Catalog


Geology

Professors Eusden, Johnson (chair), Retelle; Assistant Professor Robert; Visiting Instructor Mako; Lecturers Doughty and Saha (Geology and Physics)

Geology is the key to addressing scientific issues relating to energy, mineral, and water resources security; ecosystem and environmental stewardship; hazards risk assessment, adaptation, and mitigation; and climate variability and change.

The study of geology provides a new way of thinking across vast spatial and temporal scales. Given the college's location in Maine with ready access to a wide variety of diverse geologic environments, students have excellent opportunities for experiential learning, whether in the classroom, the laboratory, or the field, and through independent research, at all levels of the curriculum.

The geology department prepares students for professional careers and to be well-rounded and well-informed citizens. Students learn the founding principles of the earth sciences, including an in-depth knowledge of earth materials, geologic time, surface processes, field relationships, tectonics, cycles and cycling, and the earth as a system. These principles are used to solved problems grounded in the geologic history of Earth, climate change, natural hazards, and environmental science.

The faculty's teaching and research are grounded in the fundamentals of field, laboratory, modeling, and experimental techniques, yet incorporate state-of-the-art tools and technologies. The students, staff, and faculty of the Department of Geology are actively engaged in the college community, in the Lewiston/Auburn and Maine communities, and in the scientific community.

More information about the deparmtent may be found on the website (www.bates.edu/geology.)



Major Requirements. The major requirements include eight core courses, four elective courses, and a one- or two-semester thesis.

Core Courses. One of the following:
GEO 103. Earth Surface Environments and Environmental Change/Lab.
GEO 104. Plate Tectonics and Tectonic Hazards.
GEO 107. Katahdin to Acadia: Field Geology in Maine/Lab.
GEO 109. Global Change/Lab.
FYS 476. Coastal Hazards.

All of the following:
GEO 210. Sedimentary Processes and Environments/Lab.
GEO 223. Earth Materials/Lab.
GEO 230. Earth Structure and Dynamics/Lab.
GEO 240. Environmental Geochemistry/Lab.

Two 300-level geology courses.

One geology Short Term course.

Elective Courses. Students must take two courses from List A and two courses from List B.

List A:
ES/GE 217. Mapping and GIS.
GE/PH 220. Dynamical Climate.
ES/GE 226. Hydrogeology.
GEO 360. Independent Study.
GEO 458. Senior Thesis (taken in addition to GEO 457, creating a yearlong thesis).
A second Short Term geology course.
A third 300-level geology course
One or two 200- or 300-level courses maybe transferred from an off-campus study program as electives with prior approval of the department.

List B:
BI/GE 113. Marine Science.
BIO 190. Organismal Biology/Lab.
BIO 195. Lab-Based Biological Inquiry.
BIO 244. Biostatistics.
BIO 270. Ecology and Evolution/Lab.
CHEM 107A. Atomic and Molecular Structure/Lab.
CHEM 108A. Chemical Reactivity/Lab.
ENVR 203. Scientific Approaches to Environmental Issues/Lab.
ENVR 240. Water and Watersheds/Lab.
ENVR 310. Soils/Lab.
FYS 274. Physics in the Twentieth Century/Lab.
MATH 105. Calculus I.
MATH 106. Calculus II.
PHYS 107. Classical Physics/Lab.
PHYS 108. Modern Physics/Lab.

The department normally accepts only two non-Bates courses toward the major. These two courses are counted as electives under list A in the major requirements.

Senior Thesis. Class of 2020:Majors may choose to complete a one-semester thesis (GEO 457) or a two-semester thesis (GEO 457 and 458). The two-semester option is normally reserved for honors candidates, those students who plan to pursue a career in the geological or environmental sciences, and/or those planning to attend graduate school in geological or environmental sciences. Class of 2021: The two-semester thesis option will be reserved for honors candidates only. To qualify for the honors program, students must earn an A- or better in GEO 457, have the support of their thesis advisor, and sustain a minimum GPA of 3.5 in their geology courses.

