I have an enduring fascination with physiological and morphological adaptations and/or responses among tree species to long-term or seasonal stress factors. My research focuses on understanding the physiological responses of trees to biotic/abiotic stress with a particular interest in plant water relations and carbon allocation. Current research efforts include exploring the three-dimensional vascular network of plants, and in particular how these networks function during drought. Further research topics that interest me include: how nutrient imbalances disrupt defense response systems in plants; possible impacts that nutrient deficiencies have on the hydrology of woody plants; and the analysis of carbon allocation patterns in woody plants in an effort to improve our understanding of forest responses to climate change. Such studies in plant physiology are enhanced by my in-depth research in plant anatomy and morphology. Understanding how plant structure and function are influenced by pressures in the growing environment, or by interactions with other organisms, will greatly improve our understanding of tree health and ecosystem dynamics.