Politics

Professors Ásgeirsdóttir, Engel, and Richter; Associate Professors Aslan (chair), Baughman, and Pérez-Armendáriz; Assistant Professor Gilson, Ko, and Lim; Visiting Assistant Professors Bedecarré, Grahame, Price, and Puck

Politics is the study of the processes that define, produce, and distribute power, authority, and values. Political studies inherently subvert the naturalness and inevitability of what is, by looking historically and cross-culturally at what has been in other times or places, and what might be. Politics is a heterogeneous scholarly field that utilizes a range of research methods and a variety of diverse forms of evidence, both qualitative and quantitative. The discipline analyzes political processes at individual, local, national, and international levels. Students consider topics such as states, political institutions, social movements, political ideologies, identities, cooperation, conflict, war, and diplomacy. Courses engage multiple disciplinary approaches and cultural perspectives, stressing the importance of the diversity of political experience, including a global range of politics that address the roles of race, class, ethnicity, sexuality, and gender in political life. More information on the politics department is available on the website (bates.edu/politics).

Major Requirements for the Class of 2023 and beyond

Students majoring in politics must complete eleven courses including:

1) Five courses in a politics major concentration (see "Politics Major Concentrations" below), which include:

a) no more than one 100-level course, which should be taken prior to beginning the senior research and writing experience (PLTC 456, 457, or 458);
b) at least one 300-level seminar, which should be taken prior to beginning the senior research and writing experience (PLTC 456, 457, or 458).

2) Three courses in politics not listed among the courses in the student's chosen politics major concentration. These courses must be taken from at least two different concentrations.

3) Two additional courses in any politics major concentration.

4) One senior research and writing experience, which can be completed through the senior thesis seminar (PLTC 456) or through a thesis project guided through independent study with a faculty member in politics (PLTC 457 or PLTC 458).

All of the above requirements are subject to the following stipulations:

Students must take at least two 300-level seminars, at least one of which must be in the student's major concentration. These seminars should, ideally, be taken before the Senior Research and Writing Experience (PLTC 456, 457, or 458).

Students may count no more than two Short Term courses toward the major.

Courses not taught at Bates may count toward requirements in categories (2) or (3). One approved non-politics Bates course can only count toward requirements in category (3). Requirements in category (1), the student's major concentration, must be completed with Bates politics courses.

Subject to the approval of the department chair, transfer students may receive credit for up to four courses toward the major taken prior to their arrival at Bates, and must take at least seven courses in the major on the Bates campus. The seven courses include the 300-level seminar in the concentration and senior thesis (457 or 458).

For additional information for the Class of 2023 and beyond, see the section below entitled "Considerations for Majors of All Class Years."

Major Requirements for the Class of 2022

Students majoring in politics must complete eleven courses including:

1) Five courses in a politics major concentration (see "Politics Major Concentrations" below), which include:

a) no more than one 100-level course;
b) at least one 300-level seminar, and;
c) senior thesis (456, 457, or 458) on a topic related to the politics major concentration.

2) Three courses in politics not listed among the courses in the student's chosen politics major concentration. These courses must be taken from at least two different concentrations.

3) s49 (Political Inquiry: Elements of Research Design), which must be taken in the sophomore or junior year and is a prerequisite for the senior thesis (456, 457 or 458). Note: If a major were unable to take PLTC s49 due to the cancellation of Short Term 2019, they should take a second 300-level seminar, which may be inside or outside the student's area of concentration.

4) Two other courses in any politics major concentration.

All of the above requirements are subject to the following stipulations:

Students must take at least one 300-level seminar, which must be in the student's major concentration.

Students may count no more than two Short Term courses, including s49, toward the major.

Courses not taught at Bates may count toward requirement (2) or (4). One approved non-politics Bates course can only count toward requirement (4). Requirements (1) and (3) must be completed with Bates politics courses.

Subject to the approval of the department chair, transfer students may receive credit for up to four courses toward the major taken prior to their arrival at Bates, and must take at least seven courses in the major on the Bates campus. The seven courses include s49, a 300-level seminar in the concentration, and senior thesis (457 or 458).

Considerations for Majors of All Class Years

Students may count no more than two 100-level courses total toward the major, and only one 100-level course can count toward the student's chosen politics major concentration.

A first-year seminar may count toward the politics major if and only if it is taught by a member of the politics faculty. First-year seminars count as 100-level courses.

Students may not count internships or courses transferred from other colleges or universities toward the major concentration.

Subject to the approval of the department chair, students may apply no more than two courses taken outside of the Bates politics department to the major. This option may include up to two courses not taught at Bates (e.g., study abroad or summer study). To receive approval for these courses, students must provide evidence of their content and to the work completed to the politics department chair. Within this category of courses taken outside of the Bates politics department, students may receive credit for no more than one Bates course that is not within the politics curriculum. The list of approved courses can be found atwww.bates.edu/politics. This list is updated annually.

Politics Major Concentrations

As politics is a heterogeneous scholarly field that utilizes a range of research methods and a variety of diverse forms of evidence, both qualitative and quantitative, and as students have opportunity to study topics such as state, political institutions, social movements, political ideologies, identities, cooperation, conflict, war, and diplomacy, the major is designed to ensure that students have exposure to and can explore a variety of themes, topics, and methods. Concentrations emphasize approaches ranging from statistical analysis, to qualitative case studies or close reading of a variety of texts.

Students majoring in politics must declare a concentration within the major. Concentrations enable students to focus on a particular area of interest while also ensuring that they can acquire a broad breadth of engagement with topics across the discipline. The major concentrations are:

Institutional Politics (IP): Courses examine how formal and informal organizations, rules, and norms structure behaviors, social interactions, and outcomes of the political process.

Identities and Interests (II): Courses examine how power relations and political choices are both embedded in and constructed by conceptions of ideologies, interests, and identities.

Political Economy (PE): Courses examine how political and market institutions interact to create and distribute wealth locally, nationally, and internationally.

Philosophical, Literary, and Legal Studies (PLL): Courses examine the normative core and fundamental questions of politics with particular attention to power, value and authority.

Security, Cooperation, and Conflict (SCC): Courses examine the nature and dynamics of political conflict, contention, and resolution, with a particular focus on war, peace, civil strife, international cooperation, conflict resolution, protest, and dissent.

Declaring a Major in Politics

To declare a major in politics, the student must complete both the college's process on Garnet Gateway and the department's major declaration form, which is available on the politics department website. The student must meet first with the department associate chair, who assigns the major advisor, and then with the major advisor to discuss the contents of the politics declaration form.

A new form must be completed and approved by the department associate chair and major advisor if the student's politics major concentration changes.

Pass/Fail Grading Option

Pass/fail grading may be elected for one course applied toward the major. This course must be below the 300 level.

