The Academic Program

The College's emphasis on the liberal arts and sciences is justified both in sound educational principle and by the test of long experience. The broad knowledge achieved in a liberal education gives women and men a realistic understanding of the complexity of their world and prepares them for lives satisfying to themselves and useful to others.

The Liberal Arts and Sciences

Liberal learning is fundamentally concerned with personal growth in its intellectual and moral dimensions. Educated persons welcome the hard academic work that is the price of discovery; they are stimulated by ideas, artistic expression, good talk, and great books; and they avow a continuing commitment to the search for truth in the methods of the sciences, the patterns of logic and language, and the beauties of art. The first obligation of a student is to cultivate her or his own habits of mind; the first duty of a liberal arts college is to develop, encourage, and direct that process.

With intellectual development should come a deepening moral awareness. A college woman or man should have the ability to lead as well as a willingness to cooperate. Comprehension of life's complexities should lead to a sympathetic understanding of others and a generosity in response to them. The student should develop a sense of social and civic responsibility, and integrity should guide every action.

Bates College has always held to these traditional values of the liberal arts and sciences. In a report to the Bates faculty, its Committee on Educational Policy offered a reaffirmation. The committee wrote: "The highest purpose of Bates College is to provide a community with sufficient challenge and sufficient support so that the undergraduate may mature in scholarship and in capacity for critical thinking and civilized expression. The graduate is more knowledgeable, to be sure, but above all he or she is capable of a reflective understanding of the self and its relationship to prior traditions and present environments."

The curriculum establishes the expectations for learning that form the foundation of the College's commitment to the liberal arts and sciences. College committees of faculty members and students review the educational policies and the specific curricular offerings of the College. New fields of scholarship are introduced by the faculty, and the most recent advances in technology are incorporated into the various disciplines. The College promotes the development of writing and critical-thinking skills through all its curricular offerings, from the first-year seminar to the senior thesis. The College encourages students to pursue their own original research as an extension of their regular course work and offers opportunities and financial support to facilitate such research during the academic year and the summer months. Recognizing the fundamental role the liberal arts play in the development of a social conscience and good citizenship, the College encourages students to integrate social service into their academic work and provides opportunities for service-learning and community-based research. The five-week Short Term held every spring encourages educational innovation, including the integration into the curriculum of off-campus study. The calendar arrangement also provides a three-year option whereby students who are qualified, especially those with advanced standing, can accelerate their work and graduate earlier.

The Academic Calendar

The calendar calls for two semesters and a Short Term. The first semester ends in mid-December and the second ends in mid-April. A five-week Short Term usually concludes at the end of May. First-year and all other new students must be present for their matriculation at new-student orientation at the beginning of September. Although new students register for courses prior to their arrival, they may adjust their registrations during the orientation period. Sophomores, juniors, and seniors register during designated periods in each prior semester.

Short Term. The Short Term provides an unusual opportunity for a variety of educational programs, frequently off campus, that cannot be offered in the regular semesters. These include marine biological studies at stations on the coast of Maine; geology fieldwork in the American Southwest; and art, theater, and music studies in New York City. The spring term allows time for archeological investigations by students in history and anthropology; field projects for students in economics, environmental studies, sociology, and psychology; and social-service internships associated with academic departments and programs. It provides special opportunities, on and off campus, for those conducting laboratory experiments in the natural sciences. The term also allows for faculty-directed study in foreign countries. Recent off-campus Short Term units have focused on landscape painting and art history in Italy; anthropology in Jamaica; environmental conservation in Russia; art, economics, and environmental studies in China; history in Cuba; medieval pilgrimage routes through France and Spain; and production of plays at a professional English-language theater in Hungary; and the study of Shakespeare in England.

A student must be enrolled at Bates in either the preceding fall or winter semester in order to enroll in a Short Term unit in that academic year. Students may complete a maximum of three Short Term units, although only two are needed to fulfill the degree requirement. Students wishing to register for a third Short Term unit receive a lower registration priority than students registering for their first or second unit. An exception to this ranking is made for students participating in the three-year program (see below), who are required to complete three Short Term units. The ranking does not apply to units requiring permission of the instructor to register.

Three-Year Program Option. The three-year option is designed for the especially qualified student who may benefit from an accelerated undergraduate program that allows for earlier admission to graduate school or for career placement. The accelerating student takes five courses each semester and attends every Short Term, completing the degree requirement of thirty courses, sixty quality points, and three Short Term units. Students must apply for entry into the three-year program through the Office of the Dean of Students early in their Bates career.

Academic Advising

Each Bates student has one or more academic advisors during the college years who provide advice in planning a curriculum to meet the student's particular needs. New students are assigned academic advisors from among members of the faculty. The advisor holds individual conferences with a student during his or her first week on campus and continues to counsel the student until he or she declares a major. The major department or program assumes the advising responsibility once a student has declared a major — no later than March of the second year. The student and the advisor meet during registration periods and on an informal basis whenever the student seeks advice about the curriculum, course selection, General Education, the major program, the thesis, progress toward the degree, graduate school, or other academic concerns. While faculty members provide academic advice, final responsibility for course selection and the completion of degree requirements rests with the student. The Office of the Registrar provides students and advisors an online application to evaluate student progress toward the degree. The deans of students can also provide advice on academic matters.

In addition to the academic advisor, faculty committees and the Office of Career Services can provide guidance on graduate and professional schools. The Committee on Graduate Fellowships provides general information and supervises the selection process for various graduate fellowships and grants. Students planning professional careers in medical fields are aided by the Committee on Medical Studies. Students interested in graduate or professional schools are encouraged to contact these committees and the Office of Career Services' counseling staff early in their college careers so that a curriculum and a series of related internships and work experiences can be planned to meet their professional goals.

