Biology

Professors Bavis, Dearborn (chair), A. Hill, and M. Hill; Associate Professor Huggett and Williams; Assistant Professors Banks, Essenberg, Kruse (Biology and Neuroscience), and Mountcastle; Visiting Assistant Professor Dobkowski; Lecturers Brogan and Salazar-Perea



Biology is the study of living systems and how they interact with the nonliving world and with one another. It is a discipline that bridges the physical and social sciences. Students who major in biology become familiar with all levels of biological organization from molecules to ecosystems, and gain practical experience in both laboratory and field studies. More information on the biology department is available on the website (bates.edu/biology).

The biology curriculum is under revision. During this transition there are distinct major requirements for the classes of 2021 and 2022, the Class of 2023, and the Class of 2024 and beyond.

Major Requirements for Class of 2024 and beyond


1) Both of the following:
CHEM 107A. Atomic and Molecular Structure/Lab.
CHEM 108A. Chemical Reactivity/Lab.
Prospective majors are strongly encouraged to complete this two-course introductory chemistry sequence in the first year.

2) One of the following quantitative courses, which cannot simultaneously satisfy the General Education requirement for a quantitative or formal reasoning (QF) Mode of Inquiry:

BIO 244. Biostatistics.
BI/ME 255A. Mathematical Models in Biology.
DCS 108. Intro to Computation for Science and Math.
DC/MA s45T. Mathematical Image Processing.
ENVR 220. GIS Across the Curriculum.
ES/GE 217. Mapping and GIS.
MATH 105. Calculus I.
MATH 106. Calculus II.
MATH 214. Probability.
MATH 215. Statistics.
MATH 255D. Mathematical Modeling with Monte Carlo Methods.
MA/PH 255E. Nonlinear Models and Chaos.
MATH 255F. Agent-Based Modeling with NetLogo.
NRSC 205. Statistical Methods.
PHYS 107. Introductory Physics of Living Systems I/Lab.
PHYS 108. Introductory Physics of Living Systems II/Lab.
PSYC 218. Statistics.

3) At least twelve courses in biology (eleven credits - see 3a and 3c below), of which a minimum of nine must be taught by Bates faculty. Only two introductory courses (100-level) may be applied to the major and only if taken during the first or sophomore year. The twelve courses must include:

a) A four-course core, comprising:
BIO 195. Lab-Based Biological Inquiry, typically taken in the first year.
BIO 202. Cellular Basis of Life.
BIO 204. Biological Research Experience: Molecules to Ecosystems.
BIO 206. Evolution and Interactions of Life.

Majors are strongly encouraged to complete these four core courses by the end of the sophomore year; they must be completed prior to the beginning of the senior year. The 200-level courses have BIO 195 as a prerequisite.

b) A biological skills course, taken in Short Term for 0.5 credits.

c) A senior seminar, integrated with the departmental seminar series over both semesters of the senior year, for 0.5 credits total.

d) A one-semester, research-based capstone, drawn from the following:
BIO 457. Senior Thesis.
BIO 458. Senior Thesis.
BIO 472. Seminar and Research in Physiology/Lab.
BIO 473. Seminar and Research in Cell Biology.
BIO 476. Seminar and Research in Evolutionary Biology.
BIO 477. Seminar and Research in Microbiology/Lab.

Students may request permission to conduct a two-semester thesis, at the discretion of the thesis advisor and the department; this option is most appropriate for students considering graduate school and a career in research. A second semester of thesis can count toward the thirty-two credits required for graduation, but only one of the two thesis semesters count toward the major.

e) Five additional biology courses (electives) to complete the twelve biology courses required, with the following additional caveats and permissions:
At least two of the elective courses must be 200-level or above and taught by Bates biology department faculty.
The electives may include BIO 244 only if the quantitative requirement is not being fulfilled with BIO 244, NRSC 205, or PSYC 218 (see item 2 above).
One of the following courses may be substituted for a maximum of one advanced biology course:
CH/NS 320. Mechanisms of Memory.
CHEM 321. Biological Chemistry I/Lab.
CHEM 322. Biological Chemistry II/Lab.
ENVR 240. Water and Watersheds/Lab.
ENVR 310. Soils/Lab.
NS/PY 363. Physiological Psychology/Lab.

4) Completion of the comprehensive assessment requirement. This requirement is fulfilled by completing a departmental comprehensive assessment during the senior year.

Pass/Fail Grading Option

Pass/fail grading may be elected for courses applied toward the major except for: BIO 195, the 200-level core courses (202, 204, and 206), and all 400-level courses. Pass/fail grading may be used only for the elective courses, to the extent allowed by Bates’ general policies on pass/fail grading.

Restrictions


Students may not major in biology and either biochemistry or neuroscience.
Students may not major in biology and environmental studies if their environmental studies concentration is either 1) Ecology and Economics of the Environment or 2) Ecology and Earth Systems.Students planning to minor in chemistry may not use CHEM 321 or 322 toward both the chemistry minor and the biology major.

Advanced Placement

Advanced Placement (AP), A-Level, and International Baccalaureate (IB) credit can continue to count toward the thirty-two credits required for graduation in accordance with college policies, but does not count toward the major (i.e., this credit cannot substitute for any course in the department and does not reduce the number of courses required for the major).

Planning for the Major

Prospective majors are urged to discuss course selection and scheduling with a member of the department in the first year, particularly if participation in an off-campus study program is anticipated. It is essential to take BIO 195, CHEM 107, and CHEM 108 in the first year. The department strongly encourages students to complete the required core courses before the end of their sophomore year to allow scheduling flexibility later. Completion of the core courses prior to the beginning of the senior year is required. The department also strongly advises that electives be chosen in close consultation with faculty to ensure breadth of knowledge within biology (from molecules and cells to organisms and ecosystems). Students who study abroad may apply up to two courses toward the major as electives if the courses are appropriate and pre-approved by the chair or their designee.

Major Requirements for Class of 2023


1) Both of the following:
CHEM 107A. Atomic and Molecular Structure/Lab.
CHEM 108A. Chemical Reactivity/Lab.
Prospective majors are strongly encouraged to complete this two-course introductory chemistry sequence in the first year.

One of the following:
BIO 244. Biostatistics.
NRSC 205. Statistical Methods.
CHEM 217-218. Organic Chemistry I and II/Lab.
Organic Chemistry (CHEM 217-218) is strongly recommended for students interested in
attending graduate school, and required for those planning to apply to medical school programs.

2) At least eleven courses in biology, of which a minimum of eight must be taught by Bates faculty. Nine of the eleven must be advanced courses (200-level and above, or the equivalent). Two introductory courses (100-level and s20-s28) may be applied to the major. CHEM 125 and designated first-year seminars (FYS 243, 262, 282, 311, 372, 424, 454, 461, and 465) may be used in place of a 100-level biology course.

The eleven courses must include:

a) BIO 195. Lab-Based Biological Inquiry.
Three additional 200-level core courses currently under development: 1) Cellular Bases of Life; 2) Evolution and Interactions of Life; and 3) Biological Research Experience: Molecules to Ecosystems. These 200-level courses have prerequistes.