B.S. Degree for Geology Majors. Students planning careers in the geological or environmental sciences are encouraged to complete a two-semester thesis (GEO 457 and 458), and to complete the Bachelor of Science degree requirements, available in the Academic Program section of the catalog.

Pass/Fail Grading Option. Pass/fail grading may not be elected for any course used to fulfill the major requirements.

Geology Minor. Students may complete a minor in geology by taking seven geology courses distributed as follows:

One geology or geology cross-listed 100-level courses, or FYS 476. Coastal Hazards.

Three of the following four:
GEO 210. Sedimentary Processes and Environments/Lab.
GEO 223. Earth Materials/Lab.
GEO 230. Earth Structure and Dynamics/Lab.
GEO 240. Environmental Geochemistry/Lab.

Three additional geology or geology cross-listed courses at the 200 or 300 level, including Short Term courses, and pre-approved geology courses taken in off-campus study programs.

Students completing the environmental studies major with an Ecology and Earth Systems concentration and a geology minor may count no more than one course toward both.

Students completing a double major in geology and in environmental studies with an Ecology and Earth Systems concentration may count no more than two courses toward both majors.

Pass/Fail Grading Option. Pass/fail grading may not be elected for courses counting toward the minor.

Interdisciplinary Interests. The departmental course offerings allow a maximum of flexibility to meet individual interests. Students with environmental science interests are encouraged to choose a major in geology or environmental studies with a concentration in Ecology and Earth Systems or a double major involving geology and another natural science such as biology, chemistry, physics, or mathematics. Students contemplating a major in geology or an interdisciplinary major or double major are strongly encouraged to consult with the geology faculty during their second year to plan an appropriate program of study. All programs are subject to departmental approval.

Guidelines for Geology Majors Regarding Off-Campus Study.
1) The department recommends that majors who wish to study abroad do so for only one semester.
2) The department expects that majors will have completed the following major requirements prior to the semester abroad: one 100-level course; a minimum of three 200-level courses and one geology Short Term course.
3) The department expects that majors take all four 200-level courses at Bates.
4) The department expects that majors will have completed the following major requirements prior to their senior year: all four 200-level core courses and one 300-level course.
5) All applications for off-campus study require approval of the major advisor and the department chair.
6) Applications that involve exceptions to the above guidelines require a petition review and approval by the department.

Courses

GEO 103. Earth Surface Environments and Environmental Change/Lab.

The Earth's surface environments are in a constant state of change resulting from the interaction of its atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and lithosphere. Changes on the surface occur on various time scales from brief, severe storms to glaciations lasting thousands of years and changes in continents and ocean basin environments occurring over millions of years due to tectonic processes. Studies of surficial processes and materials illustrate the dynamic nature of the Earth and provide a key to understanding past and future environmental change. The lectures are complemented with field and laboratory study. Field experiences include day trips to local geologic settings and to the Maine coast. Enrollment limited to 30. Normally offered every year. [L] [Q] [S] [SR] M. Retelle, A. Doughty.
Concentrations

GEO 104. Plate Tectonics and Tectonic Hazards.

Volcanoes, earthquakes, and tsunamis are examples of tectonic hazards that directly affect human populations. Yet the processes responsible for such natural hazards are an integral part of the global tectonic cycle that over millions of years results in the formation of ocean basins, mountain ranges, and the global-scale motion of continents. Study of active and ancient tectonic activity is key to forecasting future volcanic eruptions and earthquakes as well as global environment change. The laboratory component emphasizes understanding global tectonic processes and reconstructing the tectonic history of southwestern Maine through field studies.

Enrollment limited to 26. Normally offered every year. [Q] [QF] [S] [SR] G. Robert.
Concentrations

GEO 107. Katahdin to Acadia: Field Geology in Maine/Lab.

The rocky coast and glaciated bedrock mountains of Maine have a rich 500-million-year geologic history. This hands-on, outdoor-oriented course on Maine's geologic history includes field trips to local geologic settings. Reading and making maps, recording field observations, writing papers, giving talks, and making posters about the variety of geologic environments are the major features of the course. The required trips involve strenuous hiking and sea kayaking. Appropriate outdoor clothing and footwear is needed. Not open to students who have received credit for FYS 327. Enrollment limited to 29. Normally offered every year. [L] [Q] [QF] [S] [SR] J. Eusden.
Concentrations

GEO 109. Global Change/Lab.