The First-Year Seminar Program

The first-year seminars are limited-enrollment courses specifically designed for first-year students. Topics vary from year to year, but they always represent a broad range of interdisciplinary issues and questions addressed within the tradition of the liberal arts and sciences. The first-year seminars enable entering students to work with faculty and other students in the context of a small class; they provide closely supervised training in techniques of reasoning, writing, and research; and they foster an attitude of active participation in the educational process. First-year seminars carry full course credit toward the baccalaureate degree and are offered in the fall semester. All first-year seminars fulfill the first-level writing requirement [W1], and may fulfill other General Education requirements or major requirements. First-year students are encouraged to consult the listing of first-year seminars in the description of courses and units of instruction in this catalog.

General Education

Throughout the College's history, its faculty has expected all students to pursue certain common patterns of study as well as complete a major or concentrated focus of study. The faculty continues to believe that there are areas of knowledge and understanding, modes of appreciation, and kinds of skills that are of general and lasting significance to the life of the mind. General Education provides a critical perspective on the ideas, values, expressions, and experiences that constitute our culture. General Education also encourages respect for the integrity of thought, judgment, creativity, and tradition beyond the culture of contemporary America. In addition, the faculty encourages each student to do some study in a foreign language.

Since 2003, the faculty has examined the standing General Education requirements and has designed new requirements for students entering the College in September 2007 as members of the Class of 2011, and thereafter. The new General Education requirements continue the tradition honoring breadth and depth of intellectual experience while placing greater emphasis on cross-disciplinary collaboration and exploration. The new requirements are an integral and focal component of a Bates education, which also features study in a major and optional minor, and a senior thesis or other capstone experience.

The General Education requirements for students in the classes of 2008, 2009, and 2010 are described below, followed by the General Education requirements for the classes of 2011 and beyond.

General Education Requirements for the Classes of 2008, 2009, and 2010.
1. At least three courses or designated units from the curriculum in biology, chemistry, geology, or physics and astronomy. Two of the courses or designated units must be a department-designated set, as listed under "General Education" in the department's introduction to course offerings in the catalog. First-year seminars listed in the introduction to the department's course offerings may also satisfy the requirement. A student majoring in one of these departments must fulfill this requirement by including at least one course or designated unit outside the major but within one of the departments noted above. This course or unit may be one required by the major department.

2. At least three courses or designated units from the curriculum in anthropology, economics, education, politics, psychology, or sociology. Two of the courses or designated units must be a department-designated set, as listed under "General Education" in the department's introduction to course offerings in the catalog. First-year seminars listed in the introduction to the department's course offerings may also satisfy the requirement. A student majoring in one of these departments must fulfill this requirement by including at least one course or designated unit outside the major but within one of the departments noted above. This course or unit may be one required by the major department.

3. At least one course or unit in which the understanding and use of quantitative techniques are essential to satisfactory performance. First-year seminars listed in the introduction to a department's course offerings may satisfy the requirement. Designations of these courses and units are made by the departments and cited in the catalog. Courses and units designated as satisfying requirements in the natural sciences and in the social sciences — see (1) and (2) above — also may be designated to satisfy this requirement.

4. At least five courses from the curricula of at least three of the following fields: art and visual culture, classical and medieval studies, Chinese, dance, English, French, German, Greek, history, Japanese, Latin, music, philosophy, religion, rhetoric, Russian, Spanish, and theater. Any one department- or program-designated Short Term unit or first-year seminar, as listed in the introduction to the departments' or programs' course offerings in the catalog, may serve as options for the fifth course.

Courses and units cross-listed in two or more departments or programs may be used to fulfill General Education requirements if they are cross-listed with an appropriate department. In some cases the course or unit may fulfill more than one requirement, if it is cross-listed in more than one academic division.

General Education Requirements for the Classes of 2011 and beyond.
1. Two Concentrations. In addition to their major, students successfully complete two General Education concentrations, declared at the same time as the major. A concentration consists of four courses or units chosen from a faculty-designed menu that is structured on the basis of a clearly articulated organizing principle. Some concentrations also include relevant co-curricular experiences such as significant community service, musical ensembles, summer research, study abroad, and volunteer work that may be used in lieu of courses and units to fulfill the concentrations. Co-curricular experiences, though counting toward a concentration, may not be counted toward the total credits needed for graduation.

Concentrations are of two basic types: 1) concentrations focusing on a particular issue or topic or area of inquiry identified by self-constituted groups of faculty in different disciplines; 2) concentrations within a single department, program, or major. Students may only "double-dip"— satisfy two requirements with one course or co-curricular experience — once between their two concentrations (i.e., only one course, unit, or co-curricular experience may count toward both concentrations). Alternatively, students may only double-dip once between their concentrations and their majors (i.e., only one of the eight courses, units, or co-curricular experiences they choose to fulfill their two concentrations may also be counted toward their major). The two concentrations together must thus have a minimum of seven distinct courses or co-curricular experiences. When appropriate, concentration courses or units (but not co-curricular experiences) may be counted toward any other degree requirements (writing, scientific reasoning, laboratory experience, or quantitative literacy).

A second major and/or a minor may fulfill a concentration requirement. Students' concentrations appear on their transcripts and are a permanent part of their academic records.

2. Three Writing-Attentive Courses or Units. Students successfully complete three writing-attentive courses or units, one in their first-year level [W1], one taken in the sophomore or junior year at the second level [W2], and one in their senior year at the third level [W3]. First-level courses [W1] are typically first-year seminars. The third-level writing-attentive requirement [W3] is usually fulfilled by completing a senior thesis. When appropriate, writing-attentive courses may also be used to fulfill any other degree requirements at Bates (major, minor, concentrations, scientific reasoning, laboratory experience, or quantitative literacy).

3. Scientific Reasoning, Laboratory Experience, and Quantitative Literacy. Students successfully complete three distinct courses or units: 1) one course/unit that requires scientific reasoning [S], which may or may not have a laboratory component; 2) one course/unit that includes a regularly scheduled laboratory component in the laboratory or in the field [L]; 3) one course in quantitative literacy [Q].

No double-dipping is allowed among S, L, and Q courses; these requirements must be met by three distinct courses. However, when appropriate, S, L, and Q courses may be used to fulfill other degree requirements (major, minor, concentrations, and writing).