Majors are strongly encouraged to complete these four courses by the end of the sophomore year; they must be completed prior to the beginning of the senior year.

b) Additional advanced biology courses (electives) to complete the eleven courses required. The advanced courses may not include BIO 244 or NRSC 205 if one of these courses is used to complete requirement 1 above, and may include no more than three research seminar, junior seminar, or thesis credits from among BIO 360, 457, 458, 460, 470-478, and s50.

One of the following courses may be substituted for one advanced biology course:

CH/NS 320. Mechanisms of Memory.
CHEM 321. Biological Chemistry I/Lab.
CHEM 322. Biological Chemistry II/Lab.
NRSC 205. Statistical Methods.
NSPY 363. Physiological Psychology/Lab.

c) Completion of a capstone experience that includes any two of the following:
BIO 457. Senior Thesis.
BIO 458. Senior Thesis.
BIO 460. Junior Seminar.
BIO 472. Seminar and Research in Physiology/Lab.
BIO 473. Seminar and Research in Cell Biology.
BIO 476. Seminar and Research in Evolutionary Biology.
BIO 477. Seminar and Research in Microbiology/Lab..
NRSC 460. Capstone Seminar on Cellular Neuroscience, taken in the senior year, may substitute for BIO 460. With prior approval of the chair, BIO 460 plus a community-engaged learning project may fulfil this requirement.

3) Completion of the comprehensive assessment requirement. This requirement is fulfilled by
completing a departmental comprehensive assessment during the senior year.

Pass/Fail Grading Option


Pass/fail grading may be elected for courses applied toward the major except for: BIO 195, the 200-level core courses, and all 400-level courses.

Major Requirements for Classes of 2021 and 2022


1) Both of the following:
CHEM 107A. Atomic and Molecular Structure/Lab.
CHEM 108A. Chemical Reactivity/Lab.
Prospective majors are strongly encouraged to complete this two-course introductory chemistry sequence in the first year.

One of the following:
BIO 244. Biostatistics.
NRSC 205. Statistical Methods.
CHEM 217-218. Organic Chemistry I and II/Lab.
Organic Chemistry (CHEM 217-218) is strongly recommended for students interested in
attending graduate school, and required for those planning to apply to medical school programs.

2) At least eleven courses in biology, of which a minimum of eight must be taught by Bates faculty. Nine of the eleven must be advanced courses (200-level and above, or the equivalent). Two introductory courses (100-level and s20-s28) may be applied to the major. CHEM 125 and designated first-year seminars (FYS 243, 262, 282, 311, 372, 424, 454, 461, and 465) may be used in place of a 100-level biology course.

The eleven courses must include:

a) BIO 195. Lab-Based Biological Inquiry.
BIO 202. Cellular Bases of Life.
BIO 204. Biological Research Experience: Molecules to Ecosystems.
BIO 206. Evolution and Interactions of Life.

Majors are strongly encouraged to complete these four courses by the end of the sophomore year; they must be completed prior to the beginning of the senior year.

b) Additional advanced biology courses (electives) to complete the eleven courses required. The advanced courses may not include BIO 244 or NRSC 205 if one of these courses is used to complete requirement 1 above, and may include no more than three research seminar, junior seminar, or thesis credits from among BIO 360, 457, 458, 460, 470-478, and s50.

One of the following courses may be substituted for one advanced biology course:

CH/NS 320. Mechanisms of Memory.
CHEM 321. Biological Chemistry I/Lab.
CHEM 322. Biological Chemistry II/Lab.
NRSC 205. Statistical Methods.
NSPY 363. Physiological Psychology/Lab.

c) Completion of a capstone experience that includes any two of the following:
BIO 457. Senior Thesis.
BIO 458. Senior Thesis.
BIO 460. Junior Seminar.
BIO 472. Seminar and Research in Physiology/Lab.
BIO 473. Seminar and Research in Cell Biology.
BIO 476. Seminar and Research in Evolutionary Biology.
BIO 477. Seminar and Research in Microbiology/Lab..
NRSC 460. Capstone Seminar on Cellular Neuroscience, taken in the senior year, may substitute for BIO 460. With prior approval of the chair, BIO 460 plus a community-engaged learning project may fulfil this requirement.

3) Completion of the comprehensive assessment requirement. This requirement is fulfilled by
completing a departmental comprehensive assessment during the senior year.

Pass/Fail Grading Option

Pass/fail grading may be elected for courses applied toward the major except for: BIO 195, the 200-level core courses, and all 400-level courses.

Major Requirements for the Classes of 2021 and 2022



1) Both of the following:
CHEM 107A. Atomic and Molecular Structure/Lab.
CHEM 108A. Chemical Reactivity/Lab.
Prospective majors are strongly encouraged to complete this two-course introductory chemistry sequence in the first year.

One of the following:
BIO 244. Biostatistics.
NRSC 205. Statistical Methods.
CHEM 217-218. Organic Chemistry I and II/Lab.
Organic Chemistry (CHEM 217-218) is strongly recommended for students interested in attending graduate school, and required for those planning to apply to medical school programs.

2) At least ten courses in biology, of which a minimum of eight must be taught by the Bates faculty. Eight of the ten courses must be advanced courses (200-level and above, or the equivalent). Two introductory courses (100-level and s20 – s28) may be applied toward the major, as long as at least one has a full laboratory component (designated in course descriptions by "[L]"). CHEM 125 and designated first-year seminars (FYS 243, 262, 282, 311, 372, 424, 454, 461, and 465) may be used in place of a 100-level biology course. The ten biology courses must include:

a) BIO 190. Organismal Biology/Lab.
BIO 242. Cellular and Molecular Biology/Lab.
BIO 270. Ecology and Evolution/Lab.
Majors are strongly encouraged to complete these courses by the end of the sophomore year; they must be completed prior to the beginning of the senior year. BIO 242 and 270 have prerequisites.

b) Additional advanced biology courses (electives) to complete the ten courses required. The advanced courses may not include BIO 244 or NRSC 205 if is used to complete requirement (1) above, and may include no more than three research seminar, junior seminar, or thesis credits from among BIO 360, 457, 458, 460, 470 through 478, and s50. One of the following courses may be substituted for one advanced biology course:
CH/NS 320. Mechanisms of Memory.
CHEM 321. Biological Chemistry I/Lab.
CHEM 322. Biological Chemistry II/Lab.
NRSC 205. Statistical Methods.
NS/PY 363. Physiological Psychology/Lab.

c) Completion of a capstone experience that includes any two of the following:
BIO 457. Senior Thesis.
BIO 458. Senior Thesis.
BIO 460. Junior Seminar.
BIO 470. Seminar and Research in Ecology.
BIO 471. Seminar and Research in Experimental Botany/Lab.
BIO 472. Seminar and Research in Physiology/Lab.
BIO 473. Seminar and Research in Cell Biology.
BIO 474. Seminar and Research in Marine Ecology/Lab.
BIO 475. Seminar and Research in Environmental Toxicology/Lab.
BIO 476. Seminar and Research in Evolutionary Biology.
BIO 477. Seminar and Research in Microbiology/Lab.
BIO 478. Seminar and Research in Molecular Genetics.
BIO 479. Seminar and Reserach: Biology in the Community/Lab.
NRSC 460. Capstone Seminar on Cellular Neuroscience, taken in the senior year, may substitute for BIO 460.With prior approval of the chair, BIO 460 plus a community-engaged learning project may fulfil this requirement.