Courses
INDC 100. African Perspectives on Justice, Human Rights, and Renewal.
This team-taught course introduces students to some of the experiences, cultural beliefs, values, and voices shaping contemporary Africa. Students focus on the impact of climatic, cultural, and geopolitical diversity; the politics of ethnicity, religion, age, race, and gender and their influence on daily life; and the forces behind contemporary policy and practice in Africa. The course forges students' critical capacity to resist simplistic popular understandings of what is taking place on the continent and works to refocus their attention on distinctively "African perspectives." Students design a research project to augment their knowledge about a specific issue within a particular region. The course is primarily for first- and second-year students with little critical knowledge of Africa and serves as the introduction to the General Education concentration Considering Africa (C022). Cross-listed in anthropology, French and Francophone studies, and history. Enrollment limited to 39. (History: Africa.) (Politics: Identities and Interests.) (Politics: Security, Conflict, and Cooperation.) Normally offered every year. [AC] [HS] A. Dauge-Roth, P. Otim.
Concentrations
PLTC 115. U.S. Political Institutions and Processes.
This introductory description and analysis of United States governmental and political institutions and processes is particularly focused on exploring the conditions and strategies for political decision making. It is organized to introduce students to common questions about and analysis of federal institutions (Presidency, Congress, Judiciary), Constitutional history and the founding, political parties, elections, voting behavior interest groups, and public opinion. Enrollment limited to 39. (Politics: Identities and Interests.) (Politics: Institutional Politics.) Normally offered every year. [HS] S. Engel, J. Baughman.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 121. Moral Questions and Political Choice.
The world is growing smaller, and life in a global context involves making decisions about controversial political questions. On what basis do we make these decisions? What is the right way to think about questions of poverty, violence, women's roles, or human rights, and how do we know? This course explores the moral questions embedded in discussions of political change. Students read a diverse range of theoretical and historical materials to think about questions of human nature, proper human interactions, justice, freedom, responsibility, and potentiality. Students also write short research papers and personal essays. The objective is to better understand the moral and political questions involved in citizenship in a global world. Enrollment limited to 39. (Politics: Identities and Interests.) (Politics: Philosophical, Literary, and Legal Studies.) [AC] [HS] Staff.
PLTC 122. Government and Politics in Comparative Perspective.
In this course, students consider the principal theories and methods for studying comparative politics. What is the State and how did it come about? What characterizes a democratic regime and how is it different from a non-democratic regime? How and why do some regimes become authoritarian and why do some regimes undergo successful democratic transition? What have been the primary approaches to economic development and its relationship to political development? How do countries approach redistributive economic policy? What is the role of identity in global politics? How and why do people mobilize and when does mobilization result in revolution or political violence? Not open to students who have received credit for PLTC 123. Enrollment limited to 39. (Politics: Institutional Politics.) (Politics: Security, Conflict, and Cooperation.) C. Pérez-Armendáriz.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 123. Introduction to Comparative Politics.
Comparative politics is a broad field of study that compares issues and institutions across countries or analyzes political institutions and processes within one country. This course introduces the comparative method to interrogate four main questions: Why do countries adopt certain institutions and how do they impact politics and society? Why are some countries more democratic than others? Why are certain countries wealthier than others? Not open to students who have received credit for PLTC 122. Enrollment limited to 39. (Politics: Institutional Politics.) (Politics: Security, Conflict, and Cooperation.) Normally offered every semester. L. Puck.
PLTC 125. States and Markets.
Given the current debate over globalization, questions about the relationship between states and markets—domestic and global—have become increasingly contested. With that in mind, this course examines how the relationship between states and markets has changed over the past fifty years, exploring such questions as: What is a state? What is a market? How do markets constrain the state? To what extent can the state rein in market forces? How has the relationship between states and markets changed over time? Do states differ in their ability to influence markets? Enrollment limited to 39. (Politics: Institutional Politics.) (Politics: Political Economy.) Normally offered every year. [AC] [HS] A. Grahame, Á. Ásgeirsdóttir.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

GS/PT 155. Gender, Power, and Politics.
This course scrutinizes several sites where power is produced—constitutions, international politics, political theory, social movements, and globalization— in order to assess the impact of gender on the status, behavior, and authority of different political actors. Recognizing how race, class, sexuality, and citizen status matter, students consider why women are under-represented in nearly all governments and how differences in national and international settings occur. Students examine questions, concepts, and theories that acknowledge women's political agency and help assess their influence across a range of political systems. Enrollment limited to 39. (Politics: Identities and Interests.) (Politics: Philosophical, Literary, and Legal Studies.) S. Lim.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 171. International Politics.
This course explores some of the many structures and processes that organize world politics, including the system of sovereign states, the global capitalist economy, and the varied meanings assigned to "nation" and "gender." To examine how these structures reinforce, intrude upon, and sometimes subvert each other, this course focuses on specific case studies such as international efforts to regulate climate change, nuclear proliferation, international trade, and intellectual property rights. Enrollment limited to 39. (Politics: Political Economy.) (Politics: Security, Conflict, and Cooperation.) Normally offered every year. [HS] J. Richter, S. Lim.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 191. Western Political Theory.
The course examines the relation of Western political thought to current struggles against various forms of oppression. When white Western male theorists use the language of truth and justice, law and order, or rights and liberty, do they speak for everyone? Or do their writings reinforce asymmetries of economic and social power? Students consider various responses to such questions while reading and discussing selections from Plato, Locke, Wollstonecraft, and Marx. Enrollment limited to 39. (Politics: Identities and Interests.) (Politics: Philosophical, Literary, and Legal Studies.) Normally offered every year. [AC] [HS] L. Gilson.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 203. Colorblind or Racialized? Law and Policy in the Making of Race.
Is America "post-racial"? Recent media focus on police shootings, wealth gaps, and ongoing debates about immigration suggest that race and inequality continue to shape life experiences of Americans in the twenty-first century. This course examines current policy issues, asking how public and private discourses and institutional practices shape understandings of race and justice. Students consider how perceptions of race, ethnicity, and "colorblindness" are embedded in patterns of disparity and investigate alternatives that ordinary people and some political elites are posing for more judicious policy to foster equality and racial justice. Recommended background: AFR 100; PLTC 115; or one 100-level history course. Not open to students who have received credit for FYS 450. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 29. (Politics: Identities and Interests.) (Politics: Institutional Politics.) [AC] [HS] Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 205. State-Society Relations in the Modern Middle East.
Like no other political entity in history, the modern state seeks to transform society into an image of its own making and to harness its citizens' productive power for its own benefit. States in the Middle East, like those all over the world, have attempted this feat with varying degrees of success and failure. This course examines state efforts to dominate and shape society in the Middle East and the myriad ways that social groups have resisted, assisted, and otherwise modified state rule. Prerequisite(s): any 100-level course in politics. Recommended background: PLTC 262. Enrollment limited to 29. (Politics: Institutional Politics.) (Politics: Security, Conflict, and Cooperation.) [AC] [HS] S. Aslan.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