Major Fields of Study

While the faculty believes that each student should have essential familiarity with many fields of liberal learning, it also believes that a student must choose a field of special concentration — a major — to gain the advantages that come from studying one academic subject more extensively and intensively. This major field occupies a quarter to a third of the student's college work and may be related to the intended career following graduation.

Students may declare one or more majors. Completion of more than one major requires a fulfillment of all major requirements, including the comprehensive examination and/or the thesis, in each academic department or program.

Departmental Majors. Majors may be taken in fields established within the academic departments. There are twenty-two such majors: anthropology, art and visual culture, biology, chemistry, economics, English, French, geology, German, history, mathematics, music, philosophy, physics, politics, psychology, religion, rhetoric, Russian, sociology, Spanish, and theater. The specific requirements for each major are explained in the introduction to the department's courses and units of instruction in the catalog.

Interdisciplinary Program Majors. The faculty has established interdisciplinary programs in which students may major: African American studies; American cultural studies; Asian studies, including majors in East Asian studies, Chinese, and Japanese; biological chemistry; classical and medieval studies; environmental studies; neuroscience; and women and gender studies. The programs are administered by committees of faculty members from different departments. Major requirements for these programs are explained in the introduction to each program's courses and units of instruction in the catalog.

Individual Interdisciplinary Majors. In addition to established departmental and program majors, a student may propose an individual interdisciplinary major, should that student discover a well-defined intellectual interest that crosses one or more boundaries of the established fields of concentration. An interdisciplinary major involves a detailed program of study with courses drawn from at least two departments or programs but only one senior thesis and/or comprehensive examination.

Detailed guidelines and an application for the individual interdisciplinary major are available from the registrar. Proposals for interdisciplinary majors must be submitted to the registrar for approval by the Committee on Curriculum and Calendar 1 March in the sophomore year. Proposals must include a faculty advisory board of at least three faculty members who have agreed collectively to act as major advisor. These faculty members also serve as thesis advisor unless the student's program includes a comprehensive examination instead of a thesis. The student provides a list of appropriate courses and/or units to be included in the major. The student with an individual interdisciplinary major graduates with a degree in interdisciplinary studies.

Engineering Major. Students interested in aerospace, biomedical, chemical, civil, electrical, environmental, mechanical, mineral, or nuclear engineering may participate in the College's Liberal Arts-Engineering Dual Degree Program, in which three or four years at Bates are typically followed by two years at an affiliated engineering school. Recommended course sequences vary according to each student's particular engineering interests; curricular guidelines are available from the Dual Degree Program faculty advisor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy.

Students participating in the Dual Degree Program graduate from Bates with a degree in engineering.

The Senior Thesis

One of the most distinctive features of the Bates curriculum is the senior thesis, which is offered in all departments and programs and required by most. The faculty believes that a Bates senior is well-educated and well-prepared to undertake a significant research, service, performance, or studio project in the final year of study in the major. Nearly all students (97-98 percent) in each graduating class complete a senior thesis. The traditional senior thesis involves one or two semesters of original research and writing, culminating in a substantial paper on a research topic of the student's design. Such an effort requires that the student possess an excellent understanding of the subject area, its theoretical underpinnings, and its research methodology. The student must also be able to think critically and comprehensively about the topic, and must be able to advance a well-formulated argument. Conducting a senior thesis draws on a student's past academic experience and requires considerable independent thinking and creativity, self-discipline, and effective time management.

The student is guided in this process by the thesis advisor. Many departments and programs bring thesis students together in seminar courses or colloquia in which they meet regularly to discuss current literature, research methodologies, and their own progress. Many departments and programs require students to deliver formal presentations of their thesis work.

Some departments and programs offer or require thesis work that includes theatrical or musical performance, video production, curriculum development, service-learning, or studio art work and exhibition. Qualified students may occasionally undertake a joint thesis in which two students collaborate on one project.

In some departments a senior may culminate his or her career at Bates with an alternative project. Portfolios or comprehensive examinations are available as thesis alternatives in several major fields. Specific information on the work required of seniors in the major fields is detailed in the introductions to the courses and units of instruction for each department and program in the catalog.

The Honors Program

The College's Honors Program provides qualified students an opportunity to conduct more extensive independent study and research. Honors are awarded for special distinction in the major fields. Honors study usually proceeds throughout the senior year under the guidance of a faculty advisor. Students normally enter the program at the end of the junior year. Students who wish to be nominated to the Honors Program apply to the chairs of their major departments or programs.

The Honors Program consists of the writing of a substantial thesis and an oral examination on the thesis and the major field. In an alternative offered by some departments, eligible students elect a program consisting of a performance or a project in the creative arts with a written statement on the project, an oral examination on the project, and on courses in the major. The oral-examination committee includes the thesis advisor, members of the major department or program, at least one faculty member from a different major department or program, and an examiner from another college or university who specializes in the field of study. Guidelines are available on the program's Web page ( Honors theses become a part of the archives of the College, held in the Edmund S. Muskie Archives and Special Collections Library. Theses are cataloged in Ladd Library and are available on reserve for use by patrons.


In addition to completing a major, a student may elect to complete a minor in a number of disciplines. Minor requirements vary and are detailed in the introductions to the courses and units of instruction of the relevant departments or programs in the catalog. Minors are offered in African American studies, anthropology, Asian studies, chemistry, Chinese, dance, economics, educational studies, French, German, Greek, history, Japanese, Latin, mathematics, music, philosophy, religion, rhetoric, Russian, sociology, Spanish, teacher education, theater, and women and gender studies.

Independent Study

Independent study courses and units allow students to pursue individually a course of study or research not offered in the Bates curriculum. This may be pursued as a course during the semester (courses designated 360) or a unit during the Short Term (s50). The student designs and plans the independent study in consultation with a faculty member. The work must be approved by a Bates department or program, supervised by a Bates faculty member who is responsible for evaluation of the work and submission of a grade, and completed during the semester or Short Term for which the student has registered for the course or unit. Faculty members advise independent studies voluntarily; they may refuse a request to advise an independent study course or unit.