3) Completion of the comprehensive assessment requirement. This requirement is fulfilled by completing a departmental comprehensive assessment during the senior year.

Considerations for the Classes of 2021, 2022, and 2023


Restrictions

Students may not major in biology and either biochemistry or neuroscience. Students may not major in biology and environmental studies if their environmental studies concentration is either 1) Ecology and Economics of the Environment or 2) Ecology and Earth Systems. Students planning to minor in chemistry may not use CHEM 321 or 322 toward both the chemistry minor and the biology major.

Planning for the Major

Prospective majors are urged to discuss course selection and scheduling with a member of the department in the first year, particularly if participation in an off-campus study program is anticipated. It is essential to take CHEM 107 and CHEM 108 in the first year. The department strongly encourages students to complete the required core courses before the end of their sophomore year to allow scheduling flexibility later. Completion of the core courses prior to the beginning of the senior year is required. The department also strongly advises that electives be chosen in close consultation with faculty to ensure breadth of knowledge within biology (from molecules and cells to organisms and ecosystems). Students who study abroad may apply up to two courses toward the major as electives if the courses are appropriate and pre-approved by the chair.

Advanced Placement

Advanced Placement (AP), A-Level, and International Baccalaureate (IB) credit does not count toward the major. It cannot substitute for any course in the department and does not reduce the number of courses required for the major.