The Earth's system is comprised of the dynamic interactions between its various components: the biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, and the atmosphere. Humans are perturbing these components at unprecedented rates, resulting in environmental change on regional and global scales. In this laboratory course, students examine the Earth system on multiple timescales and investigate current topics in global change, including the impact of greenhouse gases on global climate, sea level, El Niño, global dimming, and ocean acidification. Laboratories include field trips to sites that illustrate environmental change on local and regional scales and analysis of large data sets. Not open to students who have received credit for GEO 108. Enrollment limited to 29. Normally offered every year. [L] [Q] [QF] [S] [SR] B. Johnson.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

BI/GE 113. Marine Science.

An integrated, interdisciplinary marine science overview encompassing physical, biological, and social aspects of the marine environment. Oceanography topics encompass origins and geological history of the oceans, structure of basins and sediments, ocean chemistry, as well as currents, waves, and tides. Biological subjects include diversity, physiology, and behavior of marine organisms, ecology of major marine communities, and global change biology. Social considerations include human impacts on marine environments (including fisheries) and conservation. Enrollment limited to 39. [Q] [QF] [S] [SR] Staff.
Concentrations

GEO 210. Sedimentary Processes and Environments/Lab.

The study of modern sedimentary processes and environments provides geologists with a basis for comparison with ancient deposits preserved in the rock record. The analysis of modern sedimentary environments and reconstruction of ancient environments permit stratigraphic reconstructions at regional and global scales. Laboratory work includes field studies of processes and interpretation of modern and ancient depositional systems. Prerequisite(s): one introductory geology course. [W2] Normally offered every year. [L] [Q] [QF] [S] [SR] A. Doughty, M. Retelle.
Concentrations

ES/GE 217. Mapping and GIS/Lab.

Geographical information systems (GIS) are computer-based systems for geographical data presentation and analysis. They allow rapid development of high-quality maps, and enable sophisticated examination of spatial patterns and interrelationships. In this course students learn the principles of GIS through extensive computer use of ArcGIS (ESRI). Geological and environmental projects introduce students to cartography, common sources of geographic data, methods for collecting novel spatial data, and data quality. Finally, students learn to extend the capabilities of GIS software to tackle more advanced spatial analysis tasks by completing an independent project. Lectures supplement the laboratory component of the course. Prerequisite: one 200-level course in environmental studies or one 100-level course in geology. Not open to students who have received credit for ENVR 220. Enrollment limited to 19. [L] [Q] [QF] [S] [SR] J. Eusden.
Concentrations

GE/PH 220. Dynamical Climate.

An introduction to the dynamical behavior of climate on geologic and human timescales. Simple conceptual models are developed, with the goal of understanding the role of feedbacks, stability, and abrupt changes. Topics include the basic physics of climate, El Niño/La Niña, climate models, the greenhouse effect and global warming, and glacial cycles. Python is used as the main computational tool; no prior experience is required. Prerequisite(s): MATH 106 and any 100-level geology course. Not open to students who have received credit for PHYS 220. Normally offered every year. [Q] [QF] [S] [SR] R. Saha.
Concentrations

GEO 223. Earth Materials/Lab.

Many geochemical processes that occur within the lithosphere, such as crystallization of magmas, metamorphism, and weathering, are understood through the study of minerals and mineral associations. This course covers the occurrence, composition, and compositional variation of the common silicate minerals, the mineral reactions and assemblages typical of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary environments, and contemporary applications to a range of tectonic processes. The laboratory involves hand-specimen identification of minerals and the determination of mineral composition by optical microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, and X-ray diffraction. Prerequisite(s): one introductory geology course. [W2] Normally offered every year. [L] [Q] [QF] [S] [SR] G. Robert.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ES/GE 226. Hydrogeology.