Independent study course work is undertaken during the academic year, and it may reflect upon summer activities. Credit, however, is awarded for work done during the academic year and the student must register for a fall independent study during the spring before the activity takes place when a summer learning experience is a substantial component of the independent study. The student must be in residence and may not complete an independent study away from campus unless participating in a Bates Fall Semester Abroad program. Students may not receive both transfer credit and independent study credit for the same summer activity. Students may not receive credit for employment unless there is a clearly defined academic component to the work. Academic credit is not granted for work completed under Bates summer research grant programs. Students may register for no more than one independent study course during any given semester. A student may complete a total of only one Short Term independent study unit. For more information, students may consult the Independent Study Registration Form, available from the registrar.

Learning Associates

Central to the strength of a Bates education are the intense and deep relationships formed between faculty and students, and the quality of learning that results from sustained contact between teacher and learner. To complement the focus and depth of intellectual exploration among students and faculty, the College engages "learning associates," experts in many fields who hail from around Maine and around the world. Learning associates help students and faculty by bringing new meanings and perspectives to a subject. Learning associates may be on campus for a day, a week, a semester, or a year, or may have a "virtual residence," working with students via e-mail, critiquing research methodology or results, or reading emerging senior theses. These experts expand the knowledge base available to students and faculty, challenge the neatness of discipline-based academic thinking, and provide rich contexts for translating ideas into action in the real world. Each year a variety of learning associates work with students in a range of disciplines. Recent learning associates have included an attorney who co-taught a course with a classicist on the challenges facing democracies in crisis in ancient Greece and contemporary America; an expert in writing in Spanish as a second language who worked with senior thesis writers in Spanish; a renowned muralist who directed students in the creation of a mural in Hathorn Hall; and several Indonesian gamelan masters who helped students and faculty better understand this unique instrumental ensemble.

Requirements for the Baccalaureate Degree

The Course and Unit Credit System. A student's progress toward the baccalaureate degree is measured by course credits and unit credits. All courses offered in the fall and winter semesters carry one course credit, with the exception of Studio Dance, which earns one half-credit per course. All curricular offerings in the Short Term are accorded one unit credit. Each candidate for the baccalaureate degree must complete thirty-four course credits, two of which must be Short Term unit credits, except students who participate in the three-year degree program. Three-year students must complete thirty-three credits, three of which must be Short Term unit credits.

Grades. The faculty of the College assesses student academic performance by assigning the following grades: A, B, C, D, and plus and minus for each; P; and F. Quality-point equivalents for these grades are described below. The grade ON indicates that a course requires two semesters of work to receive one credit; a final grade is determined at the end of the second semester. A temporary grade of DEF indicates that a student has secured, through a faculty member and a dean of students, a formal deferral for incomplete course work. Incomplete work for which deferred grades are given must be completed in a specific period of time as determined on the deferral form. The deferred grade becomes an F# grade if the work is not completed on time or when a faculty member does not submit a grade. The F# grade is administrative and is computed in the GPA as zero quality points. The final grade, if previously deferred, includes an asterisk (*) when posted on the transcript. In cases in which the due date for course work is extended beyond the end of the semester as part of a pre-approved accommodation for a documented disability, the final grade is not differentiated on the transcript from the grades for courses completed in the normal time frame. A grade of W indicates that a student withdrew from the course or unit after the official drop date. The deans of students or the Committee on Academic Standing may grant such withdrawals. Short Term unit grades are not calculated in the grade point average and carry no quality points. They appear on the transcript with a notation indicating this practice. Faculty members may choose to use Satisfactory (S) or Unsatisfactory (U) grades to assess the work of all of their students in any given Short Term unit.

Repeating Courses. Students may repeat a course only if they have received a grade of F for the course or have withdrawn and received a grade of W. The F grade remains in the student's grade point average, however, even if the course is repeated.

Pass/Fail Option. Students may elect to take a total of two Bates courses (but not Short Term units) on a pass/fail basis, with a maximum of one per semester. The following conditions apply:

1. Students may declare or change a pass/fail option until the final day to add a course.

2. Students taking a course pass/fail are not identified as such on class rosters. Faculty members submit a regular letter grade (A, B, C, D, F) to the registrar, who converts the letter grade to a pass or a fail. A grade of D-minus or above is considered a passing grade. Unless the student chooses to inform the instructor, only the student, the student's advisor, and the registrar know the grading mode for the course.

3. Departments and programs decide whether courses taken pass/fail can be used to satisfy major and minor requirements. This information appears in the paragraphs introducing the courses and units of instruction for each department and program in this catalog.

4. Courses taken pass/fail are not computed in the student's grade point average, and do not count toward General Education requirements. A pass is equivalent to two quality points.

Grade Reports. At the end of each semester and Short Term, grade reports are available for viewing on the Bates Garnet Gateway, the secure online records system ( Paper copies of grade reports may be sent to students upon request to the registrar. Faculty policies governing academic standing are outlined on page 27.

Course Evaluations. At the end of each semester students are required to complete an evaluation of each course taken. Students have a limited amount of time in which to complete a Web-based course evaluation, available on the Garnet Gateway. Students' grade reports are not released if this requirement has not been fulfilled.

Dean's List. Based on semester grade point averages, at the conclusion of each semester approximately the top 25 percent of students are named to the Dean's List. To be eligible, students must have completed all course work by the end of the semester and received letter grades in at least three Bates courses. At the start of each academic year, an appropriate GPA threshold is determined for placing students on the Dean's List for the ensuing year. This GPA level is computed as the minimum of the top 25 percent of the semester GPAs of all full-time students during the preceding three years. In 2007–2008 a student must earn a GPA of 3.67 or higher to be named to the Dean's List.

Degree Requirements

Students may pursue courses leading to the degree of either bachelor of arts or bachelor of science. When determining graduation eligibility, students are held to the curriculum and degree requirements listed in the catalog for the year in which they matriculated at Bates. If officially withdrawn and readmitted, students are held to the curriculum and degree requirements listed in the catalog in the year in which they are readmitted, or as determined by the Committee on Academic Standing upon readmission. Each student is solely responsible for completing all of these requirements.