Courses
BIO 108. Cancer.
Despite a robust increase in cancer research, the World Health Organization predicts that cancer cases are still expected to rise 70% over the next two decades. In this course, students examine the biological basis of cancer, including the role of oncogenes and tumor suppressors in regulating how the cell divides, how environmental agents and viruses can induce DNA mutations leading to cancerous growth, and the genetic basis of certain predispositions of inherited cancers. Students also learn about the history of cancer treatment, to understand where we are in the fight against this disease. Enrollment limited to 39. [S] [SR] Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BI/EA 113. Marine Science.
An integrated, interdisciplinary marine science overview encompassing physical, biological, and social aspects of the marine environment. Oceanography topics encompass origins and geological history of the oceans, structure of basins and sediments, ocean chemistry, as well as currents, waves, and tides. Biological subjects include diversity, physiology, and behavior of marine organisms, ecology of major marine communities, and global change biology. Social considerations include human impacts on marine environments (including fisheries) and conservation. Not open to students who have received credit for BI/GE 113. Enrollment limited to 39. (Community-Engaged Learning.) [Q] [QF] [S] [SR] Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BI/GE 113. Marine Science.
An integrated, interdisciplinary marine science overview encompassing physical, biological, and social aspects of the marine environment. Oceanography topics encompass origins and geological history of the oceans, structure of basins and sediments, ocean chemistry, as well as currents, waves, and tides. Biological subjects include diversity, physiology, and behavior of marine organisms, ecology of major marine communities, and global change biology. Social considerations include human impacts on marine environments (including fisheries) and conservation. Enrollment limited to 39. (Community-Engaged Learning.) [Q] [QF] [S] [SR] Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 114. Extreme Physiology.
Physiology, the study of how organisms function, has benefited tremendously from studies of amazing animals doing amazing things. How do bar-headed geese fly over the top of Mount Everest when humans struggle to reach the summit? How do fish withstand body temperatures below the freezing point of water? This course explores how animals work under extreme environmental conditions and what this reveals about human physiology in health and disease. Enrollment limited to 39. [S] [SR] R. Bavis.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 117. Plants and Human Affairs.
Economic botany is the study of how humans use plants for food, shelter, medicine, or textiles. Ethnobotany is the study of traditional knowledge and customs of particular human cultures concerning the use of plants for sustenance and for medicinal and religious purposes. This course provides a broad overview of both disciplines, with an introduction to plant anatomy and biology. Students explore the human uses of plants (and fungi) for perfumes, spices, medicines, hallucinogens, fermentation products, oils, rubber, textiles, wood, sugar, cereals, and legumes, in addition to exploring how various indigenous cultures have used plants. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO s11. Enrollment limited to 39. [S] [SR] B. Huggett.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 124. Plants and Human Affairs/Lab.
Economic botany is the study of how humans use plants for food, shelter, medicine, or textiles. Ethnobotany is the study of traditional knowledge and customs of particular human cultures concerning the use of plants for sustenance and for medicinal and religious purposes. This course provides a broad overview of both disciplines, with an introduction to plant anatomy and biology. Students explore the human uses of plants (and fungi) for perfumes, spices, medicines, hallucinogens, fermentation products, oils, rubber, textiles, wood, sugar, cereals, and legumes, in addition to exploring how various indigenous cultures have used plants. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO 117. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO s11. Enrollment limited to 39. [L] [QF] [S] [SR] B. Huggett.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 126. Science Communication.
The ability to effectively communicate science-related topics to nonexperts is essential for a successful career in science, and also critical for fostering public support of taxpayer-funded science research programs. Using recent examples from the biological sciences, students explore various ways and means to communicate science to public audiences through creative project-based learning exercises, including written science journalism articles, public speaking to local community groups, and multimedia video productions. Students examine how narratives and storytelling can be more effective for public engagement and comprehension of science than the information deficit model, and inevitably learn a fair amount of biology along the way. Not open to students who have received credit for FYS 465. Enrollment limited to 39. (Community-Engaged Learning.) [CP] [S] A. Mountcastle.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 127. Emerging and Reemerging Infections across the Globe.
Emerging infections are those that are newly described, appear in different geographic regions, or move into new host populations. Reemerging infections are those that were controlled in the past but are again of concern. In this course students examine the biology of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other organisms that cause these infections as well as the mechanisms by which they produce disease. Consideration is given to transmission patterns, treatments, and prevention. Topics may include infections of global concern such as malaria, tapeworms, dengue fever, HIV-AIDS, polio and other childhood diseases, cholera, and tuberculosis. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO s28 or FYS 236 or 262. Enrollment limited to 39. [S] Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 128. Out of the Sea.
This course examines human existence through the lens of the world’s oceans. Students consider animal evolution on deep time scales and how signs of our marine origins can be found throughout our bodies. Next, they focus on more recent time scales, and evaluate the role of oceans in human migrations. In the process of “finding our roots,” a goal of this course is to demonstrate human connections, and to deconstruct typological concepts of human race. Finally, oceans control global climate and students explore human-induced changes to global environments, and how oceans might offer solutions to sustainable existence. Enrollment limited to 39. (Africana: Introductory Sequence.) [S] [SR] A. Hill.
BIO 129. Human Nutrition.
This course examines nutrition and its relationship to health and disease. Emphasis is on the chemical, anatomical, and physiological aspects of ingestion, digestion, absorption, and metabolism of macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids) and micronutrients (vitamins and minerals). This course explores the relationships between nutrition and disease and the role of nutrition to reinstate health. It also considers the relationship among nutrition, the scope of practice of different healthcare providers, and culture. This course fulfills the nutrition prerequisite for students planning to apply to health professions programs such as nursing, physician assistant, physical therapy, and occupational therapy. Recommended background: high school biology and chemistry. Enrollment limited to 39. B. Salazar-Perea.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 133. Biology of Cooperation.
This course explores how and why organisms cooperate with a strong focus on scientific reasoning skills. Types of cooperation considered include mutually beneficial interactions among species, sociality and cooperation within species, and cooperation between cells in multicellular organisms. Students ask how evolution by natural selection can favor cooperation and altruistic behavior, exploring benefits of cooperation in a wide variety of biological contexts. Activities provide students with experience evaluating scientific information and using results of scientific research to assess alternative hypotheses about cooperation. Enrollment limited to 39. [S] [SR] C. Essenberg.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 158. Evolutionary Biology.
Evolution is the great unifying theory in biology. It is the context into which all other biological subjects fit. The course examines various aspects of evolution, including the origin of life, the major events in the evolution of life on Earth, the processes that result in evolutionary change, the nature of the fossil record and the genetics of populations. Enrollment limited to 39. [S] [SR] D. Dearborn.
BIO 195A. Lab-Based Biological Inquiry: Marine Biology in a Changing Ocean.
In this course-based research experience in the biological sciences, students build research skills through open-ended, authentic experimentation or observations of the natural world. They gain experience reading scientific literature, formulating and testing hypotheses, analyzing data, interpreting results, communicating in disciplinary style, and working in teams. The marine biology version of the course is focused on the living (including humans) and nonliving influences on organisms that live in marine environments. Topics encompass ecology, evolution, and natural history. Intended for students majoring in biology, biochemistry, neuroscience, or environmental studies, or preparing for a health-related career. Recommended corequisite(s): CHEM 107A or 108A. Not open to juniors or seniors. Enrollment limited to 16. K. Dobkowski.
BIO 195B. Lab-Based Biological Inquiry: Host-Parasite Evolution.
In this course-based research experience in the biological sciences, students build research skills through open-ended, authentic experimentation or observations of the natural world. Students gain experience reading scientific literature, formulating and testing hypotheses, analyzing data, interpreting results, communicating in disciplinary style, and working in teams. The host-parasite evolution version of the course is focused on how hosts and parasites interact to shape each other’s traits, with roots in ecology, evolution, immunology, and life history theory. Intended for students majoring in biology, biochemistry, neuroscience, or environmental studies, or preparing for a health-related career. Recommended corequisite(s): CHEM 107A or 108A. Not open to juniors or seniors. Enrollment limited to 16. D. Dearborn.
BIO 195C. Lab-Based Biological Inquiry: Symbiotic Microalgae.
This is a course-based research experience in the biological sciences. Students build research skills through open-ended, authentic experimentation or observations of the natural world. Students gain practice reading scientific literature, formulating and testing hypotheses, analyzing data, interpreting results, communicating in disciplinary style, and working in teams. The symbiotic microalgae version of the course investigates the potential of microalgae isolated from animal host cells as renewable and sustainable sources of biofuels and bioactive medicinal products. Topics encompass areas of molecular and cellular biology, ecology, evolution, physiology, and biotechnology. The course is intended for students majoring in biology, biochemistry, neuroscience, or environmental studies, or preparing for a health-related career. Recommended co-requisite(s): CHEM 107A or 108A. Not open to juniors or seniors. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO 190. Enrollment limited to 16. Normally offered every other year. A. Hill.
BIO 195D. Lab-Based Biological Inquiry: Living in a Microbial World.
This is a course-based research experience in the biological sciences. Students build research skills through open-ended, authentic experimentation or observations of the natural world. Students gain practice reading scientific literature, formulating and testing hypotheses, analyzing data, interpreting results, communicating in disciplinary style, and working in teams. The microbial community version of the course examines how and why microbial communities form in nature, the roles of such communities, and how they can be controlled. Topics encompass areas of microbiology, molecular and cellular biology, ecology, evolution, and biotechnology. Intended for students majoring in biology, biochemistry, neuroscience, or environmental studies, or preparing for health-related careers. Recommended corequisite(s): CHEM 107A or 108A. Not open to juniors or seniors. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO 190. Enrollment limited to 16. Normally offered every other year. Staff.
BIO 195E. Lab-Based Biological Inquiry: Sponge Fluid Dynamics.
In this course-based research experience in the biological sciences, students build research skills through open-ended, authentic experimentation or observations of the natural world. Students gain practice reading scientific literature, formulating and testing hypotheses, analyzing data, interpreting results, communicating in disciplinary style, and working in teams. The sponge fluid dynamics version of the course investigates water flow around and through sponges, and the effects of sponge morphology on current-induced flow. Topics encompass areas of physiology, ecology, evolution and fluid dynamics. This course is intended for students majoring in biology, biochemistry, neuroscience, or environmental studies, or preparing for a health-related career. Recommended corequisite(s): CHEM 107A or 108A. Not open to juniors or seniors. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO 190. Enrollment limited to 16. Normally offered every other year. A. Mountcastle.
BIO 195F. Lab-Based Biological Inquiry: Phenotypic Plasticity and the Changing World.
This is a course-based research experience in the biological sciences. Students build research skills through open-ended, authentic experimentation or observations of the natural world, gaining practice reading scientific literature, formulating and testing hypotheses, analyzing data, interpreting results, communicating in disciplinary style, and working in teams. The Phenotypic Plasticity and the Changing World version of the course explores how environmentally induced variation in morphology, physiology, and behavior influences animal performance and the role this plasticity may play as animals respond to climate change and pollution. Topics encompass areas of physiology, biochemistry, ecology, and evolution. Intended for students majoring in biology, biochemistry, neuroscience, or environmental studies, or preparing for a health-related career. Recommended corequisite(s): CHEM 107A or 108A. Not open to juniors or seniors. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO 190. Enrollment limited to 16. Normally offered every other year. R. Bavis.
BIO 195G. Lab-Based Biological Inquiry: Growing Wildflowers.
This is a course-based research experience in the biological sciences. Students build research skills through open-ended, authentic experimentation or observations of the natural world. Students gain practice reading scientific literature, formulating and testing hypotheses, analyzing data, interpreting results, communicating in disciplinary style, and working in teams. This version of the course is focused on developing effective seed propagation methods for native wildflowers needed to improve pollinator habitat in the Lewiston-Auburn area. Topics encompass ecology, evolution, physiology, and conservation biology. The course is intended for students majoring in biology, biochemistry, neuroscience, or environmental studies, or preparing for a health-related career; it is recommended that students taking BIO 195 simultaneously enroll in CHEM 107A or CHEM 108A. Not open to seniors. Enrollment limited to 16. Normally offered every other year. C. Essenberg.
BIO 202. Cellular Basis of Life.
A view of life at the cellular and molecular levels drawing examples from organisms. Topics include the chemical basis of cellular life, cellular structure and function, cellular division, and the expression of genes in cells. Prerequisite(s): BIO 195 and CHEM 108A. Enrollment limited to 39. Normally offered every semester. [S] [SR] Staff.
BIO 204. Biological Research Experience: Molecules to Ecosystems.
This is an intermediate-level research experience in the biological sciences. Students learn and apply research methods using multiple approaches that span a range of disciplines in biology, from molecular to ecological. Research topics include a place-based component that engages students in the Lewiston-Auburn area or in nearby ecosystems. Students practice common conventions for communication within the biological sciences. Only open to sophomores and juniors. Prerequisite(s): BIO 195. Recommended background: CHEM 108A. Enrollment limited to 18. [W2] Normally offered every semester. [SR] Staff.
BIO 205. Biomechanics.
This course explores how plants and animals interact with their physical world. Students draw on principles and tools of physics and mechanical engineering to characterize the functional implications of biological design and analyze how organisms generate and respond to flows, loads, and motions. Prerequisite(s): BIO 190 or 195. Recommended background: prior experience with calculus. Enrollment limited to 19. [L] [Q] [QF] [S] [SR] A. Mountcastle.
BIO 206. Evolution and Interactions of Life.
An introduction to ecological and evolutionary patterns, principles, and processes. Topics include speciation, mechanisms of evolution, pivotal events in evolutionary history, adaptation to environmental challenges, life history strategies, population dynamics, community structure and species interactions, and ecosystem processes in a changing world. Only open to sophomores and juniors. Prerequisite(s): BIO 195 or ENVR 203. Enrollment limited to 49. Normally offered every year. [S] [SR] R. Bavis, D. Dearborn, B. Huggett.
BIO 211. Marine Invertebrates/Lab.
A survey of the varieties, morphology, development, evolution, and behavior of invertebrates with an emphasis on marine animals. Laboratory work includes the study, through dissection and experiment, of representative organisms. The course includes field trips to local marine habitats. Prerequisite(s): BIO 190 or 195. Enrollment limited to 14 per section. [L] [S] Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 217. Human Anatomy and Physiology I.
This course explores human anatomy and physiology with an integrative approach that links all organ systems to the neuroendocrine system and examines the interactions among organ systems. Topics include the organization of the human body; the nervous system and special senses; and the endocrine, musculoskeletal, and integumentary systems. This course is intended to fulfill the human anatomy and physiology prerequisite for students planning to apply to health professions programs such as nursing, physician assistant, physical therapy, and occupational therapy. Students planning to apply to veterinary programs should enroll in BIO 311 and BIO 337. Prerequisite(s): BIO 190 or 195 and CHEM 108A. Enrollment limited to 16. B. Salazar-Perea.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 218. Human Anatomy and Physiology II.
A continuation of BIO 217, this course explores human anatomy and physiology with an integrative approach that links all organ systems to the neuroendocrine system and examines the interactions among organ systems. Topics include the cardiovascular, immune, respiratory, urinary, digestive, and reproductive systems. This course is intended to fulfill the human anatomy and physiology prerequisite for students planning to apply to health professions programs such as nursing, physician assistant, physical therapy, and occupational therapy. Students planning to apply to veterinary programs should enroll in BIO 311 and BIO 337. Prerequisite(s): BIO 217. Enrollment limited to 16. B. Salazar-Perea.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 221. Plant and Fungal Diversity/Lab.
This course provides an overview of the evolution and diversity of plants and fungi. In lecture and laboratory studies, students are introduced to the anatomical and functional characteristics that define each group with an emphasis on adaptations to the environment. Throughout the course, the ecological importance and human uses of plants and fungi are explored. Prerequisite(s): one 100-level biology course. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 21. [L] [Q] [QF] [S] [SR] B. Huggett.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 244. Biostatistics.
A course in the use of statistics in the biological sciences. The course focuses on core concepts and skills necessary for the analysis and interpretation of data, including types of data, the fundamentals of study design, sampling distributions, the meaning and interpretation of p-values and confidence intervals, statistical errors, and power. Students learn to select and carry out appropriate statistical tests for a variety of simple datasets. Statistical methods considered include analyses such as binomial tests, Fisher's exact tests, t- and chi-square tests, 1- and 2-way ANOVA, correlation and regression, and simple nonparametric techniques for numerical data. Prerequisite(s): BIO 190 or 195. Enrollment limited to 49. Normally offered every year. [Q] [QF] [S] [SR] C. Essenberg.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BI/ES 246. Conservation Biology.
Conservation biology draws on biology, policy, ethics, and other disciplines to conserve biological diversity. This course introduces core ecological concepts underlying conservation practice while also exploring its interdisciplinary nature. Students examine conservation at multiple scales, including the conservation of species, biological communities, and ecosystems. Classroom activities help students develop scientific reasoning skills and apply them to conservation problems. Readings and discussions encourage students to consider social, ethical, and other perspectives on conservation work. Prerequisite(s): BIO 190, 195 or ENVR 203. Enrollment limited to 39. [S] C. Essenberg.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BI/MA 255A. Mathematical Models in Biology.
Mathematical models are increasingly important throughout the life sciences. This course provides an introduction to a variety of models in biology, with concrete examples chosen from biological and medical fields. Students work both theoretically and with computer software to analyze models, compute numerical results, and visualize outcomes. Prerequisite(s): MATH 205. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 29. [Q] [QF] M. Greer.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BI/ES 271. Dendrology and the Natural History of Trees/Lab.
In this field-based course, students engage in the scientific study of the natural history and identification of trees and important shrubs native to New England, and some commonly planted non-native trees. Topics include the anatomy, function, taxonomy, biology, and uses of trees. Lecture topics support weekly outdoor laboratories, which may include trips to such field sites as the Saco Heath, Thorncrag Bird Sanctuary, and Wolfe's Neck State Park. Study of the woody flora of New England serves as a foundation for further work in biology, environmental studies, conservation, or related fields. Prerequisite(s): BIO 117, 124, 190, 195, or ENVR 203. Enrollment limited to 24. [L] [S] [SR] B. Huggett.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 301. Pathophysiology.
This course introduces the students to the understanding of human diseases that most commonly affect us. Students learn about the most common pathological conditions by organ systems, examining the abnormal function of cells and body systems, clinical manifestations, diagnostic testing, and adaptations used by the organism to restore homeostasis. Students apply critical thinking skills to integrate how the malfunction of one organ affects other organ systems and the individual as whole, with the goal of expanding students' knowledge of the human body. Prerequisite(s): any of the following: BIO 114, 217, 218, 311, 337, or NS/PY 160. Enrollment limited to 29. One-time offering. [S] B. Salazar-Perea.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BI/ES 302. Restoration Ecology/Lab.
Ecological restoration assists the recovery of ecosystems damaged or destroyed by human activities, improving habitat for threatened species and increasing the ability of natural systems to serve a wide variety of human needs. Students learn ecological concepts and practical approaches used in this important and growing field and explore the complex human values that shape restoration goals and practices. Course activities emphasize critical reading of the primary scientific literature, discussion of restoration goals and practices, and developing skills relevant to restoration work. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: BI/ES 246, 271, 333; BIO 206, 221, 270, s32, s37; ENVR 221, 240, 306, or 310. Not open to students who have received credit for BI/ES 303. Enrollment limited to 15. (Community-Engaged Learning.) [S] [SR] C. Essenberg.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BI/ES 303. Restoration Ecology.
Ecological restoration assists the recovery of ecosystems damaged or destroyed by human activities, improving habitat for threatened species and increasing the ability of natural systems to serve a wide variety of human needs. Students learn ecological concepts and practical approaches used in this important and growing field and explore the complex human values that shape restoration goals and practices. Course activities emphasize discussion of restoration goals and practices and critical reading of the primary scientific literature. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: BI/ES 246, 271, 333; BIO 206, 221, 270, s32, s37; ENVR 221, 240, 306, or 310. Not open to students who have received credit for BI/ES 302. Enrollment limited to 15. [S] C. Essenberg.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BI/CH 304. Biochemistry of Virus Replication and Host Cell Defense Systems.
Viruses that infect eukaryotic cells have evolved a wide range of strategies to co-opt the biochemical machinery of host cells for the purpose of maximizing virus replication success. Eukaryotic cells have simultaneously evolved mechanisms to limit the extent to which viruses can establish successful infections. This course examines, in large part through the primary literature, the replication biochemistry used by representative examples of mammalian viruses and the cellular biochemical pathways designed to defend cells and organisms from viral takeover. Students are expected to apply what they learn by preparing a grant application narrative as a final project. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242, or BIO 195 and 202, and CHEM 218. Enrollment limited to 15. [S] T. Lawson.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BI/NS 305. Gene Editing in Biology and Neuroscience.
The development of genome editing techniques by molecular biologists has raised great hopes that a treatment for genetic disorders such as cystic fibrosis or Huntington’s disease might finally be available. In this course, students analyze how genome editing techniques such as CRISPR/Cas9 have evolved, how they can be applied to study the role of individual genes or to alter mutant genes, and what approaches exist for the delivery of DNA-modifying enzymes into an organism. In addition, students use scientific publications and popular literature to discuss ethical implications of usage of genome editing techniques for society. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242 or BIO 195 and 202. Enrollment limited to 15. [S] M. Kruse.
BI/NS 308. Neurobiology.
An introduction to the molecular and cellular principles of neurobiology and the organization of neurons into networks. Also investigated are developmental and synaptic plasticity, analysis of signaling pathways in cells of the nervous system, and the development of neurobiological research, from studies on invertebrate systems to usage of stem cell-derived brain organoids and gene-editing techniques such as CRISPR/Cas9. Laboratories include analysis of nerve cell activity, computer simulation and modeling, and the use of molecular techniques in neurobiology. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242, or BIO 195 and 202. The course may be offered with a lab in some semesters; this is indicated in the Schedule of Courses. Enrollment limited to 12 per laboratory section. Normally offered every year. [L] [Q] [QF] [S] [SR] M. Kruse.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 310. Bioinspiration.
Wind turbine blades inspired by insect wings are more efficient than conventional blades. The nose cones of Japanese bullet trains are modeled after kingfisher beaks to reduce noise pollution. Condiment bottles will soon feature a non-stick surface inspired by lotus leafs. Technology is increasingly looking to biology for design inspiration because evolution often yields elegant and robust solutions to real-world problems. In this project-based course, students explore examples of biological form and function, and use this knowledge to design a product that is inspired by nature to solve a problem faced by today’s society. Prerequisite(s): BIO 204 or 242 or PHYS 108. Course renumbered beginning fall 2020. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO 203. Enrollment limited to 15. [CP] [SR] A. Mountcastle.
BIO 311. Comparative Anatomy of the Chordates/Lab.
An introduction to the comparative anatomy of the vertebrates and their kin, with laboratory study of both sharks and mammals. Prerequisite(s): BIO 190 or 195. Enrollment limited to 18. [L] [S] [SR] A. Mountcastle.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 313. Marine Ecology/Lab.
An examination of the complex ecological interactions that structure marine systems in a changing ocean. Habitats studied include intertidal, estuary, coral reef, deep sea, salt marsh, and pelagic. Laboratories include work in local marine communities and require occasional weekend trips. Prerequisite(s): BIO 206 or 270. Enrollment limited to 12 per laboratory section. [L] [Q] [QF] [S] [SR] Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 315. Microbiology/Lab.
A survey of the structure, function, and diversity of microorganisms, including viruses, bacteria, and eukaryotic microbes, with emphasis on adaptations to specific niches. Particular attention is given to organisms of ecological, medical, and industrial interest. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242, or BIO 202 and 204. Enrollment limited to 25. (Community-Engaged Learning.) Normally offered every year. [L] [Q] [S] Staff.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

BIO 321. Cellular Biochemistry.
This course explores the biochemical mechanisms of cellular functions with the goal of extending student knowledge about the structure, synthesis, and metabolism of biological macromolecules and contextualizing the regulation of these molecules in healthy and diseased cells and tissues. The course does not satisfy a requirement for the biochemistry major. Not open to students who have received credit for CHEM 321 or 322. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242, or BIO 202 and 204. Enrollment limited to 39. [S] Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BI/PL 323E. Philosophy of Evolution.
Evolutionary theory raises many deep and complicated philosophical issues as well as questions about how science operates: Are concepts like function, selection, and optimality scientifically legitimate? How do we make inferences about the unobserved past? Can thinking about the evolutionary past help us understand how biological processes, such as the mind, work today? It also raises questions about who we are and where we come from: How do we relate to other species? Can we better understand our moral and intellectual strengths and weaknesses by looking to evolution? In this course, students approach these questions from an interdisciplinary perspective, including philosophy, biology, and the cognitive sciences. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: PHIL 211; two courses in philosophy; or one course in philosophy and one course in biology. Enrollment limited to 15. [W2] [AC] M. Dacey.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 326. Cancer Biology/Lab.
Despite a robust increase in cancer research, the World Health Organization predicts that incidents of cancer are still expected to rise 70% over the next two decades. All of these cancers begin as a single cell. This course is designed to introduce students to the cancer cell and the various processes through which this single preneoplastic cell establishes a clonal niche and metastasizes. Drawing on primary literature, students consider current topics in the field of cancer biology and how they relate to current therapeutic potentials. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO 327. Enrollment limited to 19. A. Moloney.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 328. Developmental Biology/Lab.
Developmental biology is a dynamic field that addresses questions related to how organisms come into being and grow. This course introduces students to developmental biology with a particular emphasis on the molecular basis for developmental events. The course focuses on the mechanisms involved in making cells that are different from one another (cell differentiation) and the associated mechanisms by which patterns are created (morphogenesis). In the lab, students explore the phenomenon of development in several of the most prominently utilized model organisms. The lab culminates in an independent project. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242, or BIO 202 and 204. Enrollment limited to 19. Normally offered every year. [L] [S] [SR] L. Williams.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 331. Molecular Biology/Lab.
A laboratory and lecture introduction to the molecular biology of genes and chromosomes. The course emphasizes current research about gene structure and function, experimental techniques, and eukaryotic genetics. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242 or (BIO 202 and 204). Enrollment limited to 20. Normally offered every year. [L] [S] [SR] L. Williams.
Interdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

BI/ES 333. The Genetics of Conservation Biology/Lab.
Conserving biodiversity is important at multiple scales, including genetic variation within species. Does a species have enough variation to evolve in a changing world? Are individuals differentially adapted to local environmental variation? In a captive population of a rare animal, which individuals should be bred to minimize the erosion of genetic variation? Lectures and labs cover the fundamentals of classical, molecular, and population genetics, applying them to current issues in biological conservation. Prerequisite(s): BIO 202, 206, 242 or 270. Not open to students who have received credit for BI/ES 336 or BIO 330. Enrollment limited to 15. [L] [S] [SR] D. Dearborn.
BI/ES 336. The Genetics of Conservation Biology.
Conserving biodiversity is important at multiple scales, including genetic variation within species. Does a species have enough variation to evolve in a changing world? Are individuals differentially adapted to local environmental variation? In a captive population of a rare animal, which individuals should be bred to minimize the erosion of genetic variation? Lectures and labs cover the fundamentals of classical, molecular, and population genetics, applying them to current issues in biological conservation. Prerequisite(s): BIO 202, 242, 206, or 270. Not open to students who have received credit for BI/ES 333 or BIO 330. Enrollment limited to 15. [S] [SR] D. Dearborn.
BIO 337. Animal Physiology/Lab.
The major physiological processes of animals, including digestion, circulation, respiration, excretion, locomotion, and both neural and hormonal regulation. Examples are drawn from several species and include a consideration of the cellular basis of organ-system function. Prerequisite(s): BIO 202 or 242. Enrollment limited to 16. [L] [Q] [S] [SR] R. Bavis.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

BIO 342. Ecological and Evolutionary Physiology.
This course explores the interaction between the environment and physiological phenotypes in animals while emphasizing the role of evolutionary processes in shaping physiological variation. Topics may include the evolution of endothermy, adaptation to extreme environments (e.g., high altitudes, deserts), and controversial concepts such as symmorphosis. Readings from the primary scientific literature highlight diverse methodological approaches used to understand the evolution of physiological traits, such as comparative and phylogenetic analysis, selection experiments, genetic and phenotypic manipulation, and quantitative genetics. Prerequisite(s): BIO 206 or 270. Enrollment limited to 15. [S] R. Bavis.
BIO 351. Immunology/Lab.
The immune system is studied as an example of the body's chemical communication networks and as one mechanism for memory. Topics include production of an immune response, immune surveillance in the maintenance of health, the effects of psychological and environmental factors on the immune system and on health, and the effects of immune dysfunctions (autoimmune diseases and immune deficiencies including AIDS). The course emphasizes the human immune system but briefly covers comparative immunology. Prerequisite(s): BIO 202 or 242. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO 350. Enrollment limited to 29. [L] [S] Staff.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

BIO 355. Advanced Topics in Evolution.
This course offers an advanced exploration of how evolution works. This course offers an overview of the major topics in evolution, ranging from micro-scale processes, such as mutation, to macro-scale processes, such as mass extinction events. The course also delves deeply into a small number of topics which vary from year to year but may include, for example, host-parasite arms races, sexual selection, and the evolution of aging. Prerequisite(s): BIO 206 or 270. Enrollment limited to 15. [SR] D. Dearborn.
BIO 360. Independent Study.
Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study per semester. Normally offered every semester. Staff.
BIO 365. Special Topics.
Offered at irregular intervals by a faculty member in an area of contemporary interest.
BIO 380. Plant Physiology/Lab.
A study of organismal and cellular functions important in the life of green plants. Topics include mineral nutrition, water relations, carbon assimilation, metabolism, and regulatory processes with an emphasis on how plant structure and function are influenced by pressures in the growing environment or by interactions with other organisms. Weekly laboratories provide a research-led approach to understanding physiological processes in plants. Prerequisite(s): BIO 190 or 195 and CHEM 108A in addition to one of the following courses: BIO 221, 242, 270, or BI/ES 271. Enrollment limited to 19. [L] [Q] [QF] [S] [SR] B. Huggett.
Interdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

BIO 457. Senior Thesis.
Permission of the department and the thesis advisor are required. Students register for BIO 457 in the fall semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both BIO 457 and 458. Instructor permission is required. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
BIO 458. Senior Thesis.
Permission of the department and the thesis advisor are required. Students register for BIO 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both BIO 457 and 458. Instructor permission is required. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
BIO 460. Junior Seminar.
Reading original biological literature is an essential skill for biology majors. Focusing on the topics addressed by invited speakers for the semester's biology seminar program, students review articles, write analyses, and contribute oral presentations in a small group format. Students attend afternoon and/or evening seminars and discuss the content, context, and presentation of original investigations. Prerequisite(s): BIO 190, 195, 202, or 242, and 206 or 270. One of these courses may be taken concurrently, only by permission of the instructor. Not open to students who have received credit for NRSC 460. Enrollment limited to 19. [W3] Normally offered every year. [SR] Staff.
BIO 472. Seminar and Research in Physiology/Lab.
Laboratory or library study of a current research topic in animal physiology. A topic is selected with reference to the research interests of the instructor. Only open to seniors. Recommended background: BIO 337. Enrollment limited to 6. Instructor permission is required. [W3] [L] [Q] [S] Staff.
BIO 473. Seminar and Research in Cell Biology.
Laboratory and library study of a current research topic in the experimental study of biology at the cellular level. A topic is selected with reference to the research interests of the instructor. Open to seniors only. Enrollment limited to 6. Instructor permission is required. [W3] Staff.
BIO 476. Seminar and Research in Evolutionary Biology.
Laboratory or library study of a current research topic in evolutionary biology. A topic is selected in reference to the research interests of the instructor. Open to seniors only. Enrollment limited to 6. Instructor permission is required. [W3] [L] [Q] [S] [SR] D. Dearborn.
BIO 477. Seminar and Research in Microbiology/Lab.
Laboratory and library study of a current research topic in microbiology or immunology. Topics are selected with reference to the research interests of the instructor and students. Open to seniors only. Enrollment limited to 6. Instructor permission is required. [W3] [L] [Q] [S] Staff.
Short Term Courses
BIO s10. Biology of Cooperation.
This course explores why organisms cooperate and how cooperation can be maintained in the face of cheating. Topics include the evolution of sociality and cooperation within species as well as mutually beneficial interactions among species. Students consider how the same broad ideas about conflict and cooperation can apply to organisms ranging from bacteria to humans and explain phenomena as disparate as pollination and cancer. Students evaluate evidence for various models of cooperation, learn how to use data to understand why organisms cooperate, and develop their own cooperation and communication skills through group activities and a community-engaged learning project. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO 133. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 29. (Community-Engaged Learning.) [S] [SR] C. Essenberg.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO s13. Health and Medicine: At Home and Abroad.
In this course, students examine and compare the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States and Spain, a developed country with a healthcare delivery system different from that in the United States. Through readings, discussion, shadowing, and on-site visits with healthcare professionals during a two-week visit to Spain, students arrive at a deeper understanding of the biology underlying the diseases they investigate and how those diseases are treated in each healthcare system. Such a study allows students to compare the influence and importance of culture and community on the interplay of health and disease. Prerequisite(s): one course that informs the study of health and medicine, which includes 100-level biology courses and courses in anthropology, gender and sexuality studies, psychology, or sociology with topics related to health and medicine. Recommended background: Previous study of Spanish is recommended. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 12. Instructor permission is required. [S] Staff.
BI/ES s14. The Ecology of Place: Field Methods for Coastal Research at Bates-Morse Mountain.
This course immerses students in coastal issues facing Maine with the Bates-Morse Mountain Conservation Area and Phippsburg as the course setting. Students examine community dependence on fisheries and aquaculture and learn how to assess the health of the environment, including salt marshes, mudflats, the rocky intertidal zone, sandy beaches, and coastal forests. By combining the study of human and natural systems, students consider ways to manage resources within the broader context of a changing environment. The course introduces social-ecological systems theory and field methods including basic experimental design, data collection, and analysis. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 14. Normally offered every year. C. Cleaver.
INDC s15. Health, Culture, and Community.
This course examines dimensions of health through classroom and community-based experiences, with a special emphasis on current public health issues. The course covers the history and organization of public health; methods associated with health-related research; disparities in health, including those related to race, class, and gender; public policy and health; population-based approaches to public health; and cultural constructions of health and illness. The course is designed to be integrative: expertise from different disciplines is used to address current challenges in public health. Cross-listed in anthropology, biology, and psychology. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO s20. Gut Biology.
What is gut biology? The gut is an ecosystem full of complex interactions between human and microbial cells. Like all ecosystems, the environmental features of the gut affect its stability and diversity, which can influence our overall health. This laboratory-based course looks at the anatomy, physiology, and ecology of the gut to reveal how it supports the intricate communication network between microbial and human cells. Basic biology laboratory techniques including light microscopy, histology, DNA/RNA characterization, and bioinformatic data analysis are used to study the nature of this symbiosis. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO s24. Enrollment limited to 20. [W2] Normally offered every year. [L] [S] L. Brogan.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO s23. Understanding Cancer/Lab.
As a cause of mortality in the Western world, cancer is second only to cardiovascular disease. What causes cancer? How is cancer diagnosed and classified? How do flaws in fundamental biological processes drive cancerous growth? What are current therapeutic options and potential new treatments in the fight against cancer? These questions are explored in the classroom and the laboratory. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO 108. Enrollment limited to 40. [L] [S] Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BI/CH s24. Introduction to Scanning Microscopies.
Many of the recent advances in microscopy have been based on scanning a probe, which can be a light beam, electron beam, or mechanical tip, across a sample. This course provides hands-on experience with, and a discussion of the theory underlying, scanning microscopies. Students learn to use a scanning electron microscope and a confocal microscope and complete an individual project. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: CHEM 107A, 108A; PHYS 107, 108. Enrollment limited to 14. [SR] M. Côté.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO s27. Ecology is Everywhere.
This course explores the foundations of ecology through readings, online resources, and a hands-on, community-based project that allows students to explore the ecology of their own geographic location. Students design a natural history field guide to the student’s "ecosystem," appropriate for a general audience, helping students combine their knowledge of ecology with effective science communication techniques. Recommended background: one college-level science course. Enrollment limited to 15. [S] K. Dobkowski.
BIO s30. Ecology and Natural History of the Maine Coast.
This course examines the ecology and natural history of the coast of Maine using a combination of experiential learning (field trips, lab activities, group research project) and interactive lectures and presentations by guest speakers. Students have the opportunity to experience the ecology and natural history of the Maine coast, including saltmarsh, sandy beach, mudflat, and rocky shore ecosystems. This course includes at least one community-engaged learning activity. Students gain skills in the identification of local marine flora and fauna, experimental design and hypothesis testing, and science communication to varied audiences. Prerequisite(s): one biology course. Enrollment limited to 12. One-time offering. K. Dobkowski.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO s31. Avian Biology/Lab.
Birds are among the most conspicuous animals in the environment, occupying terrestrial and aquatic niches from the tropics to the poles. This course examines the origin and diversification of birds and explores avian morphology, physiology, and behavior in an ecological and evolutionary context. Topics include flight, communication, feeding, migration, and reproduction. The course includes a laboratory and may require several extended field trips. Prerequisite(s): BIO 206 or 270. Enrollment limited to 12. [SR] D. Dearborn.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO s35. Marine Ecology from Coast to Coast.
A predominantly field-based course that focuses on experiential learning and immersive experience. Ecologists seek to understand how living and nonliving factors influence where and how organisms live. The beginning of the course involves field trips to the coast of Maine, followed by two weeks at a marine field station in the San Juan Islands of Washington state. In this course, students have the rare opportunity to do parallel work in temperate shores on both coasts and compare and contrast the organisms, ecological processes, and species interactions they discover. Prerequisite(s): one biology course. Enrollment limited to 16. Instructor permission is required. One-time offering. K. Dobkowski.
BIO s37. The North Woods.
An investigation of the patterns and history of New England's forests and associated plant communities, with an emphasis on field study and research. Students review the influences of geological patterns, climate, unusual soil and water conditions, natural disturbances, invasive plants and insects, and human activities on community type, occurrence, and history. Central to the course are visits to a variety of field sites, where students learn to describe the structure, composition, and history of several communities. Primary literature is emphasized. Prerequisite(s): BIO 206, 270 or ENVR 310. Enrollment limited to 8. (Community-Engaged Learning.) [L] [QF] [S] [SR] B. Huggett.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO s40. Experimental Developmental and Molecular Biology/Lab.
In this hands-on, laboratory-based course, students learn and practice the scientific method. Living and working at the Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory, known for its educational and research programs focusing on non-mammalian systems, students work with the important vertebrate model system, zebrafish, and utilize cutting-edge molecular and microscopy techniques to address questions related to protein pathways involved in the developmental process. Independent projects and oral presentations are a central requirement of the course. Prerequisite(s): BIO 202 and 204, or BIO 242. Enrollment limited to 12. [L] [S] [SR] L. Williams.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO s47. Experimental Cell Biology/Lab.
In this laboratory-based course, students investigate how lipids and proteins act together to regulate cellular activity. Using state of the art research facilities on campus and at Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory near Bar Harbor, ME, students work with an immortalized cell line to address questions of neuronal signaling pathways by applying molecular, biochemical, and microscopy techniques. The course introduces students to the mathematical programming language R, and trains students in using R to analyze experimental data. Prerequisite(s): BIO 202 and 204, or 242. Enrollment limited to 12. One-time offering. [L] [Q] [QF] [S] [SR] M. Kruse.
BIO s50. Independent Study.
Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study during a Short Term. Normally offered every year. Staff.