Hydrogeology is the study of the movement and interaction of underground fluids within rocks and sediments. This course uses hydrogeology as a disciplinary framework for learning about groundwater processes, contamination, supply, use, and management. Students engage in practical applications of hydrogeology via discussions, guest lectures, research projects, problem sets, and hands-on experience. Students learn field and laboratory methods for determining and analyzing groundwater flow, contamination, and aquifer properties by working at local sites of interest in central Maine. Prerequisite(s): ENVR 203 or one 100-level geology course. Enrollment limited to 22. [QF] [S] [SR] B. Johnson.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

GEO 230. Earth Structure and Dynamics/Lab.

The processes of mountain building and plate tectonics are understood by observing the structure and architecture of rocks. This course explores the nature and types of structures present in rocks that make up the Earth's crust. Fundamental concepts and principles of deformation are examined in a variety of field settings. The laboratory introduces the techniques used in descriptive and kinematic structural analysis. Several one-day excursions and one weekend field trip take place throughout Maine and the mountains of the northern Appalachians. Prerequisite(s): any introductory-level geology course. [W2] Normally offered every year. [L] [Q] [QF] [S] [SR] J. Eusden.
Concentrations

GEO 240. Environmental Geochemistry/Lab.

An introduction to the chemistry of geological processes that occur at the Earth's surface. Basic concepts of rock-water interactions, chemical equilibria, and biogeochemical cycling are presented in the context of natural settings as well as those influenced by anthropogenic activity. Students work on local environmental problems, which may include surface and groundwater contamination by salt, arsenic, nutrients, and/or heavy metals; acid mine drainage; and the history of lead deposition. The laboratory includes fieldwork and GIS, chemical analysis of environmental samples using inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy, and stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry and modeling using STELLA. Prerequisite(s): any 100-level geology course. Enrollment limited to 19. [W2] Normally offered every year. [L] [Q] [QF] [S] [SR] B. Johnson.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

GEO 310. Quaternary Paleoclimatology/Lab.

The Quaternary Period, representing the last 1.6 million years of geologic history, is characterized by extreme climatic fluctuations with effects ranging from globally synchronous glacier expansions to periods warmer than present. Records of the climatic fluctuations are contained in sediments on land and in the oceans and lakes and also in the stratigraphy of ice caps. This course examines various climate proxy records and the dating methods used to constrain them. Fieldwork focuses on the recovery of sediment cores from local lakes, while in-class labs emphasize physical, chemical, and paleontological analyses of the sediment cores. Prerequisite(s): any 200-level geology course. Not open to students who have received credit for GEO 311. [L] [Q] [S] [SR] M. Retelle.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

GEO 311. Quaternary Paleoclimatology.

The Quaternary Period, representing the last 1.6 million years of geologic history, is characterized by extreme climatic fluctuations with effects ranging from globally synchronous glacier expansions to periods warmer than present. Records of the climatic fluctuations are contained in sediments on land and in the oceans and lakes and also in the stratigraphy of ice caps. This course examines various climate proxy records and the dating methods used to constrain them. Fieldwork focuses on the recovery of sediment cores from local lakes, while in-class labs emphasize physical, chemical, and paleontological analyses of the sediment cores. Prerequisite(s): any 200-level geology course. Not open to students who have received credit for GEO 310. [Q] [S] M. Retelle.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

GEO 316. Glacial Geology.

Glaciers, ice caps, and ice sheets are presently located in high-latitude and high-altitude areas of the globe. However, during the height of the last ice age, about 18,000 years ago, major ice sheets extended to mid-latitudes from the polar regions and to lower elevations in mountainous regions of low latitudes. Lectures investigate processes of modern glaciers, evidence for former extent, and the cause of climatic variability between glacial and interglacial periods. The in-class labs introduce students to glaciogenic sediments, stratigraphic analysis, glacial landforms, and field mapping. Several one-day local field trips and one overnight field trip take students to sites in Maine and northern New England. Prerequisite(s): any 200-level geology course. [W2] [Q] [S] M. Retelle.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

GEO 326. Igneous Petrology/Lab.