Each candidate for graduation must complete the following requirements:

1. Either (a) thirty-four credits (thirty-two course credits and two Short Term unit credits) and sixty-four quality points; or (b) thirty-three credits (thirty course credits and three Short Term unit credits) and sixty quality points. Option (b) is available only for students who graduate in the three-year program. The following values are used in the computation of quality points:

GPA Table
A+ = 4.0 B+ = 3.3 C+ = 2.3 D+ = 1.3 F = 0 ON = 0
A = 4.0 B = 3.0 C = 2.0 D = 1.0 F# = 0 W = 0
A- = 3.7 B- = 2.7 C- = 1.7 D- = 0.7 DEF = 0 P = 2

2. A major field of study. Students successfully complete all prescribed work in a major comprising at least eight courses and including a senior thesis or capstone experience, as determined by the major department or program.

3. Registration in each regular semester for no fewer than three or no more than five academic courses.

4. Enrollment in courses at Bates for the final semester of the senior year. Senior work in the major field must be completed in residence.

5. Physical education activity credits. The physical education requirement may be satisfied by completing two ten-week physical education activity courses. Students may also meet the requirement through department-approved participation in intercollegiate athletics, club sports, and activity courses, or any combination. This requirement should be completed by the end of the first year in residence.

6. General Education requirements. See page 20. Students in the classes of 2008, 2009, and 2010 follow one set of General Education requirements. Students in the classes of 2011 and beyond follow new General Education requirements.

7. Bachelor of science requirements. In addition, candidates for the bachelor of science degree must complete Chemistry 107 and 108 (A or B), Mathematics 105 and 106, and Physics 107 or First-Year Seminar 314 and Physics 108 or First-Year Seminar 274. Students with Advanced Placement credit, International Baccalaureate credit, A-Level credit, or approved transfer credit may fulfill the requirement for one or more of these courses. If students receive credit for one course, they are required to take the other course in the set.

8. Liberal Arts-Engineering Dual Degree Plan. After three or four years (depending on the engineering program) of full-time study at Bates, qualified students may enroll in a two-year engineering program at Columbia University, Dartmouth College, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Case Western Reserve University, or Washington University in St. Louis. Upon completion of this five- or six-year program, students receive both an undergraduate degree in engineering from Bates College and a bachelor of science from the engineering school affiliate. Students who wish to pursue this line of study should consult with the faculty advisor for the Dual Degree Plan within the first two weeks of their undergraduate careers.

9. Academic honors. The College recognizes academic achievement though three kinds of honors: general honors, major-field honors (see page 24), and Dean's List (see page 27).

There are three levels of general honors, based upon cumulative grade point average: cum laude, magna cum laude, and summa cum laude.

General honors are calculated as follows: By the start of each academic year, the registrar computes the minimum cumulative grade point average necessary to rank students in the top 2 percent, 8 percent, and 15 percent of the combined last three graduating classes. In 2007–2008, students with GPAs of 3.91 or higher earn the distinction of summa cum laude; GPAs of 3.78 to 3.90, magna cum laude; and GPAs of 3.69 to 3.77, cum laude.

Satisfactory Academic Progress

Federal law requires the College to establish standards of satisfactory progress toward the degree and to monitor each recipient of federal aid to insure that he or she is making satisfactory progress according to those standards. The concept of satisfactory progress mandates the monitoring of both grade point average (GPA) — qualitative progress — and the number of credits completed — quantitative progress. The Committee on Academic Standing is responsible for evaluation of the student's progress, reviews the student's academic standing each semester, and evaluates petitions for exceptions to these standards. In addition, the deans of students may authorize exceptions for serious illnesses or personal emergencies. The College has established these standards:

Qualitative Standards. Student academic standing is based on the schedule below. All Bates course grades are included in a student's GPA; however, for the purposes of determining academic standing (good standing, probation, dismissal), first-year grades may be omitted from the computation if that omission benefits the student.

The Office of the Dean of Students informs students of changes in their academic standing according to the following schedule:

  1. First-year students
    1. First semester
      1. If the GPA is less than 0.75: dismissal
      2. If the GPA is greater than or equal to 0.75 but less than 1.5: probation
      3. If the GPA is greater than or equal to 1.5: good academic standing
    2. Second semester, for students in good academic standing
      1. If the semester GPA is less than 0.75: dismissal
      2. If the semester GPA is greater than or equal to 0.75 but less than 1.5: probation
      3. If the cumulative GPA is greater than or equal to 1.5: good academic standing
    3. Second semester, for students on academic probation
      1. If the semester GPA is less than 1.5: dismissal
      2. If the cumulative GPA is less than 1.75 but the semester GPA is greater than or equal to 1.5: probation
      3. If the cumulative GPA is greater than or equal to 1.75: good academic standing
  2. Sophomores, juniors, first-semester seniors
    1. For purposes of determining academic standing internally only, the computation of the cumulative GPA for upperclass students omits first-year grades if, and only if, this is advantageous to the student.
    2. For students in good academic standing
      1. If the semester GPA is less than 1.0: dismissal
      2. If the cumulative GPA is less than 2.0: probation
      3. If the cumulative GPA is equal to or greater than 2.0: good academic standing
    3. For students on academic probation
      1. If the cumulative and semester GPA are less than 2.0: dismissal
      2. If the cumulative GPA is less than 2.0 but the semester GPA is greater than or equal to 2.0: probation
      3. If the cumulative GPA is greater than or equal to 2.0: good academic standing
  3. Second-semester seniors
    Students graduate if the normal degree requirements, including courses, Short Term units, and total grade point averages, are met. This applies to students on academic probation from the prior semester, even if they do not fulfill the normal probationary requirements for good academic standing in the second senior semester.

Changes in academic standing are reported to students and academic advisors, and a statistical summary, excluding students' names, is reported to the faculty each semester. Parents are informed when students are on probation or are dismissed. Students may appeal changes in academic standing to the Academic Standing Committee after consulting with the dean of students.

Quantitative Standards. A student's progress toward the baccalaureate degree is measured by course credits and unit credits. Students usually follow a four-year track; however, some students complete the academic program in three years (see page 20).

Normally, students in the four-year program successfully complete eight courses by the end of their first year, sixteen courses by the end of their second year, twenty-four courses and one Short Term unit by the end of their third year, and thirty-two courses and two Short Term units by the end of their fourth year.

To comply with the satisfactory-progress policy, each candidate in the four-year program must successfully complete the following minimum numbers of course and unit credits: no fewer than six courses by the end of the first year; no fewer than twelve courses by the end of the second year; no fewer than twenty courses and one Short Term unit by the end of the third year; and thirty-two courses and two Short Term units by the end of the fourth year.

Normally, students in the three-year program successfully complete ten courses and one Short Term unit by the end of the first year, twenty courses and two Short Term units by the end of the second year, and thirty courses and three Short Term units by the end of the third year.

To comply with the satisfactory-progress policy, each candidate in the three-year program must successfully complete the following minimum numbers of course and unit credits: no fewer than eight courses and one Short Term unit by the end of the first year; no fewer than eighteen courses and two Short Term units by the end of the second year; and no fewer than thirty courses and three Short Term units by the end of the third year.

Maximum Time Frame. All students are expected to complete the degree in eight semesters; students are eligible to continue enrollment and receive financial aid for eight full-time semesters. Any student not meeting the standards of satisfactory progress is ineligible to return to Bates or receive federal student aid. The registrar notifies students if they have not met the satisfactory progress standards. Students are considered withdrawn until satisfactory progress is reestablished.

Reestablishing Eligibility. Written notice is given to students whose status makes them ineligible to return for the next semester, or whose financial aid eligibility is rescinded for lack of academic progress. If denied aid or permission to return because of failure to meet the satisfactory-progress policy standards, students may reestablish eligibility for federal aid by subsequently meeting the standards. The Committee on Academic Standing may also readmit to the College students who petition the committee for readmission when there are exceptional or extenuating circumstances. A student who has reestablished eligibility may be considered for aid for upcoming periods but not for periods during which standards were not met. The Office of the Dean of Students, the academic advisor, and the registrar can consult with students seeking to rectify deficiencies in grades or earned credits.

Appeals for Financial Aid. A student who is ineligible for financial aid due to lack of satisfactory progress or exceeding the eight-semester time limit, and who believes that exceptional or extenuating circumstances caused this ineligibility, may request a review by the director of student financial services and the dean of admissions.

Additional Information. Students who fail to make satisfactory academic progress do not receive the following types of financial aid: federal Pell Grant; federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant; Federal College Work-Study; federal Perkins Loan; federal Stafford Loan; federal PLUS Loan; or Bates College scholarships, grants, loans, or employment. Students on probationary status are still eligible to receive financial aid; students dismissed are ineligible. Students who reduce their course load are required to repay the appropriate financial assistance. Students participating in the Federal College Work-Study Program are subject to termination of employment. The grades of F and DEF are not considered as successful completion of a course or unit. A student who is suspended for unsatisfactory scholarship, or for disciplinary or financial reasons, is denied permission to continue to attend classes, to enroll in subsequent terms, to reside in College housing, to receive Bates-funded financial aid, and to participate in Bates-sponsored extracurricular activities or use facilities in ways that are not also open to the general public.

Reinstatement after Withdrawal or Dismissal

A student in good academic standing who withdraws from the College may be reinstated at the discretion of the dean of students or an associate dean of students, if the reinstatement is within two years of the withdrawal and there are no outstanding financial obligations to the College. In no cases are students readmitted when they have outstanding financial obligations to the College or are past due in federal student loan repayments. A student in good standing who has withdrawn for more than two years, a student not in good standing, or a student who has been dismissed from the College must apply for readmission to the Committee on Academic Standing through the dean of students. Students not in good standing or dismissed must be separated from the College for at least one full semester, and must provide evidence of serious purpose and of academic or professional involvement. Candidates for readmission for the fall semester must submit their credentials by 1 May. Those seeking readmission for the winter semester must submit their credentials by 15 November.

Off-Campus Study Programs

The College sponsors a variety of off-campus study programs through which students can earn Bates credit or approved program credit. These programs are administered by the Off-Campus Study Office and are overseen by the Committee on Off-Campus Study according to policies set by the committee and the faculty. Off-campus study programs enrich student opportunities for academic study, research, and cultural experiences.  Bates has found that select programs and universities in the United States and abroad can greatly enhance a student's academic career and personal development through the exploration of new academic disciplines, different methods of study, and unique living settings. Further information on off-campus study opportunities appears on the Off-Campus Study Office Web site (

Students interested in studying off campus consult with their faculty advisor, the chair of their major department or program, and advisors in the Off-Campus Study Office. The application process requires completion of both a Bates application and the application of the program or foreign university. The Bates application must be submitted in early February, the year before off-campus study is planned, and must include a statement of academic goals, the desired approved program or university, reasons for the semester selected, and the approval of the student’s major department. The College requires that the number of student applications be balanced between the two semesters at the application deadline in February. If too many students apply to study off campus a given semester, students are selected according to criteria established by the Off-Campus Study Committee, which is explained in detail on the Web site (

With the exception of summer courses, matriculated students who wish to receive credit for study outside the United States and for affiliated domestic programs must have the preapproval of the Committee on Off-Campus Study and their major department or program. Students must study on an approved program and complete their studies in accordance with the committee’s guidelines. They must have a 2.50 cumulative GPA at the time of application. A student may become ineligible if the GPA drops below 2.50 during the application process or after admission to her or his program. Registration as a four-year student, including residence at Bates during the sophomore year, is required. In addition, the Committee on Off-Campus Study considers the student’s personal character and capacity for independent work in determining eligibility.

Students participating in a Bates Fall Semester Abroad program pay the regular comprehensive fee. Participants in other programs pay the Off-Campus Study Registration Fee, which is 7 percent of the on-campus comprehensive fee for each semester of study. For 2007–2008, the Off-Campus Study Registration Fee is $1,635 per semester. All other costs are calculated by the foreign program and are the responsibility of the individual student. However, federal, state, and Bates financial aid is available subject to the student's financial need based on the program expenses and the policies outlined on page 51. Additional information and applications for off-campus study programs are available through the Off-Campus Study Office.