LL/PT 208. Latinx Politics.
This course explores the role of Latinos in the state and national politics of the United States. It begins by examining the meaning of Latino, then explores the history of Latino political organization, social movements (civil rights), and political incorporation (citizenship acquisition, registration and voting). The course considers contemporary Latino participation in U.S. politics, including modes of political organization, social movements, public opinion, the impact of Latino voters on recent campaigns and elections, and the election of Latinos to public office. Although the course gives particular attention to Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Dominicans, Salvadorans, and Cubans, it also serves as an introduction to the broader study of ethnic politics in the United States. Recommended background: PLTC 115. Not open to students who have received credit for LS/PT 208. Enrollment limited to 29. (Politics: Identities and Interests.) Normally offered every year. [HS] C. Pérez-Armendáriz.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 210. International Human Rights in Africa.
This course offers an in-depth survey, analysis, and assessment of international human rights as a global regime and institution. Students first learn the origins of the concept of human rights by surveying religious, traditional, and early legal documents. Then they consider different generations of human rights and the different categories and international treaties that accompany them. The course examines case studies in Africa to better understand and analyze the debates and implementation surrounding human rights. Recommended background: INDS 100 or PLTC 122 or 171. Not open to students who have received credit for PLTC 309. Enrollment limited to 15. (Politics: Philosophical, Literary, and Legal Studies.) (Politics: Security, Conflict, and Cooperation.) [AC] [HS] S. Lim.
PLTC 211. American Parties and Elections.
The origins, structures, activities, and functions of parties in the American political system. Students analyze elections, voter behavior, campaign strategy, campaign finance, and the role of parties in the operation of government. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: PLTC 115, 122, or 125. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 29. (Politics: Identities and Interests.) (Politics: Institutional Politics.) [HS] J. Baughman.
PT/SO 212. Race and Mass Incarceration in the United States.
This course provides an analysis of the criminal justice system with a particular focus on the centrality of crime policy to the making of race in the United States. Specifically, the course examines the war on drugs. Students consider how changes to laws and policies transformed the way we punish crime as a country, and their disproportionate impact on Black and Brown communities. Students also explore reformist and abolitionist social movements and their efforts to redress these disparities in the criminal justice system through policy change. Recommended background: PLTC 115. Enrollment limited to 29. (Politics: Identities and Interests.) (Politics: Institutional Politics.) One-time offering. K. Bedecarré.
PLTC 213. Great Power Politics.
Since the end of the cold war, the United States has been the preeminent power in international politics, with unrivaled military strength, the largest economy, and the greatest influence on global culture. Though the United States retains its advantage in each of these areas, many believe its relative strength has declined in recent years with the increasing economic might of the People's Republic of China and the growing assertiveness of the Russian Federation, challenging presumptions of globalization. This course considers whether earlier discussions of great power politics remain relevant to international politics today, focusing on the foreign policies of the United States, China, the Russian Federation, and the most influential voices of the European Union, France and Germany. Prerequisite(s) or corequisite(s): PLTC 171, 122, 225, or 283. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 29. (Politics: Security, Conflict, and Cooperation.) J. Richter.
PLTC 215. Political Participation in the United States.
Citizen participation lies at the heart of democratic decision making, but its importance extends well beyond formal tools like voting. This course explores the many ways in which Americans participate in politics and voice demands on the government, both formally and informally, from letters to the president to demonstrations in the streets. Students also look at who uses these tools, including the ways in which class, race, and gender affect political influence. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: PLTC 115, 122, or 125. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 29. (Politics: Identities and Interests.) (Politics: Institutional Politics.) [HS] J. Baughman, K. Bedecarré.
PLTC 216. Constitutional Law I: Balance of Powers.
This course investigates the development of constitutional law in the United States, with focus on governmental structure — popular sovereignty, separation of powers, and federalism — and some basic and contested techniques of constitutional interpretation. Topics include the powers of the legislative branch, the presidency, and the judiciary; the development of judicial review; the relationship among the three federal branches; the balance of powers between the federal government and state governments; and government regulation of citizens' economic rights. Prerequisite(s): PLTC 115 or 191. Enrollment limited to 29. (Politics: Institutional Politics.) (Politics: Philosophical, Literary, and Legal Studies.) [AC] [HS] S. Engel.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 218. Statistics for Political Analysis.
In this course, students learn how political scientists use statistics. They learn basic statistical concepts, make controlled comparisons, use statistical tests and measures of association to make inferences, and conduct linear regressions. The course develops practical skills, including the ability to use the computing program R, create graphs and perform statistical analysis using R. Students also explore the advantages and limitations of statistics as a research methodology as well as questions of research ethics. Politics majors may not count the course toward their major concentration; however, regardless of their concentration, students may count the course as one of the required courses outside of their major concentration. Prerequisite(s): one 100-level course in politics. Enrollment limited to 29. [Q] [QF] J. Ko.
GS/PT 219. Social Movements in Latin America.
Social movements have often played key roles in Latin American politics. In the 1980s, grassroots movements against dictatorships raised hopes that poor and marginalized groups might spur processes of democratization and development. In the new democratic regimes, however, significant social and economic inequalities persist, marking political and social space in acute ways. This course explores the struggle by poor and marginalized groups for space, both theoretically and literally, through examination of rural landless movements, urban squatter movements, LGBT movements, and women's movements in the region. Enrollment limited to 29. (Politics: Identities and Interests.) (Politics: Security, Conflict, and Cooperation.) Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 222. International Political Economy.
This course offers an introduction to the theories and debates regarding the politics of trade, multinational corporations, money and finance, and regional integration of developed and developing countries. Students explore the connections between international politics and economics both historically and in the contemporary era of "globalization." Topics include the power of transnational corporations, the emergence and significance of the World Trade Organization, and the European Union and the role of the International Monetary Fund in the development world. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 29. (Politics: Political Economy.) (Politics: Security, Conflict, and Cooperation.) [HS] A. Grahame, Á. Ásgeirsdóttir.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

PLTC 225. International Security.
War and conflict are persistent elements in international politics. There are many forms of international conflict, including global wars, local wars, terrorism, and insurgencies. This course begins by looking at the causes of war and conflict, examines forms of conflict, and ends with a look at war's consequences. It provides some historical background, but concentrates on explaining issues in contemporary international politics. Recommended background: PLTC 171. Enrollment limited to 29. (Politics: Institutional Politics.) (Politics: Security, Conflict, and Cooperation.) [HS] J. Ko.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 230. The U.S. Congress.
This course explores the U.S. Congress and legislative politics. Students examine the practice and significance of congressional elections and the organization and behavior of congressional institutions, including their historical development, with a special emphasis on the connection between electoral behavior and lawmaking.Prerequisite(s): one of the following: PLTC 115, 122, or 125. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 29. (Politics: Identities and Interests.) (Politics: Institutional Politics.) [HS] J. Baughman.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 236. The Global Politics of Climate Change.
Few issues are likely to affect the lives of young people across the globe as much as climate change. Few issues engage more diverse social actors and present such complexities in devising a response. This course uses climate change as an extended case study to examine theories of international cooperation around climate change and examine the structures, actors, and processes of governance on a global scale. Prerequisite(s): any 100-level course in politics or any 200-level course in environmental studies. Enrollment limited to 29. (Politics: Political Economy.) (Politics: Security, Conflict, and Cooperation.) [HS] J. Richter.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