Igneous processes have led to the formation of the Earth's core and have since recorded the crustal evolution of the planet. This course emphasizes the application of physical chemistry to the understanding of crystallization processes in magmas and the importance of melt physical properties for the emplacement of magma, the eruption of lava, and the textural evolution of igneous rocks. Key topics include the formation of magmas in different tectonic settings, the physical processes of volcanism, and fluid flow within the Earth. Laboratory work emphasizes petrologic modeling, the interpretation of igneous textures in hand sample and thin section, and field studies of igneous localities in Maine. Prerequisite(s): any 200-level geology course. Recommended background: GEO 223. Enrollment limited to 15. [L] [Q] [QF] [S] [SR] G. Robert.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

GEO 340. Stable Isotope Geochemistry/Lab.

The stable isotope composition of modern and ancient waters and biological materials has revolutionized our understanding of biogeochemical cycling at the Earth's surface and of environmental change. This course focuses on the theory and applications of stable isotope fractionation in water and biological materials for modern and past environmental research. The laboratory includes fieldwork within the Androscoggin River watershed and the Maine coast and use of a stable isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Students are engaged in projects that may include tracking changes in carbon cycling in lakes, salt marshes, and trees through time, and documenting changes in energy flow in modern and ancient marine food webs. The interdisciplinary nature of the subject material lends itself well to upper-level students from a variety of science majors. Prerequisite(s): CHEM 107A and any 200-level geology course. Recommended background: GEO 240. Not open to students who have received credit for GEO 341. Enrollment limited to 10. [L] [Q] [QF] [S] [SR] B. Johnson.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

GEO 341. Stable Isotope Geochemistry.

The stable isotope composition of modern and ancient waters and biological materials has revolutionized our understanding of biogeochemical cycling at the Earth's surface and of environmental change. This course focuses on the theory and applications of stable isotope fractionation in water and biological materials for modern and past environmental research. The course may include fieldwork within the Androscoggin River watershed and the Maine coast and use of a stable isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Students are engaged in projects that may include tracking changes in carbon cycling in lakes, salt marshes, and trees through time, and documenting changes in energy flow in modern and ancient marine food webs. The interdisciplinary nature of the subject material lends itself well to upper-level students from a variety of science majors. Prerequisite(s): CHEM 107A and any 200-level geology course. Recommended background: GEO 240. Not open to students who have received credit for GEO 340. Enrollment limited to 15. [Q] [QF] [S] [SR] B. Johnson.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

GEO 360. Independent Study.

Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study per semester. Normally offered every semester. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

GEO 365. Special Topics.

A course reserved for a special topic selected by the department. Instructor permission is required.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

GEO 383. The Lithosphere/Lab.

The formation and occurrence of rocks in the lithosphere are directly relatable to plate tectonic processes. Tectonic environments such as rift valleys or subduction zones are characterized by specific assemblages of igneous and metamorphic rocks. This course examines rock and mineral assemblages typical of global tectonic environments, the processes by which they are generated, and the methods by which they are studied. Prerequisite(s): any 200-level geology course. Recommended background: GEO 223. [L] [Q] [QF] [S] [SR] G. Robert.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

GEO 391. Seminar in Appalachian Geology/Lab.

A study of the Appalachian Mountain Belt and the tectonic evolution of the Appalachian Mountains. Plate tectonic models that are particularly helpful are discussed in detail. Students are expected to conduct independent work and give oral and written reports. Fieldwork includes several day trips and an overnight traverse through the northern Appalachians of Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine. Prerequisite(s): any 200-level geology course. [L] [Q] [S] [SR] J. Eusden.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

GEO 457. Senior Thesis.

The thesis is a program of independent research conducted by the student, on a field and/or laboratory problem, under the direction of a faculty mentor. Seniors participate in the regularly scheduled weekly seminar. Such participation includes preparation of a thesis proposal and a thesis outline, timely submission of written results, and oral progress reports of thesis research. Students are responsible for scheduling individual meetings with their faculty committee. A public presentation and an oral defense are scheduled during the final week of the semester. Students conducting a one-semester thesis register for GEO 457 in the fall semester. Students conducting a two-semester thesis must register for both 457 and 458. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

GEO 458. Senior Thesis.