Bates students may enhance their study-abroad experience with grants provided by the Barlow Endowment for Study Abroad. This endowment provides fellowships, grants for enrichment activities during or after the program, and grants for thesis research related to an individual's study-abroad experience. More information on the endowment is available though the Off-Campus Study Office and on line (

The Bates Fall Semester Abroad Program. The College sponsors one or more fall semester abroad programs under the direction of faculty members. In recent years, fall semester abroad programs have taken place in Austria, China, and Russia. In 2007, a program takes place in Japan and in 2008, a program is planned for Germany. The objectives of this program include combining academic work with a cross-cultural learning experience and providing students with opportunities for intensive foreign-language study. Four course credits are awarded for successful completion of the program, which includes four required courses: two intensive language courses and two seminars in topics relevant to understanding the host country. Grades are included on the Bates transcript and in the student's grade point average. The comprehensive fee includes all program costs, including international airfare. This program is open to all students with preference to new matriculants. Additional information is available from the offices of Admissions and Off-Campus Study.

Junior Year Programs. Under the Junior Year Abroad and Junior Semester Abroad programs, students have studied in more than seventy-five countries. In non-English-speaking countries, students participate in a wide range of American college and university programs selected for their academic quality, their emphasis on full immersion experiences, and their association with foreign universities. Students study throughout Europe and Russia; in China, Japan, and other Asian countries; in Israel, Egypt, and other Middle Eastern and African countries; and from Mexico to Chile in the Americas. In English-speaking countries, students enroll directly at select host-country universities, experiencing the academic and social life of their students. In recent years, these universities have included Bristol, Edinburgh, the London School of Economics, Kings, Oxford, and University College London in Great Britain; Trinity and the National Universities of Ireland in Cork, Dublin, and Galway; the universities of Adelaide, Melbourne, and New South Wales in Australia; and the universities of Auckland and Otago in New Zealand.

Language skills greatly contribute to the academic and social experience in non-English-speaking settings. Therefore, students are required to have completed the equivalent of at least two years of college-level language study prior to study abroad in French-, German-, or Spanish-language settings. In Chinese-, Japanese-, and Russian-language settings, the equivalent of at least one year of college-level study is required. Prior language study is not required elsewhere, but students must include language study, ancient or modern, as part of their course work. When appropriate, a student may petition the Committee on Off-Campus Study for an exception to these policies. Admission to a particular university depends entirely upon that institution's decision regarding the individual applicant.

Washington Semester Program. This opportunity administered by American University provides a number of thematic programs coupled with internships. Residence in the District of Columbia for a semester enables students to study and research firsthand the policies and processes of the federal government, nongovernmental organizations, and the private sector in Washington.

Maritime Studies. Bates belongs to a group of colleges affiliated with the Williams College-Mystic Seaport Program in American Maritime Studies. In addition to taking courses in American maritime history, marine ecology, maritime literature, marine policy, and oceanography, students are introduced to navigational and shipbuilding skills. During the semester they also spend approximately two weeks at sea, sailing and conducting research.

Associated Kyoto Program. Bates is one of sixteen colleges and universities that sponsor a yearlong program in Japan in association with Doshisha University. The program provides intensive Japanese-language and related courses and the opportunity to live with a Japanese family. The program is held in Kyoto, an exceptional cultural setting as the historic capital of Japan as well as a modern city of more than one million inhabitants.

Intercollegiate Center for Classical Studies in Rome. Bates is a member of ICCS, the leading consortium for classical studies at American and Canadian colleges and universities. ICCS has a center in Rome, where classics majors and other qualified students may study for a semester.

India. Bates belongs to the South India Term Abroad (SITA) Consortium. This program provides an opportunity for students to study an Indian language, history, culture, and related topics in Tamil Nadu. The curriculum, taught by Indian faculty as well as faculty of the consortium colleges, is designed to ensure broad exposure to South Asian life and culture.

Sri Lanka. Bates and other institutions sponsor the Intercollegiate Sri Lanka Education (ISLE) Program for study in Sri Lanka. The program gives qualified students the opportunity for immersion in Sri Lankan culture under the guidance of a faculty member appointed by the sponsoring colleges.

Exchange Programs with Other U.S. Colleges. Semester exchange programs with Morehouse and Spelman colleges provide Bates students the opportunity to study at a leading historically black men's college or a leading historically black women's college, respectively. Students may also study for one semester or a year at Washington and Lee University.

Research Semester Programs. The College encourages qualified upperclass students to take part in special semester-long research programs offered off campus by other educational and research institutions. Faculty of the department closely associated with the research area are familiar with these opportunities, and students should apply to these programs through the department chairs. Biological research semester programs are available at The Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine; Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York City; and other nationally recognized research laboratories in the natural sciences.

Academic Leave and Transfer Credit for Matriculated Students

Some students expand their Bates experience by attending other U.S. institutions, from which they may receive transfer credit according to College policy (see below). Students who take three or more courses elsewhere in the United States during a semester are considered to be taking an academic leave. Students who wish to take an academic leave must inform the College in early February of the year preceding the leave. The College requires that the number of students who study off campus each semester be balanced at the time of this February deadline. If too many students apply for a given semester, students are granted leaves according to criteria established by the Committee on Off-Campus Study (see Students on a personal leave and students taking summer courses may take up to two courses without participating in the off-campus study application process.

Students who take academic leaves to study elsewhere usually take courses at state universities and private colleges, but courses from more specialized programs, such as the Semester in Environmental Sciences at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Massachusetts and the New York Studio School, may also be transferred.

Transfer Credit Policy. Three types of credit can be applied toward a Bates degree: a) Bates credit, earned from courses taught and/or evaluated and graded by Bates faculty; b) approved program credit, earned from courses taken while participating in a Bates-approved program administered by the Committee on Off-Campus Study; and c) non-Bates credit, earned at an institution of higher education other than Bates that meets the established standards for transfer to Bates or credit awarded from a standardized test such as the Advanced Placement, International Baccalaureate, or A-Level examination. Only grades awarded by Bates faculty are computed in the student's grade point average.