INDC 238. Queer Power: Political Sociology of U.S. Sexuality Movements.
This course introduces students to social movement theory and interest group politics in the United States via the case study of gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ+) politics from the immediate post-World War II period to the present, and it examines the relationship of sexuality to the racial and gender dynamics of U.S. identity-based social movements. The course traces the development of research methodologies to study collective action from early rational choice models to resource mobilization theory to new social movement models and political opportunity and process models. How the LGBTQ+ movements drew upon, expanded, and challenged foundations established by both African American civil rights and feminism is also explored. Cross-listed in gender and sexuality studies, politics, and sociology. Prerequisite(s): any 100-level course in gender and sexuality studies, politics, or sociology. Enrollment limited to 29. (Politics: Identities and Interests.) (Politics: Institutional Politics.) [AC] [HS] S. Engel.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

PLTC 243. Politics and Literature.
Why would a politically-opinionated person write a piece of literature rather than a political treatise? This course explores what the literary form might reveal about politics that more formal political theory misses. Students examine four interconnected topics — gender politics, political fugitives, utopias and dystopias, and the social construction of race — to consider the advantages of narrative writing for expressing one's political views. Readings span across space and time, from Ursula Le Guin’s The Dispossessed, and Sophocles' Antigone to The Bluest Eye by Toni Morrison. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 29. (Politics: Identities and Interests.) (Politics: Philosophical, Literary, and Legal Studies.) [AC] [HS] L. Gilson.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 247. Transition and Transformation in Southern Africa.
This course reviews historical legacies and contemporary dynamics of social organization as well as economic structures to identify critical features of governance and political life. The course examines factors underlying African states' governance, semi-authoritarian impulses, social democratic forces, and consolidation of democracy. Students consider cases of political rule and citizen engagement in several of the region's hybrid, developmental, and transforming states. Recommended background: PLTC 122, 155, 171, or 290. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 29. (Politics: Political Economy.) (Politics: Security, Conflict, and Cooperation.) [AC] [HS] Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

LL/PT 249. Politics of Latin America.
This course considers how major political and economic actors, events, and ideas from the late nineteenth century to the beginning of the twenty-first contribute to strengthening or weakening democratic governance in South America today. Students consider mass politics and populism, regime breakdown and military rule, the twin challenges of democratic transitions and neoliberal economic reforms, and finally the post-transition challenges of persistent low quality of democracies and income inequality. Recommended background: HI/LL 181 and PLTC 122. Not open to students who have received credit for LS/PT 249 or PLTC 249. Enrollment limited to 29. (Politics: Identities and Interests.) (Politics: Political Economy.) [HS] C. Pérez-Armendáriz, L. Puck.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

INDC 257. African American Women's History and Social Transformation.
This course examines the political, social, and cultural traditions created by Black women from slavery to the present. Students consider their transformative influence on major questions and social movements. Through novels, plays, autobiography, music, and nonfiction produced by and about Black women, students explore a range of intellectual and cultural traditions. Cross-listed in Africana, gender and sexuality studies, history, and politics. Recommended background: one course in gender and sexuality studies and/or one course in Africana. Enrollment limited to 30. (Africana: Gender.) (Africana: Historical Perspective.) (Politics: Identities and Interests.) (Politics: Institutional Politics.) [HS] M. Plastas.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

PLTC 260. Nationalism and Nation Building.
This course provides an overview of major theories on nationalism and nation building. It introduces different forms of nationalism and discusses the relationship between the emergence of modern states and the idea of national identity. Students explore how nationalism relates to state building, citizenship, different regime types, economic change, gender, and religion. Case studies are drawn from the experiences of national identity formation in countries such as France, Germany, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Iran, and India. Recommended background: any 100-level course in politics or any course in European studies. Enrollment limited to 29. (Politics: Identities and Interests.) (Politics: Security, Conflict, and Cooperation.) [AC] [HS] S. Aslan.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

PLTC 261. Nuclear Politics.
This course explores the history and politics of the use and non-use of nuclear weapons and nuclear proliferation in international relations. Why do states develop nuclear weapons? Did the creation of nuclear weapons bring a fundamental shift in the nature of warfare and international relations? If so, how? What is the strategic and political utility of nuclear weapons? Do nuclear weapons increase the likelihood of victory in international crises? Recommended background: PLTC 171. Enrollment limited to 29. (Politics: Institutional Politics.) (Politics: Security, Conflict, and Cooperation.) Normally offered every year. [HS] J. Ko.
PLTC 262. Politics of the Modern Middle East.
An introduction to the politics of the Middle East and North Africa, concentrating on the history of the Muslim world, including the rise of Islam, empires, colonialism, and the formation of modern states in the twentieth century. Students investigate different regime types, political ideologies, authoritarianism, political economy, and the politics of gender in various Middle Eastern countries, including Egypt, Morocco, Iran, Turkey, Syria, and Saudi Arabia. They also discuss prospects for democracy and liberalization in different Middle Eastern countries. Recommended background: any 100-level politics course. Not open to students who have received credit for PLTC 160. Enrollment limited to 29. (Politics: Identities and Interests.) (Politics: Security, Conflict, and Cooperation.) [AC] [HS] S. Aslan.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 263. Women and the Women’s Movement in Africa.
The depiction of Africa in Western media is often negative, dealing mostly with civil conflicts, epidemics, lack of resources, and human rights abuses. While these certainly remain a reality, they provide a limited perspective. This course strays away from such preconceptions and examines issues surrounding women in Africa, including political participation, conflict, women’s rights, and civil society. Students having taken courses in international relations, politics, and gender and sexuality studies may have an easier time understanding the theoretical framework, but such courses are not required. Prerequisite(s): one 100-level politics course. Recommended background: GS/PT 155, INDS 100, PLTC 122, or PLTC 171. Enrollment limited to 29. (Politics: Identities and Interests.) (Politics: Institutional Politics.) S. Lim.
ES/PT 272. Oikos: Rethinking Economy and Ecology.
Economy and ecology share the same Greek root: oikos, or "home." Both name relationships that are crucial to the sustenance of life, yet these two domains often appear to be locked in mortal combat. Why is the oikos of modern life torn asunder? What is this split and how did it arise? Is reconciliation possible? If so, what might it entail? This course brings critical tools from political theory and science studies to bear on these questions, exploring a variety of attempts to rethink the relation between economy and ecology and to reconfigure the very nature of the categories themselves. Recommended background: one course in anthropology, economics, environmental studies, politics, or sociology. Enrollment limited to 29. (Politics: Philosophical, Literary, and Legal Studies.) (Politics: Political Economy.) [HS] E. Miller.
PLTC 276. U.S. Foreign Policy.
This course traces the historical and institutional roots of U.S. foreign policy themes. Students draw on primary documents to capture recurring debates such as imperialism vs. isolationism and free trade vs. protectionism. Students then turn to issues such as intervention, environmental policy, and other contemporary challenges. Special attention is given to the potential conflicts between an effective foreign policy and democratic governance. Enrollment limited to 29. (Politics: Political Economy.) (Politics: Security, Conflict, and Cooperation.) [HS] Staff.
PLTC 281. Terrorism, Insurgency, and Civil War.
Intrastate conflicts have been the dominant form of political violence since 1945. While their number has fallen since the end of the cold war, they have caused more than 15 million deaths since 1945, and in the words of a World Bank overview, represent "development in reverse." Beyond their enormous human cost, these conflicts impact many elements of politics, such as state building, political institutions, and the ordering of political power. This course examines the causes, dynamics, prospects for peace, and lasting legacies of political violence in a variety of cases, through a mix of reading, lectures, discussion, writing, and presentations. Recommended background: Familiarity with statistics and calculus is helpful, but not required. Enrollment limited to 29. (Politics: Identities and Interests.) (Politics: Security, Conflict, and Cooperation.) One-time offering. C. Price.
GS/PT 282. Constitutional Law II: Rights and Identities.
An introduction to constitutional interpretation and development in civil rights and race equality jurisprudence, gender equality jurisprudence, sexual orientation law, and matters related to privacy and autonomy (particularly sexual autonomy involving contraception and abortion access). Expanding, contracting, or otherwise altering the meaning of a right involves a range of actors in a variety of venues, not only courts. Therefore, students consider rights from a "law and society" perspective, analyzing judicial rulings as well as evaluating the social conceptualization, representation, and grassroots mobilization around these rights. Prerequisite(s): PLTC 115 or 191 or any course in gender and sexuality studies. Recommended background: PLTC 216. Enrollment limited to 29. (Politics: Identities and Interests.) (Politics: Philosophical, Literary, and Legal Studies.) [AC] [HS] S. Engel.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

AS/PT 283. International Politics of East Asia.
This course examines the security, political, economic, and cultural relations of East Asia through a range of theoretical perspectives in international relations. The major goal of the course is to understand the character, causes, and consequences of international conflict and cooperation in East Asia. Historical comparisons are drawn between the post-World War II and post-cold war periods. The course also considers foreign policy implications for the United States. Recommended background: PLTC 171. Enrollment limited to 29. (Politics: Political Economy.) (Politics: Security, Conflict, and Cooperation.) [HS] J. Ko.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

EC/PT 284. The Political Economy of Capitalism.
Political economy studies the market and the state as interrelated institutions. This course examines capitalism within its political context from two complementary perspectives. Students examine the historical evolution of social scientific thinking about the economy, in the process identifying some of the central critiques and defenses of capitalism as a system of social organization. Then they consider political economy topically, addressing a series of policy challenges thrown up by capitalism and considering multiple perspectives on how those challenges should be diagnosed and addressed. Enrollment limited to 29. (Politics: Philosophical, Literary, and Legal Studies.) (Politics: Political Economy.) Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 290. Politics of Sub-Saharan Africa.
An introduction to key historical and contemporary issues in sub-Saharan Africa, including state formation, democracy, civil society, and religion. Despite the large number of countries with different histories and cultures comprising the region, sub-Saharan Africa is often too simplified as a place of civil wars, ethnic violence, corruption, and poverty. The narrow selection of topics covered by the media and our general lack of interest therefore neglect the variety of landscapes, political systems, economic growth, and society-religion relationships, among others. Students analyze the debates surrounding the region to better understand its complexities, and explore unfolding patterns of change witnessed at the opening of the twenty-first century and ways that younger and older Africans shape their own political and economic situations. Recommended background: PLTC 122 or 171. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 29. (Politics: Institutional Politics.) (Politics: Political Economy.) [AC] [HS] S. Lim.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 292. Political Freedom.
What is the relationship between freedom and politics? Is politics antithetical to freedom? Is political freedom one kind of freedom among many? Can we only be free through participating in politics? In this course, students consider the idea that politics and freedom are fundamentally in tension with one another. Then they explore the notion that freedom can be pursued in different ways, including through politics. They examine the argument that freedom can only be attained in and through political action. Finally, they examine how these three different understandings of the relationship between politics and freedom might or might not apply to contemporary political controversies. Recommended background: PLTC 191. Not open to students who have received credit for GS/PT 292. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 29. (Politics: Identities and Interests.) (Politics: Philosophical, Literary, and Legal Studies.) [AC] [HS] L. Gilson.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 295. Reading Marx, Rethinking Marxisms.
Students practice different ways of reading and rethinking the work of Karl Marx. The first part of the course permits unrushed, close reading and discussion of Marx's best-known texts. The second part emphasizes recent efforts by critical theorists to revise the original doctrine without abandoning radical politics. Topics for reading and discussion include various Marxist feminisms, Marxist literary theory, and other Marxist interventions against capitalism. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 29. (Politics: Philosophical, Literary, and Legal Studies.) (Politics: Political Economy.) [AC] [HS] Staff.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

PLTC 297. The Household and Political Theory.
Western political theories often acknowledge, either implicitly or explicitly, the importance of domestic considerations—such as child bearing, sexual relations, and issues of home economics—but rarely appreciate their political significance. And sometimes theorists who acknowledge that the personal is political miss the significance of the so-called racial classification or class position of the domestic situations they study. This course stresses close reading of theories that highlight the politics of domestic life, and considers how various Western classics (e.g., Plato, Aristotle, Rousseau, Hegel) situate domesticity. Recommended background: PLTC 191. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 29. (Politics: Philosophical, Literary, and Legal Studies.) (Politics: Political Economy.) [AC] [HS] Staff.
Interdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

INDC 301Z. Race and U.S. Women's Movements.
This course considers how racial formations have developed in and influenced gendered and feminist movements. Movements examined may include woman's suffrage, anti-lynching, civil rights, Black Power, LGBTQ+, moral reform, welfare rights, women's liberation, and peace. Topics examined include citizenship, colonization, immigration, reproductive justice, and gender-based violence. Cross-listed in gender and sexuality studies, history, and politics. Enrollment limited to 15. (Africana: Gender.) (Africana: Historical Perspective.) (History: Modern.) (History: United States.) (Politics: Identities and Interests.) [W2] [HS] M. Plastas.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

PLTC 303. States of Emergency.
Scholars and political leaders often distinguish between the "normal" flow of politics and the politics of crisis and emergency. The latter increasingly dominate contemporary politics: we live in an era of "permanent crisis." How are crises governed? How do political and economic actors prepare for, prevent, mitigate, and manage emergencies? Who stands to profit, and who loses? Students examine case studies of various types of crisis or emergency in order to understand whether and how crises disrupt or reinforce political and economic power relations. Students participate in and analyze simulations of natural and/or manmade disasters. Enrollment limited to 15. (Politics: Political Economy.) (Politics: Security, Conflict, and Cooperation.) [W2] One-time offering. A. Grahame.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

GS/PT 304. Intersectional Political Theory: Lesbian, Black, and Indigenous Feminisms.
In the era of the Women’s March, #MeToo, and #SayHerName, "intersectionality" has become a watchword in feminist and queer politics. But what does it mean to think, act, or organize intersectionally? What conflicts and inequalities do intersectional frameworks identify? Can—or should—intersectional approaches attempt to solve these challenges once and for all? This course examines how lesbian, black, and indigenous feminists have differently encountered these challenges from the 1960s to the present. Prerequisite(s): PLTC 191. Enrollment limited to 15. (Politics: Identities and Interests.) (Politics: Philosophical, Literary, and Legal Studies.) [W2] Staff.
EU/PT 305. Money and Power.
This seminar investigates the political power of money and finance: the relationship between money and the state, the emergence of central banks, the creation of international financial institutions, the role of money as an instrument in political lobbying, and the deepening significance of money in contemporary political discourse. How did money and debt become instruments of power and coercion? To what extent and how does money influence politics and vice versa? How are money and financial institutions regulated at the national level? How is international finance governed? What are the economic and social impacts of public debt? Does finance undermine democracy? Enrollment limited to 15. (Politics: Institutional Politics.) (Politics: Political Economy.) [W2] [AC] A. Grahame.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

EU/PT 306. Economic Liberalism and Its Critics.
The 2008 financial crisis, extreme wealth inequality, climate change, and Brexit are a few examples of developments that disrupted what we thought we knew about political economy. For the first time in decades, big political economic ideas are back on the table. This course offers students the opportunity to conduct sustained reading of foundational texts in political economy, including works by Adam Smith, Karl Marx, Karl Polanyi, and Friedrich Hayek. What have these texts yet to teach us about both historical and contemporary political economic dilemmas? Recommended background: prior course work in the philosophical, literary, and legal studies or political economy concentrations of the politics major. Enrollment limited to 15. (Politics: Philosophical, Literary, and Legal Studies.) (Politics: Political Economy.) [W2] [HS] A. Grahame.
PLTC 310. Public Opinion.
An analysis of controversies concerning the formation, nature, and role of public opinion in American politics. How do we arrive at political judgments, and how do those judgments affect individual and collective decisions? The course examines how social positions and identities affect judgments and decisions. Students learn the methodology of sample surveys (polls) and consider the advantages and disadvantages of alternative methodologies. Prerequisite(s): PLTC 218, ECON 250, PHYS 218, or SOC 206. Enrollment limited to 15. (Politics: Identities and Interests.) (Politics: Institutional Politics.) [W2] [HS] [Q] [QF] J. Baughman.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 311. Politics and Emotions.
This course explores the relationship between emotions and politics. As a prelude to discussing the importance of emotions in politics, students consider how emotions can be conceptualized and categorized. They explore the traditional dualism between rationality and emotion: the relationship between emotion and reason, the interaction between emotion and cognition, and the relationship between culture and emotion. Then they analyze the place of emotions for different political phenomena. They study how emotions play a role in political participation and mobilization, legitimization, and coercion, diplomacy, war, and conflict. Recommended background: any 100- or 200-level politics course. Enrollment limited to 15. (Politics: Identities and Interests.) (Politics: Security, Conflict, and Cooperation.) [W2] [AC] [HS] S. Aslan.
PLTC 315. International Cooperation.
In this course students analyze the dual questions of why nations cooperate and how they cooperate. The course begins with the problems of cooperation in an anarchic world and investigates how nations overcome these problems. In the process, the course examines different analytical perspectives such as realism, liberalism, and regime theory, as well as solutions to cooperative problems proposed by game theory and negotiation analysis. Substantively, the course examines cooperation over trade issues, financial affairs, global commons, and the environment. Recommended background: PLTC 171, 222, and 234. Enrollment limited to 15. (Politics: Political Economy.) (Politics: Security, Conflict, and Cooperation.) [W2] [HS] Á. Ásgeirsdóttir.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 319. The U.S. Presidency: Development and Problems.
When the framers created the U.S. presidency, they created an executive office without precedent in the modern world. The course studies their objectives and evaluates how the office and power of the presidency has changed over time. Students survey the institutional development and current operations of the executive branch, examine the politics of presidential leadership, and consider the impact of the former on the latter. Attention is given to those areas of cutting-edge research in presidential studies including the managerial capacities of the Executive Office of the President, the scope and limits of unilateral action, and changing relations with Congress, the bureaucracy, and the public. Prerequisite(s): PLTC 115. Recommended background: PLTC 211, 216, or 230. Enrollment limited to 15. (Politics: Institutional Politics.) (Politics: Philosophical, Literary, and Legal Studies.) [W2] [HS] S. Engel.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 321. Theories of International Relations.
This close examination of classic texts as well as cutting-edge developments in international relations. How does the lack of a world government affect relations among states? When do states do what they believe is appropriate, and when do they do what they perceive to be expedient? What are the domestic political sources of international outcomes? How and why has the world been organized around different global economic orders? To what extent, and in what ways, does international law shape state behavior? Prerequisite(s): PLTC 171. Enrollment limited to 15. (Politics: Institutional Politics.) (Politics: Security, Conflict, and Cooperation.) [W2] Normally offered every year. Staff.
LL/PT 323. Crime, Violence, and Security in Latin America.
Despite a region-wide shift to democracy, Latin America possesses higher rates of violence in the 21st century than any other region in the world. Why? This course analyzes the root causes of crime and violence and its impact on Latin America. Through the examination of specific cases, students explore the various manifestations of crime and violence occurring in the region and responses to it by states, citizens, and private entities. Some key themes include the significance of weak and corrupt institutions; legacies of authoritarianism; police reform; the war on drugs; and the emergence of private security. Enrollment limited to 15. (Politics: Institutional Politics.) (Politics: Security, Conflict, and Cooperation.) [W2] One-time offering. L. Puck.
AS/PT 324. Nationalism, Conflict, and Peace in East Asia.
This course explores the different meanings of nationalism in international relations, including national identity, national images, and nationalistic sentiments, and how nationalism affects a state's foreign policy behavior, focusing on East Asian countries. It provides an overview of distinct characteristics of Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Taiwanese nationalism, and examines how and to what extent nationalism shapes important foreign policy issues: territorial disputes, alliance politics, regionalism, and nuclear proliferation. Recommended background: PLTC 122 or 171. Enrollment limited to 15. (Politics: Identities and Interests.) (Politics: Security, Conflict, and Cooperation.) [W2] [HS] J. Ko.
GS/PT 326. The Politics of Authenticity.
Is there such a thing as an authentic self? If so, can politics help us realize it? In this writing-attentive course, students discuss what the politics of authenticity is or might be, how it has been conceptualized in American politics and Western political theory, and why it has become an object of widespread suspicion and continuing appeal. Students examine how authenticity has been posited and contested in three different domains: in the history of Western political thought; in feminist, queer, and transgender writings; and in discussions of race. Authors include Rousseau, Freud, Butler, Malcolm X, Yoshino, and Coates. Enrollment limited to 15. (Politics: Identities and Interests.) (Politics: Philosophical, Literary, and Legal Studies.) [W2] [AC] [HS] Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 328. Representation in Theory and Practice.
Are citizens in a representative democracy more like stage directors or probation officers? This course analyzes the purpose and limits of political representation, including the role of formal representation in democratic government, the ways citizens hold governments accountable, the responsiveness of political leaders, representation of and by women and minorities, and alternative mechanisms for ensuring accountability. Students consider theories of representation as well as historical and contemporary sources on the United States, Europe, and Latin America. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: PLTC 115, 122, 191, 211, 230, 245, or 249. Enrollment limited to 15. (Politics: Institutional Politics.) (Politics: Philosophical, Literary, and Legal Studies.) [W2] [AC] [HS] J. Baughman.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 329. Problems and Progress in U.S. Political Development.
American political development (APD) is a distinct branch of American political science, which is not only credited with "bringing history" back into the study of American politics but also is explicitly concerned with how politics is constructed historically. The course is centrally concerned with how political institutions, ideas, and culture shape the actions of political actors and policy outcomes over time. Students assess the growth, development, and change of a range of political institutions and consider how their development affects social policies, including but not limited to welfare and racial justice policy. Prerequisite(s): PLTC 115 and 216 or 230. Enrollment limited to 15. (Politics: Identities and Interests.) (Politics: Institutional Politics.) [W2] [AC] [HS] S. Engel.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