The thesis is a program of independent research conducted by the student, on a field and/or laboratory problem, under the direction of a faculty mentor. Seniors participate in the regularly scheduled weekly seminar. Such participation includes preparation of a thesis proposal and a thesis outline, timely submission of written results, and oral progress reports of thesis research. Students are responsible for scheduling individual meetings with their faculty committee. A public presentation and an oral defense are scheduled the during the final week of the winter semester. Students register for GEO 458 in the winter semester. Beginning in academic year 2020-2021, GEO 458 will be required for honors thesis candidates only. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

Short Term Courses

GEO s20. Lost Beaches of Maine.

An introduction to coastal types, processes, and geologic history, this course includes lecture, research, and text-based learning intertwined with computational GIS mapping of coastal features and multi-day field trips to Maine's present and past shorelines. The course examines coastal features of Maine (both erosional and depositional), including how to identify, map, and monitor modern coastal changes. The course culminates in an extensive field excursion to visit sites targeted by students during the mapping process to verify past shoreline locations in Maine when relative sea level was higher than it is today. Recommended background: course work in environmental studies or geology. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 18. [L] [Q] [QF] [S] [SR] A. Doughty.
Concentrations

GEO s23. Melts, Glasses, and Magmas/Lab.

The Earth cools as magma transports heat from its interior to the surface, sometimes resulting in spectacular volcanic eruptions. This course explores the factors that control magma behavior in various geologic systems by studying fossil magma chambers in Maine, performing hands-on experiments with food analogs or molten rock in the laboratory at Bates, and working with industrial glass in art studios. Prerequisite(s): any 100-level chemistry, geology, or physics course. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 18. [L] [Q] [QF] [S] [SR] G. Robert.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

GEO s31. Limnology and Paleolimnology of Lakes in Northern New England/Lab.

This course studies the present and past environmental conditions of lake basins in northern New England. Modern conditions such as thermal and chemical stratification and hydrologic and sedimentary inputs are monitored in local watersheds. Cores and acoustic profiles of bottom sediments are obtained to study the long-term climatic history. The course is project-oriented with several off campus, multi-day field trips. Students collect field data, perform laboratory analysis of core and water samples, and prepare a final report. Participants must be able to swim. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: GEO 103, 104, 107, or 109. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 12. Instructor permission is required. [L] [Q] [S] [SR] M. Retelle.
Concentrations

GEO s36. Coastal Hazards.

Humans have always lived along the world's coastlines. Constantly changing coastal landscapes, combined with increases in coastal populations, present a unique and challenging set of pressures for people living at the boundary between land and sea. In this course, students explore coastal processes (e.g., erosion, sea level rise, storm events, and tsunamis) and coastal features (e.g., beaches, salt marshes, and barrier islands) in a variety of geological settings. The first half of the course is spent studying sites in Maine; the second half of the course may be spent studying coastlines in other countries depending on the year offered, places where people have taken extreme measures to live by the sea and mitigate coastal hazards. Prerequisite(s): Any 100-level geology course. Not open to students who have received credit for FYS 476. Enrollment limited to 14. [CP] [L] [Q] [S] [SR] B. Johnson.
Concentrations

GEO s39. Geology of the Maine Coast by Sea Kayak.

Six hundred million years of geologic history are preserved in the spectacular rock exposures of the Maine coast. Students learn how to interpret this geologic history by completing four one-week bedrock mapping projects of coastal exposures on offshore islands. Islands in Casco Bay, Penobscot Bay, and Acadia National Park are used as both base camps and field sites for these projects. Students travel to and from these islands in sea kayaks. Students are trained in kayaking techniques, sea kayak rescue and safety, and low-impact camping by a certified kayak instructor who stays with the group for the entire Short Term. No previous kayaking experience is necessary. Participants must be able to swim. Prerequisite(s): any 100-level geology course. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 10. [L] [Q] [QF] [S] [SR] J. Eusden.
Concentrations

GEO s50. Independent Study.

Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study during a Short Term. Normally offered every year. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations