Courses

Courses

EN/ES 121O. The Creative Spirit: Self and Nature.

What is the relationship among the spirit, the self, and nature? How does communion with nature help the creation and evolution of one’s sense of "self " and the soul’s journey? Is creativity connected with divinity? How have nineteenth-, twentieth-, and twenty-first-century writers, artists, and spiritual thinkers described their connection with the self and the natural world? In this course, students create original poetry, poetic prose, visual art, and/or music within the context of inward reflection, contemplation, mindfulness, and meditation. Authors studied may include Frost, Elizabeth Gilbert, Jack Kornfeld, Mary Oliver, Shelley, Snyder, Cathy Song, Tagore, Thoreau, Whitman, David Whyte, Woolf, Wordsworth, and Yeats. Enrollment limited to 25. J. Anthony.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

EN/ES 121Q. The Lives of Rivers.

In this colloquium, students read broadly—from the magical waterways of classical antiquity to the American folk tradition that takes us "down by the riverside"—in order to better understand the human need to write about rivers. Students consider verse by Whitman, Walcott, and Spark alongside Twain's stories of Huckleberry Finn and the classic angling novella A River Runs Through It. From the local riparian zone on the banks of the Androscoggin, students follow contemporary currents of ecocritical inquiry, investigating moments when the landed human body is literally or figuratively swept away by a torrent of fresh water. Enrollment limited to 25. M. Wright.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ENVR 203. Scientific Approaches to Environmental Issues/Lab.

An introduction to central concepts in environmental science—the function and interrelationship of physical, chemical, and biological systems—through the study of specific environmental issues. The laboratory links field studies of environmental systems to the scientific concepts and tools environmental scientists use. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 39. Normally offered every year. [L] [Q] [S] H. Ewing.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ENVR 204. Environment and Society.

Environmental issues rarely have only physical dimensions. They most often also have social and political aspects. This course familiarizes students with some of the major social scientific contributions to understanding how and why environmental problems arise, how they are defined, and how different groups are affected by and respond to them. The course first outlines the contemporary world system in which environmental debates take place and then identifies drivers of environmental change. Students then apply these ideas to a variety of ongoing environmental controversies, including climate change, agriculture, urbanization, biodiversity conservation, pollution, and environmental justice. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 35. Normally offered every year. [AC] [HS] S. Pieck.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ENVR 205. Lives in Place.

What does it mean to live sustainably in place? This course investigates possible answers to that question by considering lives in place: particular stories, particular places, and multiple forms of storytelling about human relationship to the more than human world. From nature writing and calendars of nature to poetry, memoir, documentary, and the novel, humans (the "storytelling animal") demonstrate ways of living that enable us to reflect on the virtues, values, vices, and trade-offs of those lives. Keystones in this consideration include modernity and tradition, technologies of change, voices and points of view, animal agency, eating as agricultural act, consumption, and creativity. Students consider both classic and emerging texts and artists from a variety of periods and cultures, examples of humans' ongoing experiment in living on Earth. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 35. Normally offered every year. [AC] J. Costlow.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

INDC 208. Introduction to Medieval Archaeology.

The Middle Ages were a time of major cultural changes that laid the groundwork for Northwest Europe's emergence as a global center of political and economic power in subsequent centuries. However, many aspects of life in the period from 1000 to 1500 C.E. were unrecorded in contemporary documents and art, and archaeology has become an important tool for recovering that information. This course introduces the interdisciplinary methods and the findings of archaeological studies of topics including medieval urban and rural lifeways, health, commerce, religion, social hierarchy, warfare, and the effects of global climate change. Cross-listed in anthropology, classical and medieval studies, environmental studies, and history. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 39. (History: Premodern.) [S] G. Bigelow.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ENVR 209. Sustainable Cities.

More than half of the world's population now lives in urban areas, a share that will increase to more than two thirds by 2050. What are the social and ecological consequences of increasing urbanization, and how can urban environments adapt to become more sustainable in the face of global change? Who and what benefits from urban sustainability strategies — e.g., green design, smart growth, new urbanism — and who absorbs the costs? This introductory course explores these questions and strategies through the systems of urban transit, housing, energy, water and land use, and how these impact cities' social and ecological resilience. Enrollment limited to 29. Normally offered every year. [HS] F. Eanes.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

INDC 211. U.S. Environmental History.

This course explores the relationship between the North American environment and the development and expansion of the United States. Because Americans' efforts (both intentional and not) to define and shape the environment were rooted in their own struggles for power, environmental history offers an important perspective on the nation's social history. Specific topics include Europeans', Africans', and Indians' competing efforts to shape the colonial environment; the impact and changing understanding of disease; the relationship between industrial environments and political power; and the development of environmental movements. Cross-listed in American studies, environmental studies, and history. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 39. (History: Modern.) (History: United States.) J. Hall.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ES/PL 214. Environmental Ethics.

What do we owe to nonhuman animals? How ought we treat plants and other nonsentient organisms? Are ecosystems appropriate objects of moral concern? This course focuses on moral issues that arise as a result of human interaction with the environment. Students discuss mainstream Western philosophers as well as challenges from the point of view of indigenous cultures and ecofeminism. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 29. P. Schofield.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ES/RU 216. Nature in the Cultures of Russia.

This course explores the connections among environment, culture, and identity in the Eurasian landmass that has been home to Russians, Siberians, and Central Asians. After a brief consideration of the ways in which Russian identities have been grounded in deeply conservative understandings of land and peasantry, students consider alternative and revisionist versions that draw on "nature" to explore gender, sexuality, and ethnicity, often in direct opposition to the state. Conducted in English. Prerequisite(s): ENVR 205 or one course in European studies or Russian. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 29. J. Costlow.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ES/GE 217. Mapping and GIS/Lab.

Geographical information systems (GIS) are computer-based systems for geographical data presentation and analysis. They allow rapid development of high-quality maps, and enable sophisticated examination of spatial patterns and interrelationships. In this course students learn the principles of GIS through extensive computer use of ArcGIS (ESRI). Geological and environmental projects introduce students to cartography, common sources of geographic data, methods for collecting novel spatial data, and data quality. Finally, students learn to extend the capabilities of GIS software to tackle more advanced spatial analysis tasks by completing an independent project. Lectures supplement the laboratory component of the course. Prerequisite: one 200-level course in environmental studies or one 100-level course in geology. Not open to students who have received credit for ENVR 220. Enrollment limited to 19. [L] [Q] [S] J. Eusden.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

INDC 219. Environmental Archaeology.

Over the past two hundred years archaeologists, scientists, and humanists in many disciplines have worked together to understand the interactions of past human populations with the physical world, including plants, animals, landscapes, and climates. This course outlines the methods and theories used by archaeologists, geologists, biologists, physicists, chemists, and historians in reconstructing past economies and ecologies in diverse areas of the globe. The course also discusses how archaeology contributes to our understanding of contemporary environmental issues such as rapid climate change, shrinking biodiversity, and sustainable use of resources. Cross-listed in anthropology, environmental studies, and history. Recommended background: ANTH 103. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 39. (History: Premodern.) Normally offered every year. [HS] [S] [SR] G. Bigelow.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ENVR 220. GIS across the Curriculum.

Geographical information systems (GIS) are computer-based systems for analyzing spatially located data. They allow rapid development of high-quality maps and enable sophisticated examination of spatial patterns and interrelationships. In this course students learn the principles of GIS through extensive use of the software ArcGIS (ESRI). Modules from across the curriculum introduce students to spatial data by exploring common data sources, data collection methods, data quality, and data presentation methods. Finally, students extend their capabilities in advanced spatial analysis tasks by undertaking an independent project. Not open to students who have received credit for ENVR 217 or ES/GE 217. Enrollment limited to 19. [CP] [Q] [QF] [S] C. Aoki.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ENVR 221. Ecology of Food and Farming.

This course introduces the principles of ecology as applied to agricultural systems. Students explore the interaction of crop plants, soils, beneficial and pest insects, and environmental conditions in both conventional and low-input systems. Labs focus on environmental science and include visits to local farms for data collection and an introduction to data analysis. Interdisciplinary readings consider both the ecological foundation of how agricultural ecosystems function and related socioeconomic and cultural forces and context such as federal farm policy, labor, cultures of food, and environmental justice. Prerequisite(s): BIO 124, 190, 195 or ENVR 203. Enrollment limited to 19. [L] [Q] [S] C. Aoki, H. Ewing.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ENVR 223. Politics of Wildlife Conservation.

The pursuit of wildlife conservation has produced significant policy changes, funding flows, international conventions, and countless projects. How did this idea emerge? How and why does conservation happen? And what are the consequences for diverse human and nonhuman communities? This course seeks to answer these questions through topics including the historical origins of the conservation idea; the national parks movement in the United States and the British Empire; raced, classed, and gendered conservation; protectionist, integrated, co-managed, and market-based approaches; human-wildlife conflicts; the illegal wildlife trade; de-extinction; rewilding; hybrid natures; and conservation ethics. Prerequisite(s): ENVR 204. Enrollment limited to 29. S. Pieck.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ES/GE 226. Hydrogeology.

Hydrogeology is the study of the movement and interaction of underground fluids within rocks and sediments. This course uses hydrogeology as a disciplinary framework for learning about groundwater processes, contamination, supply, use, and management. Students engage in practical applications of hydrogeology via discussions, guest lectures, research projects, problem sets, and hands-on experience. Students learn field and laboratory methods for determining and analyzing groundwater flow, contamination, and aquifer properties by working at local sites of interest in central Maine. Prerequisite(s): ENVR 203 or one 100-level geology course. Enrollment limited to 22. [S] B. Johnson.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ENVR 227. Catastrophes and Hope.

Disaster narratives can be both documentary and cautionary, attempting to describe what seems beyond human imagination. Such narratives may serve as dire warnings, offer glimpses of hope, spur us to change our lives, or scare us into denial. This course explores examples of disaster narratives from various cultures and time periods, considering the emotional, aesthetic, and civic function of discourses of disaster. In addition, students consider imaginations of disaster at the end of the cold war and in contemporary discussions of climate change. Prerequisite(s): ENVR 205. Enrollment limited to 29. J. Costlow.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ENVR 229. Electric Grids.

An exploration of electricity production, distribution, and consumption. Principles of electromagnetism are developed to provide an understanding of the design and function of the electric grid. Topics include the history of grid evolution, reliability, and disruptions; organizational design; regulations; environmental impact; energy storage; incorporation of renewable energy sources; and the smart grid. Prerequisite(s): CHEM 107A, ENVR 203, or any course in physics. Enrollment limited to 39. [Q] [S] J. Smedley.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ENVR 240. Water and Watersheds/Lab.

Where does water go and what does it do? In this course students follow water from atmosphere to land to aquatic systems, emphasizing the controls on the movement and chemistry of water in freshwater ecosystems. They investigate not only the need of organisms for water but also the ways in which organisms, including humans, influence the distribution and chemistry of water. Field and laboratory studies combine ecological, geological, and chemical approaches as well as an introduction to working with large data sets. Students are assumed to be proficient in the use of spreadsheets. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: ENVR 203; BI/GE 112, FYS 476; GEO 103, 104, 107, or 109. Recommended background: CHEM 107A and CHEM 108A. Enrollment limited to 18. [L] [QF] [S] [SR] H. Ewing.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

AN/ES 242. Environment, Human Rights, and Indigenous Peoples.

This course looks at the complex intersection between environmentalism, the human rights movement, and indigenous politics. Starting with the premise that settler colonialism is not a past event but rather a structure that continues to shape societies worldwide, students consider topics including the emergence and growth of the global indigenous movement; the politics of (environmental) representation; resource conflicts such as bioprospecting and biopiracy, climate change, wildlife conservation, and extractive industries; and indigenous calls for self-determination and decolonization. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: ANTH 101 or ENVR 20. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 29. S. Pieck.
Concentrations

BI/ES 246. Conservation Biology.

Conservation biology draws on biology, policy, ethics, and other disciplines to conserve biological diversity. This course introduces core ecological concepts underlying conservation practice while also exploring its interdisciplinary nature. Students examine conservation at multiple scales, including the conservation of genetic diversity, populations, species, biological communities, and ecosystems. Classroom activities help students develop scientific reasoning skills and apply them to conservation problems. Readings and discussions encourage students to consider social, ethical, and other perspectives on conservation work. Prerequisite(s): BIO 190, 195 or ENVR 203. Enrollment limited to 39. (Community-Engaged Learning.) [Q] [S] C. Essenberg.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

INDC 266. Environmental History of China.

This course investigates the deep historical roots of China's contemporary environmental dilemmas. From the Three Gorges Dam to persistent smog, a full understanding of the environment in China must reckon with millennia-old relationships between human and natural systems. In this course students explore the advent of grain agriculture, religious understandings of nature, the impact of bureaucratic states, and the environmental dimensions of imperial expansion as well as the nature of kinship and demographic change. The course concludes by turning to the socialist "conquest" of nature in the 1950s and 1960s and China's post-1980s fate. Cross-listed in Asian studies, environmental studies, and history. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 39. (History: Early Modern.) (History: East Asian.) (History: Modern.) (History: Premodern.) W. Chaney.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

BI/ES 271. Dendrology and the Natural History of Trees/Lab.

In this field-based course, students engage in the scientific study of the natural history and identification of trees and important shrubs native to New England, and some commonly planted non-native trees. Topics include the anatomy, function, taxonomy, biology, and uses of trees. Lecture topics support weekly outdoor laboratories, which include trips to such field sites as the Saco Heath, Thorncrag Bird Sanctuary, and Wolfe's Neck State Park. Study of the woody flora of New England serves as a foundation for further work in biology, environmental studies, conservation, or related fields. Prerequisite(s): BIO 117, 124, 190, 195, or ENVR 203. Enrollment limited to 24. [L] [S] [SR] B. Huggett.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ES/PT 272. Oikos: Rethinking Economy and Ecology.

Economy and ecology share the same Greek root: oikos, or "home." Both name relationships that are crucial to the sustenance of life, yet these two domains often appear to be locked in mortal combat. Why is the oikos of modern life torn asunder? What is this split and how did it arise? Is reconciliation possible? If so, what might it entail? This course brings critical tools from political theory and science studies to bear on these questions, exploring a variety of attempts to rethink the relation between economy and ecology and to reconfigure the very nature of the categories themselves. Recommended background: one course in anthropology, economics, environmental studies, politics, or sociology. Enrollment limited to 29. (Politics: Philosophical, Literary, and Legal Studies.) (Politics: Political Economy.) E. Miller.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ES/HI 301M. Maine: Environment and History.

This course introduces students to Maine history from its beginnings to the twentieth century, emphasizing the state's most pervasive theme, the environment. From aboriginal people to European colonists, different people have relied on the state's natural resources. Indeed, the environment shaped Maine's most prevalent industries. By the twentieth century, Maine emerged as a popular vacation destination, causing many to reflect on conservation efforts. This seminar explores the significance of locality in understanding the interaction between the environment and different people through time. Students develop a deeper sense of place in our community. Enrollment limited to 15. (History: Early Modern.) (History: Modern.) (History: United States.) [W2] J. Hall.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BI/ES 302. Restoration Ecology/Lab.

Ecological restoration assists the recovery of ecosystems damaged or destroyed by human activities, improving habitat for threatened species and increasing the ability of natural systems to serve a wide variety of human needs. Students learn ecological concepts and practical approaches used in this important and growing field and explore the complex human values that shape restoration goals and practices. Course activities emphasize critical reading of the primary scientific literature, discussion of restoration goals and practices, and developing skills relevant to restoration work. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: BI/ES 246, 271, 333; BIO 270, s32, s37; ENVR 240 or 310. Not open to students who have received credit for BI/ES 303. Enrollment limited to 15. (Community-Engaged Learning.) [S] [SR] C. Essenberg.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BI/ES 303. Restoration Ecology.

Ecological restoration assists the recovery of ecosystems damaged or destroyed by human activities, improving habitat for threatened species and increasing the ability of natural systems to serve a wide variety of human needs. Students learn ecological concepts and practical approaches used in this important and growing field and explore the complex human values that shape restoration goals and practices. Course activities emphasize discussion of restoration goals and practices and critical reading of the primary scientific literature. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: BI/ES 246, 271, 333; BIO 270, s32, s37; ENVR 240 or 310. Not open to students who have received credit for BI/ES 302. Enrollment limited to 15. (Community-Engaged Learning.) [S] C. Essenberg.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ENVR 304. Politics of Nature.

What is nature and what does it mean to say that it has a politics? In one common understanding, nature is precisely that which stands apart from political dynamics, indicating a world of objective "facts" beyond human influence. Yet the concept of nature has long been implicated in relations of power, whether by making certain social relationships such as race, gender, and class seem inevitable or by lending strength to movements for liberation. This course examines the politics of nature through various lenses of poststructuralist, postcolonial, feminist, and Marxist political theory, ultimately seeking to imagine how nature itself might become a site for transformative democratic practice. Prerequisite(s): two of the following: AN/ES 242; ENVR 203, 204, or 205; ES/PL 214; ES/PT 272; GS/PL 262; GSS 100; PHIL 150 or 211; PLTC 191 or 202; or SOC 204. Not open to students who have received credit for ENVR 301. Enrollment limited to 15. [W2] E. Miller.
Interdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ENVR 306. Disturbance Ecology.

Many ecosystems have a long evolutionary history of being adapted to natural disturbances such as wildfire, insect outbreaks, and drought. These disturbance processes are required for such systems to persist. On the other hand, anthropogenic disturbances—nuclear disasters, invasive species, oil spills—can have profound effects on systems that are not evolutionarily prepared for them. In this course students examine the effects of natural and anthropogenic disturbances on ecological systems and discuss whether climate change is increasing disturbance severity. Students are introduced to concepts of disturbance probability and risk, and the complexities of conveying this information to the general public. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: BI/ES 246, 271; BIO 113, 114, 128, 133, 158, 211, 221, 270; ENVR 203, 221, 240, or 310. Open to juniors and seniors. Enrollment limited to 15. [W2] One-time offering. C. Aoki.

ENVR 308. Urban and Regional Food Systems.

Food systems include the cyclical production, processing, distribution, consumption, and waste/recovery process associated with societies' food supply. Urban and regional food systems have been reimagined and proposed as a holistic response to global food system vulnerabilities, urban de-industrialization, and rising food insecurity. But what does a robust and inclusive urban and regional food system actually entail? And how can proponents meaningfully facilitate a transition to such a food system so that the resulting social, economic, and ecological benefits are equitably shared? This course explores these questions and introduces frameworks for addressing them in the Lewiston-Auburn community, southern Maine, and beyond. Prerequisite(s): ENVR 209 or any two of the following: ENVR 203, 204, 205. Enrollment limited to 15. Instructor permission is required. (Community-Engaged Learning.) Normally offered every year. F. Eanes.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ENVR 310. Soils/Lab.

Depending on one's point of view, soils are geological units, ecosystems, the foundation of plant life, a place for microbes to live, building material, or just dirt. This course takes a scientific perspective and explores the genesis of soils, their distribution and characteristics, and their interaction with plants. Field studies emphasize description of soils, inferences about soil formation, and placement within a landscape context. Labs investigate the chemistry of soils and their role in forestry and agriculture. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: BIO 270; BI/ES 271; CHEM 212 or 215; ENVR 203, 221, or 240; GEO 210, 223, or 240. Recommended background: one 200-level geology course and CHEM 108A. Enrollment limited to 16. [L] [S] H. Ewing.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ES/PL 314. The Environment and What We Owe to Each Other.

As we use and deplete natural resources and alter the global environment, the consequences do not respect national borders, the boundaries among generations, or species distinctions. This course takes up questions about the nature and scope of justice as it pertains to the environment. Specifically, it considers what we owe to our fellow citizens, to the global community, to future generations, and to nonhuman animals, as we change the environment. Prerequisite(s): ES/PL 214; or two courses in philosophy; or one course in philosophy and one course in environmental studies. Enrollment limited to 15. [W2] P. Schofield.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ENVR 319. Imagining Climate Change.

How do we talk about climate change? How should we? And who does the talking? This course considers a range of ways in which current climate realities and possible futures are imagined in journalism, fiction, film, nonfiction essays, and everyday talk. Students explore work by psychologists, media critics, and political commentators on how individuals and communities are (or are not) paying attention. The course includes assignments and projects in both analytic and creative writing, and culminates in a group-designed project for communication about climate change to a particular audience. Prerequisite(s): two courses in environmental studies. Enrollment limited to 15. J. Costlow.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

INDC 321. Afroambiente: Escritura negra y medio ambiente.

This course studies the response of black writers and intellectuals of the Spanish-speaking world to issues related to the natural environment. In several countries, including Colombia, Ecuador, Puerto Rico, and Equatorial Guinea, from colonial times to the present, modernity has brought serious challenges to notions of economic progress, human rights, and national sovereignty as well as individual and communal identity. Course materials include written texts from local newspapers and magazines as well as other sources of information such as websites that present issues related to the environment and the arts. All readings are in English. Taught in Spanish. Cross-listed in Africana, environmental studies, Latin American studies, and Spanish. Prerequisite(s): one 200-level Spanish course above 211. Only open to juniors and seniors. Enrollment limited to 15. (Africana: Diaspora.) B. Fra-Molinero.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

BI/ES 333. The Genetics of Conservation Biology/Lab.

Conserving biodiversity is important at multiple scales, including genetic variation within species. Does a species have enough variation to evolve in a changing world? Are individuals differentially adapted to local environmental variation? In a captive population of a rare animal, which individuals should be bred to minimize the erosion of genetic variation? Lectures and labs cover the fundamentals of classical, molecular, and population genetics, applying them to current issues in biological conservation. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242 or 270. Not open to students who have received credit for BI/ES 336 or BIO 330. Enrollment limited to 15. [L] [S] D. Dearborn.

ENVR 334. Living with Animals: Perspectives from Literature and Film.

When it comes to understanding our lives with the other animals, Boria Sax suggests that "biology is not nearly enough." We also need to study historical traditions, visionary imagination, and legacies of art and storytelling. This course explores what it has meant to live with both domesticated and wild animals, through close reading and study of selected poetry, essays, fiction, and film. Enrollment limited to 18. [W2] [AC] J. Costlow.
Interdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

BI/ES 336. The Genetics of Conservation Biology.

Conserving biodiversity is important at multiple scales, including genetic variation within species. Does a species have enough variation to evolve in a changing world? Are individuals differentially adapted to local environmental variation? In a captive population of a rare animal, which individuals should be bred to minimize the erosion of genetic variation? Lectures and labs cover the fundamentals of classical, molecular, and population genetics, applying them to current issues in biological conservation. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242 or 270. Not open to students who have received credit for BI/ES 333 or BIO 330. Enrollment limited to 15. [S] D. Dearborn.

ENVR 337. Social Movements, NGOs, and the Environment.

As powerful transnational actors, social movements and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) seek to address the environmental crisis in new ways. But why and when do environmental movements emerge? What makes them effective and what makes them fail? Do NGOs necessarily "do environmental good"? To whom are they accountable? How does transnational activism work and what are its pitfalls? Ultimately, what pathways do these kinds of politics offer? In pursuit of these questions, this seminar considers topics and case studies across the global north and south, using them as a lens through which to understand the complexities of socio-environmental change. Prerequisite(s): ENVR 204. Enrollment limited to 19. [W2] Normally offered every year. S. Pieck.
Interdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ENVR 340. Literatures of Agriculture.

This course explores the ways in which agrarian life has been imagined, written about, and lived in a wide array of cultural and historical settings. Classic pastoral suggests that the life of the countryside is a life of virtue and freedom from the entanglements of politics and the city. The actual experience of farm labor is often embedded in difficult political, economic, and environmental realities, even as farmers profess deep affection for their labor and the land. Students explore a broad range of genres, from agrarian essay to historical studies, memoirs, and novels, considering how different forms of writing articulate ideals, aspirations, and realities. Students visit local farms and interview local farmers. Prerequisite(s): ENVR 205. Enrollment limited to 15. (Community-Engaged Learning.) Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ENVR 350. Environmental Justice.

This seminar explores issues of environmental justice by focusing on how lines of difference—especially race, class, and gender—mediate people's relationships to each other and to the natural world. How do power relations shape differential access to and control over resources? What makes people more or less vulnerable to environmental changes? Through a selection of historical and contemporary topics and case studies from across the United States, the course explores how political, economic, and cultural forces shape environmental inequalities and how, in trying to address those inequalities, various groups challenge and broaden the assumptions and practices of modern environmentalism. Prerequisite(s): ENVR 204. Not open to students who have received credit for ES/LS 350. Enrollment limited to 15. [W2] S. Pieck.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ENVR 360. Independent Study.

Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study per semester. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every semester. Staff.
Interdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ENVR 365. Special Topics.

Offered occasionally on subjects of special interest. Staff.

ENVR 417. Community-Engaged Research in Environmental Studies.

Students work collaboratively to complete an interdisciplinary semester-long project. Projects include work with previously identified community partners and may vary from year to year. The course deals explicitly with the issues and best practices arising from doing complex collaborative work in a community-engaged setting. Prerequisite(s): ENVR 204 and 205 and one of ENVR 203, 240, or 310. Enrollment limited to 25. (Community-Engaged Learning.) Normally offered every semester. Staff.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ENVR 450. Environmental Writing in the Public Sphere.

Building on research from previous environmental studies courses, students produce new writing for public audiences. They consider environmentally themed pieces as models for writing (e.g., advocacy scholarship, scientific writing, personal and lyrical essays, natural history); explore new media forms (radio and video essays); and examine theory on writing and web portfolios. Students' environmental writing develops through peer and professional review and culminates in a substantial piece of writing for a public audience. Web portfolios present the new scholarship and reflect on its creation, showing the process of learning, connections to environmental studies course work, and thematic links beyond Bates. Prerequisite(s): ENVR 203, 204, 205, and 417. Enrollment limited to 15. Instructor permission is required. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ENVR 457. Senior Thesis.

This course involves research for and writing of the senior thesis, under the direction of a faculty advisor. Guidelines for the thesis are published on the program website and are available from the program chair. Students register for ENVR 457 in the fall semester. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
Interdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ENVR 458. Senior Thesis.

This course involves research for and writing of the senior thesis, under the direction of a faculty advisor. Guidelines for the thesis are published on the program website and are available from the program chair. Students register for ES 458 in the winter semester. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
Interdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

Short Term Courses

ENVR s10. Urban and Regional Food Systems.

A growing worldwide population and an increasingly global economy put tremendous social and ecological pressures on the production, processing, distribution, consumption, and disposal of food and food waste. Using case studies from Maine, this course explores what a more ecologically sensitive, socially just, and economically viable urban and regional food system looks like. Through the completion of an applied, community-engaged project, students get hands-on experience with broadly applicable approaches and skills for transforming food systems in and beyond Maine. Prerequisite(s): ENVR 203, 204, 205, or 209. Not open to students who have received credit for ENVR 308. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. (Community-Engaged Learning.) F. Eanes.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

EC/ES s11. In Search of Higher Ground: Sea-Level Rise, Coastal Flooding and the Future of the Eastern Seaboard.

Climate change, increased storm frequency and intensity, and sea-level rise have created an urgent need for adaptation planning for many communities along the U.S. eastern seaboard. In this course students examine adaptation strategies and vulnerability assessments to understand social and economic vulnerability and the complexities of coastal retreat. Utilizing climate adaptation planning tools, mapping technology, and on-the-ground observation, students examine adaptation strategies including managed retreat, buyouts, living shorelines, and and green infrastructure. Students consider the current and future role of FEMA’s national flood insurance program as a major mechanism for incentivizing resilient or reckless coastal development. Based in experiential learning, students engage in discussions with experts, practitioners, and residents in highly vulnerable coastal areas in Maine, as well a ten-day trip to coastal communities in Virginia and North Carolina. Prerequisite(s): ECON 101 or 222, or ENVR 209. Recommended background: ECON 250 or other statistics course. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 18. F. Eanes, L. Lewis.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ES/GS s13. Infrastructures.

Popular representations of digital technologies often present them as somehow independent of material constraints—as inherently clean, "green," and ethereal as a cloud. Those images belie the realities of the information economy's myriad environmental impacts, from resource depletion to water pollution to massive energy consumption. This course, an introduction to the history and politics of infrastructure, directs attention to relationships between human and nonhuman nature, using everyday personal computing as a point of departure. Throughout, students engage with activists, regulators, and maintainers working toward justice and sustainability in the digital age. Not open to seniors. Enrollment limited to 18. R. Herzig.

AV/ES s15. Photographing the Landscape.

The course provides a context for studying and analyzing images of the landscape by viewing and discussing historic and contemporary landscape photographs. Questions considered include the role of the sublime in current landscape photography, beauty as a strategy for persuasion, perceptions of "natural" versus "artificial," and contemporary approaches in trying to affect environmental change. Students explore the depiction of the landscape by producing their own work, using "pinhole," black-and-white film, or digital photography. There is a laboratory fee. Recommended background: AVC 218 or 219. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 12. E. Morris.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ENVR s23. Community Writing and Gardens.

In this course, students practice community literacy by reviewing literature about education in school and community gardens, engaging in creative writing workshops, developing and conducting workshops in Lewiston-Auburn community gardens, and drafting reports about next steps for community literacy projects in area gardens, including a study of sites on campus for garden-based learning. The course culminates with a celebration of community literacy that includes work written by Bates and local K-12 students and a community meal of local food. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 21. (Community-Engaged Learning.) [W2] Normally offered every year. S. Wade.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

INDC s24. Shetland Islands: Archaeology, History and Environment.

In this course students participate in the excavation of a late medieval/early modern farmstead at Brow, Shetland (Scotland). Early settlement in Shetland was on the margin of successful medieval colonization of the North Atlantic. The Brow site is a revealing "laboratory" in which to explore the interaction of climate change and human settlement in a fragile coastal zone. A series of field trips in mainland Scotland place the Brow excavation in the wider context of settlement, environment, archaeology, and the history of Scotland and the North Atlantic. Cross-listed in classical and medieval studies, environmental studies, and history. Recommended background: courses in medieval history or archaeology. Enrollment limited to 10. Instructor permission is required. (History: Premodern.) G. Bigelow.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ES/RE s25. Food and the Sacred.

This course provides an opportunity to explore food through ideas and practices considered sacred by Jews, Christians, Muslims, Buddhists, Hindus, indigenous peoples, and neo-pagans. Topics include feasting, fasting, farming, foraging, feeding the hungry, the five senses, and the fascinating fundamentals of dirt and water. There is a community-based learning component to this course undertaken outside of class as well as hands-on individual and group projects. Prerequisite(s): one course in environmental studies or religious studies. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 15. (Community-Engaged Learning.) C. Baker.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ES/EU s28. Green City Germany: Experiments in Sustainable Urbanism.

Our cities are centers of intense economic activity and innovation as well as engines of tremendous pollution and environmental degradation. Can these two sides be reconciled? Is it possible to create a "sustainable city" and if so, what would it look like? Germany is at the forefront of countries trying to answer these questions. This course takes students to Freiburg im Breisgau, the country's self-styled "Green City," where in addition to learning about German language and culture, students explore the city's experiments in urban sustainability, including public transit systems, renewable energy, industrial ecology, brownfield redevelopment, green architecture, gentrification, and affordable housing. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 15. Instructor permission is required. S. Pieck.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

ENVR s46. Internship in Environmental Studies.

Projects may include hands-on conservation work, environmental education, environmental research, political advocacy, environmental law, or other areas related to environmental questions. Specific arrangement and prior approval of the Committee on Environmental Studies is required. Instructor permission is required. (Community-Engaged Learning.) Normally offered every year. C. Parrish.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

ENVR s50. Independent Study.

Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study during a Short Term. Open to first-year students. Normally offered every year. Staff.