approval as a clinical drug, the active components of FRIL must be identified and purified.  Samples from 24 different Dolichos lablab cultivars grown in various countries worldwide were purified using an affinity column and each exhibited 5 bands upon SDS-PAGE analysis.  These 5-bands were uniform in all cultivars and ranged from 10-22 kDa.  The FRIL produced by each cultivar contained varying concentrations of FRIL when normalized to bean weight.  This study identified structural homology in the FRIL produced by hyacinth beans, a crucial finding for the next stage of drug development.



Sarah Tressel ’04

Robert Farnsworth, English

Comfort and Discomfort:   Revisiting Ghana through Poetry

My thesis voices my experience abroad in Ghana through poetry.  Living in Ghana, I developed an understanding and appreciation for the culture and its people.  My connection to this amazing country has shaped my identity and helped me question the differences between Ghanaian and American culture.  In my presentation, consisting of reading selected poems from my thesis, I hope to provoke discussion.  I have encountered both comfort and discomfort in reliving memory through my poems.  Using my own sense of place in Ghana, I want to emphasize how two cultures at once clash and harmonize.



Christopher Urban ’04

Carl Straub, Religion and Environmental Studies

Managing People and Wilderness in the Northeast Kingdom of Vermont:  A Study of Constructive Conservation Policy

Throughout history, people have argued and fought over places in an effort to control and improve their own destinies.  This simply would not occur if people did not care about the continuation of their sense of place.  Over generational time, Vermont’s Northeast Kingdom culture has evolved in connection with the land to form a unique niche-place. In 1999, a large timberland deal divided 133,000 acres of the Northeast Kingdom into three parcels.  The most controversial parcel is the 22,000 acre West Mountain Wildlife Management Area, with an inner 12,500-acre ecological core reserve.  This study examines the debate over who should manage West Mountain and consequently what policies should guide the management.  The debate reveals cultural differences rooted in two competing senses of place.  The two senses of place can be generalized as the traditionalist and the environmentalist.  The thesis is that such cultural differences can be reconciled by developing a common third management policy.  Such a policy takes seriously the shared values of the present antagonists and yet moves beyond them to encourage a new way of understanding the intricate interrelationships between people and their ecological environments.



Graham Veysey ’04

Áslaug Ásgeirdóttir, Political Science and Environmental Studies

Environmental Discourse and the Three Gorges Dam, China

The history of the Three Gorges Dam project is told one way by environmentalists, another way by the Chinese government, and yet another way by independent researchers.  Each group creates a discourse shaped by their understanding of the project. Each group’s understandings are molded by their motivations along with the audience that are the recipients of their discourse, all of which creates a different perception of the history of the Three Gorges project.  The environmentalists’ history, primarily international non-government organizations such as the International Rivers Network and the Three Gorges Probe, detail abuse by the Chinese government of the natural world and discusses environmental havoc that the dam will wreak on the Three Gorges environment.  The Chinese government sees the Three Gorges Dam as a sign of China’s progress and even an attempt to reduce the country’s dependence on foreign countries for fossil fuels and lessen the dependence on coal.  Independent researchers take a centrist approach where both the negative and positive aspects of the dam are discussed.



Andrew Whitaker ’04

Peter Rogers, Environmental Studies

Miad na sine, the Strength of the Storm:  Gaelic Songs and Nature in Cape Breton,Nova Scotia

Since the beginning of human history, people have used culture to orient themselves to their natural surroundings.  People in a specific landscape will develop a culture that reflects their landscape and music.  My presentation examines this phenomenon in a specific location, Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, and demonstrates how Gaelic songs express the changing sense of place that resulted from the migration from Scotland to Canada.


Valerie Wicks ’04

Loring Danforth, Anthropology

The Search for Authenticity:  Cultural Tourism in Ghana

This thesis explores themes of “authenticity” in cultural tourism.  Looking at Ghanaspecifically, I analyze the symbolic relationships which shape the way tourists interpret the sights they visit.  Drawing on the theoretical contributions of Clifford Geertz and Edward Said, among others, I examine the way Ghanaians are symbolically “represented” for a tourist audience.  I focus on two categories of tourist “texts,” namely representations of Ghana from “outsiders” (in the form of travel guides and group tours), and representations of Ghana from Ghanaians themselves (primarily in the form of “cultural centers”).  I examine the historical and symbolic reasons for the presentation of a “static” and “traditional” view of Ghanaian culture, in which expectations and confirmations become a part of a dialectical process.  Models of Ghanaian culture (in tourist literature, photographs, and websites) create an image of Ghana, which then becomes a model for Ghana, as these projected traits are accepted as characteristics of Ghanaian culture.



Darcy York ’05

Joseph Hall, History and Steve Hochstadt, History

Child Labor in Lewiston’s Mills

On August 28, 1912, Gordon Cramp fell to his death in the elevator shaft of the Bates Street shirt factory in Lewiston.  Gordon was twelve years old, one year under the legal age at which children could be hired.  The mill was fined five dollars.  No coverage was given to the lawsuit, and the only report of Gordon’s death is on the bottom of the seventh page in the Sun Journal:  “DIED Lewiston- 28th; Gordon L. Cramp, son of Mrs. Gertrude Cramp, aged 12.”  Lewiston’s mills used child labor, often illegally, for years. This talk concerns child labor in Lewiston’s mills, based on research conducted during History s40, Introduction to Historical Methods.



Catherine Zettek ’04

Peter Rogers, Environmental Studies

A Good Neighbor?  Reclaiming Community beside a Copper Mine in Cuncumén,Chile

In 1998, a copper mine, Los Pelambres, began production five kilometers fromCuncumén, Chile.  The interactions between these actors reflect their unequal positions within the political sphere.  It is necessary to evaluate the matrix of political and economic transformations, at both the state and local levels, throughout the twentieth century to better understand the current relationship.  Unlike the single corporate entity of Los Pelambres, the community of Cuncumén is divided by varying opinions and often cannot be identified with a unified voice that strongly promotes and protects a specific set of interests.  Cuncumén struggles to hold control over its own decision-making, especially its participation in agricultural production.  During discussions with members of the community, I observed a shared sense of appreciation and value for their individual lives in Cuncumén.  This study explores how the recognition of this shared-interest is the first step to build communal unity and promote a more active-participatory approach towards improving relations with the mine.