EU/PT 332. The Politics of Memory.
What is at stake when monuments are built or taken down? How do different societies decide what to remember from their past, and what to forget? This course explores the politics of public memory. It examines how the stories that groups tell themselves about themselves help construct, justify, or contest relations of power within the group or between themselves and others. It also asks how such memories can be used to overcome the traumas and conflicts of the past. Specific cases are drawn from a variety of different countries, including the United States. Prerequisite(s): one 100- or 200-level politics course. Enrollment limited to 15. (Politics: Identities and Interests.) (Politics: Philosophical, Literary, and Legal Studies.) [W2] [HS] J. Richter.
PLTC 333. State Formation, State Development, State Collapse.
This course offers an in-depth analysis of the modern state. It begins with the definitional question and explores different approaches to the state. It then proceeds to historical analysis of the rise of modern states in Europe and other world regions. The third component of the course explores the relationship between states and societies, focusing on European and other cases. Finally, the course explores the extent of state weakness across the world, and explanations for variation in the strength and stability of states. Prerequisite(s): any 100- or 200-level course in politics. Enrollment limited to 15. (Politics: Institutional Politics.) (Politics: Security, Conflict, and Cooperation.) [W2] [AC] [HS] S. Aslan.
Interdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

PLTC 336. Explaining Wartime Violence.
Genocide, torture, civilian killing, mass rape: Why do people do such terrible things to each other? Are these acts senseless, or do they have their own chilling logic? Are they the work of crazed ideologues or ordinary people? Each topic contains more puzzles: Why have democracies developed a particular style of torture? Why are civilians targeted in some wars but not others? Finally, how optimistic should we be? Should we despair, or are there sound reasons to believe that wartime conduct has improved? Can such behavior be prevented, and if so, how? Recommended background: one social science course. Enrollment limited to 15. (Politics: Political Economy.) (Politics: Security, Conflict, and Cooperation.) [W2] [HS] Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 344. Ethnicity and Conflict.
Every day the news media brings us horrifying accounts of bloody conflict described as the result of ethnic or cultural difference. This course examines different ways to understand and investigate how such conflicts start and how they can be resolved. Are such conflicts more prevalent now than during the cold war era? If so, why? Is cultural difference really the cause of such conflicts, or is difference merely a convenient frame, obscuring more fundamental causes? What makes neighbors turn against each other? Can there be lasting reconciliation? What role should the international community play in such conflicts? Prerequisite(s): any 100-level course in politics. Enrollment limited to 15. (Politics: Identities and Interests.) (Politics: Security, Conflict, and Cooperation.) [W2] [HS] C. Price.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

PLTC 346. Power and Protest.
This seminar examines theories of protest from nonviolent resistance to armed insurrection to social critique. When laws are unjust, are citizens morally obligated to obey them? What kinds of resistance tactics and protest actions are justifiable, and under what conditions? How might we understand the relationship between effective and legitimate protest? What are the promises and limitations of violence and nonviolence? Is exiting politics –– leaving a political society or refusing to participate –– a meaningful form of resistance? This seminar explores these questions by putting texts in modern and contemporary political theory in conversation with works by those who engage in forms of protest themselves. Enrollment limited to 15. (Politics: Identities and Interests.) (Politics: Philosophical, Literary, and Legal Studies.) [W2] [AC] [HS] L. Gilson.
LL/PT 352. Participatory Democracy in the Americas.
How far can we press the ideal of true democracy? Is the individual right to vote the apex of democratic practice, or might we strive for deeper involvement in politics and the public sphere? This course engages canonical debates on the boundaries of liberal democratic practices and casts them against innovations in democratic governance. Ideas and solutions are assessed on normative and empirical grounds with particular attention to the position of marginalized groups. In addition to seminar-style meetings, the course deploys experiential learning techniques to connect theory to praxis. Not open to students who have received credit for LS/PT 352. Enrollment limited to 15. (Politics: Institutional Politics.) (Politics: Philosophical, Literary, and Legal Studies.) [W2] Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

LL/PT 353. Political Violence in Latin America.
Why is public life in contemporary Latin America so violent? Political violence is inherent to revolutions, civil wars, and authoritarian regimes. In contrast, one of the merits of democracy is that it facilitates the peaceful allocation of resources and power. For much of the twentieth century, Latin America struggled with insurgencies, civil war, and repressive authoritarian regimes. A wave of democratic transitions in the 1980s and 1990s brought renewed hope for peace, justice, and the protection of civil liberties, but political violence persists. This course explores the puzzling persistence of violence throughout the region. Recommended background: HI/LL 181; PLTC 122, 249, s49, or another research methods course. Not open to students who have received credit for LS/PT 353. Enrollment limited to 15. (Politics: Identities and Interests.) (Politics: Security, Conflict, and Cooperation.) [W2] [HS] C. Pérez-Armendáriz.
PLTC 360. Independent Study.
Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study per semester. Normally offered every semester. Staff.
PLTC 365. Special Topics.
A course or seminar offered from time to time and reserved for a special topic selected by the department. A course satisfies the department's 300-level requirement only if specified in the individual course description. Staff.
PLTC 371. International Peacekeeping.
Since the end of the cold war international actors, including the United Nations, NATO, and the Organization of African Unity, have taken a more active role in preventing and resolving conflicts within and among sovereign states, with mixed results. This course examines the history of international peacekeeping and the reasons for its increased relevance in the post-cold war era. It considers the different forms that peacekeeping, peacebuilding, or peacemaking have taken and the various formal and informal practices associated with such interventions. Students discuss the definitions of success in evaluating peacekeeping efforts and investigate why some efforts succeed and others fail. Prerequisite(s): any 100-level course in politics. Recommended background: PLTC 171. Enrollment limited to 15. (Politics: Institutional Politics.) (Politics: Security, Conflict, and Cooperation.) [W2] [HS] J. Richter.
PLTC 377. Experiences in Policy Process.
This course offers an advanced investigation in public policy and the policy process. students apply prominent theories of the policy process to community-driven problems, emphasizing the politics of social policy. They work collaboratively with local organizations and, through research experiences, develop skills in research design, qualitative methodologies, and analysis. Collaborative work, community-based learning, scholarly writing, and oral presentation skills are emphasized. Topics include agenda setting, problem definition, the role of entrepreneurs, advocacy coalitions, policy feedback, and policy analysis. Enrollment limited to 15. (Community-Engaged Learning.) (Politics: Identities and Interests.) (Politics: Institutional Politics.) [W2] Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 381. Rules, Norms, and Laws of War.
What laws, rules, and norms govern war? How have societies differed in what behavior they reject and what they accept? This course investigates the role of ethical norms and societal rules in regulating the practice of warfare. Students examine the conventions of war in different societies and consider the origins and dynamics of the laws of war, why states often violate these rules and the conditions under which they comply, and the political and ethical dilemmas in enforcing them. Topics include weapons bans, protection of prisoners and civilians, targeted killings, torture, and occupation, and war crimes tribunals. Recommended background: one 200-level politics course and at least one course in the security, conflict, and cooperation politics major concentration. Enrollment limited to 15. (Politics: Security, Conflict, and Cooperation.) [W2] Staff.
AS/PT 384. Crisis Diplomacy in East Asia.
This course provides an overview of crisis diplomacy and conflict management among states, focusing on East Asia, exploring theories of the use of force and coercive diplomacy in international relations. How can states credibly signal their intention in diplomatic crises? When do diplomatic crises escalate into a militarized conflict? Students examine the processes and outcomes of major international crises that have taken place in East Asia, including crises among China and the United States in the Cross Strait, North Korean nuclear crises, and territorial crises between China and Japan. Recommended background: PLTC 171 and 218. Enrollment limited to 15. (Politics: Institutional Politics.) (Politics: Security, Conflict, and Cooperation.) [W2] Normally offered every other year. J. Ko.
PLTC 394. Contemporary Liberalism and Democratic Action.
Twentieth-century Western liberalism has faced new challenges of cultural pluralism: including people previously excluded on the grounds of race, gender, and sexuality; speaking to both sides of the widening gap between rich and poor nations; coming to terms with the rights of indigenous peoples; and reconciling capitalism and democracy. Do contemporary formulations of this diverse and venerable tradition show how to negotiate the contested terrain of twenty-first-century cultural politics? Or is Western liberalism necessarily an apologist for the exclusionary politics of a bygone era? Students read and criticize recent authors who discuss these questions against the backdrop of canonical texts. Prerequisite(s): two courses in politics. Enrollment limited to 15. (Politics: Philosophical, Literary, and Legal Studies.) (Politics: Political Economy.) [W2] Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC 421. Congressional Internship.
Part-time internships, primarily in local offices of members of the Maine delegation in the United States Congress. Readings and writing focus on congressional staffs, constituencies, and relations with the bureaucracy. Prerequisite(s): PLTC 115, 230, or 328. Enrollment is limited to available positions. Instructor permission is required. Normally offered every semester. J. Baughman.
PLTC 456. Senior Thesis Seminar.
The senior thesis seminar is an opportunity to complete the required senior thesis in politics in a seminar setting with other students who are working on related research questions. Through the seminar, students explore different research methods and the underlying logics of social scientific inquiry in the study of politics (both empirical and normative study). Students engage in peer-editing and other collaborative writing exercises and they present their independent projects at various stages of the research and writing process. The final product of this seminar is the one-semester required senior thesis. Prerequisite(s): PLTC s49 and one 300-level politics seminar. Enrollment limited to 12. [W3] [AC] [HS] Staff.
PLTC 457. Senior Thesis.
Discussion of methods of research and writing, oral reports, and regular individual consultation with instructors. Students undertake a one-semester thesis by registering for PLTC 457 in the fall semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both PLTC 457 and 458. Prerequisite(s): one 300-level seminar in politics and PLTC s49. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
PLTC 458. Senior Thesis.
Discussion of methods of research and writing, oral reports, and regular individual consultation with instructors. Students undertake a one-semester thesis by registering for PLTC 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both PLTC 457 and 458. Prerequisite(s): one 300-level seminar in politics and PLTC s49. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
Short Term Courses
PLTC s13. Immigration Reform.
What should immigration reform look like? What are the obstacles to immigration reform? Students explore U.S. immigration from 1965 to the present, including both its intended and unintended consequences, analyzing the policy preferences, resources, and constraints of key stakeholders in the current immigration debate. They practice advancing these diverse perspectives vis-à-vis Congress through role-play and simulation. Based on community research, theoretical readings, and review of the policy proposals that Congress has recently considered, students experience first-hand why so many voices remain "unheard" in Congress as the reform process remains stalled. Not open to students who have received credit for PLTC s15. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 19. (Politics: Identities and Interests.) (Politics: Institutional Politics.) C. Pérez-Armendáriz.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC s23. Simulating the Legislative Process.
Students engage in a simulation of the federal legislative process by playing the roles of interest groups and officeholders in writing a major law. They explore the goals, strategies, and constraints of political actors in making policy. At the same time, attention is paid to the policy process generally and how in particular cases the process can be altered or subverted to suit the interests of actors. Parallels are drawn with real-world instances of contemporary congressional lawmaking. Recommended background: PLTC 115 and 230. Enrollment limited to 24. (Politics: Institutional Politics.) [CP] [HS] J. Baughman.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC s24. Politics of Imagery in the Middle East.
This course explores the symbolic foundations of power in the Middle East, focusing on how state rulers attempted to regulate the visual sphere within their domains by examining dress codes, architecture, monuments, state ceremonies, and diplomatic etiquette. How do state rulers present themselves in diplomatic missions and official ceremonies? Why do some states impose strict dress laws? What do state architecture and monuments tell us about the foundations of state legitimacy? Students address these questions through case studies. They also explore how social groups have responded to the official efforts to manipulate public imagery in various contexts. Enrollment limited to 30. (Politics: Identities and Interests.) [AC] [HS] S. Aslan.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

PLTC s50. Independent Study.
Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study during a Short Term. Normally offered every year. Staff.