Degree candidates matriculating as first-year students, either in the fall or winter semester, must earn at least twenty-four Bates course credits or approved program credits. Transfer students must earn a minimum of sixteen Bates course credits. They may transfer a maximum of two non-Bates course credits earned after matriculating at Bates. A transfer student is defined as any student who has previously matriculated as a degree candidate at another institution and has earned or is earning credit.

The registrar and the department or program chair are responsible for the overall evaluation of non-Bates credit, subject to established guidelines. The Committee on Academic Standing may grant exceptions to the established guidelines. All non-Bates course credits awarded are equivalent to one Bates course credit and two quality points toward the graduation requirements.

Non-Bates credit is evaluated based on specific requirements. Credit must be awarded from an official college or university transcript, from an official Advanced Placement, International Baccalaureate or A-Level test score report, or from an official document considered equivalent to a transcript by the registrar. Courses must be appropriate to a liberal arts and sciences college, comparable in quality to those offered at Bates, and students must achieve a grade of C or better. Courses taken in a college's or university's continuing-education or extension program must be applicable toward the bachelor of arts or the bachelor of science degree being pursued by full-time undergraduate students at that institution. College courses taken prior to secondary school graduation must have been taught on a college or university campus and graded in competition with college students. Credit must be earned at a four-year, regionally accredited institution; however, courses earned in an accredited community or junior college or any nontraditional setting may be transferable with approval of the department or program and the Committee on Academic Standing; matriculated Bates students must obtain these approvals prior to enrolling in the course(s). Courses must be worth at least three semester hours or five quarter-hours or meet a minimum of thirty-six class-meeting hours to be eligible for transfer. When appropriate, quarter-hours may be added together and multiplied by two-thirds to determine the equivalent total number of semester hours to be used toward unspecified transfer credits. Students may receive credit for a maximum of two courses taken during summer sessions. All credits must be transferred by the beginning of the final semester of the senior year. Credit for Short Term units may not be transferred from another institution. Students must be enrolled at Bates for the final semester of their senior year.

A student who fails to graduate by the anticipated degree date may transfer credits necessary to graduate for up to two years afterwards. After two years, the student is withdrawn automatically from the College, but may petition the Committee on Academic Standing for permission to complete the degree.

Transfer Credit and General Education. For students in the classes of 2008, 2009, and 2010: Departments and programs decide whether transfer credits awarded in their discipline meet any General Education requirements.

For students in the classes of 2011 and beyond: Transfer credit awarded as equivalent to a specific Bates course may be used to fulfill the same General Education requirements that the equivalent Bates course fulfills, with the exception of writing requirements, which must be fulfilled at Bates. Transfer credit that is awarded but is not equivalent to a specific Bates course cannot be used to fulfill any General Education requirements.

Personal Leave. In unusual circumstances, students may need to interrupt their study at the College for health or personal reasons. In addition, students may take a personal leave of absence to pursue an internship or other non academic experience. Accordingly, the College permits students in good standing to apply to the dean of students or an associate dean of students for a personal leave of absence. A leave-of-absence form must be completed by the student. Students must also meet with representatives from the Offices of the Registrar and Academic Systems and of Student Financial Services. Students are advised that some education loan repayments may begin if a student goes on a personal leave. Students on a personal leave may take up to two courses elsewhere in the United States for Bates credit, subject to the transfer policies outlined above. The College guarantees reinstatement to the student at the end of the specified leave period, provided a registration deposit is made by 1 August for the first semester and 1 December for the second semester.

Student Research

A great strength of the Bates curriculum is its emphasis on individual research. In their first year, students may participate in a first-year seminar, a small class in which the development of critical thinking, concise writing, and other research skills is emphasized. Methodology courses and advanced seminars offer further research training in a specific discipline. Many students undertake independent study courses and units in order to explore in depth a subject of particular interest. Qualified students may participate in a semester-long program at a research institution, earning Bates credit (see page 35). Each summer, many students undertake research independently or in collaboration with a Bates faculty member. All of these research and writing experiences prepare students for the senior thesis, required in most departments and programs, and for the Honors Program.

Support for Research during the Academic Year. The College encourages students to pursue research associated with regular courses and Short Term units, independent studies, and the senior thesis. Funds are available through competitive grant programs that provide financial assistance for student research, including the acquisition of books, data sets, musical scores, supplies and equipment, and travel to research facilities and scholarly conferences. Information and applications are available in the Office of the Dean of the Faculty or on the student research Web site (

Summer Research Opportunities. Bates faculty members are active in scholarly research and offer qualified students the opportunity to work with them as research assistants during the summer. These opportunities offer stipends rather than academic credit and are available directly from faculty researchers funded through faculty grants or through the Office of the Dean of the Faculty, which manages a number of student summer research grant programs. Students are encouraged to explore off-campus summer research opportunities as well. Funding is available to conduct off-campus fieldwork and to support the work of a student at another research facility. Information on summer research opportunities is available on the student research Web site (

Presenting Research, and the Mount David Summit. The faculty believes that a Bates student must be able not only to conduct careful, well-documented research that contributes new knowledge; he or she must also be able to effectively communicate that research and defend his or her results. Students are encouraged to present their research at regional, national, and international meetings, for which they may receive financial support for travel from the College. They also have many opportunities to present their academic work on campus at events throughout the year. The largest on-campus research forum is the Mount David Summit. Each year near the end of the winter semester, the College community gathers for the Mount David Summit, a campus-wide event honoring academic and artistic achievement. In concurrent sessions through an afternoon and evening, more than 300 students present research posters; short talks on research or service-learning; and creative work, including poetry and fiction writing, film, theater, performance art, music, and the visual arts. Students from all class levels and all disciplines are encouraged to take part; the audience includes students, faculty, staff, parents, prospective students, alumni, donors, and the general public. More information on the summit is at the Web site (

Community Engagement and Service-Learning

At the core of the College's founding mission is the notion that liberal learning, personal growth, and moral development are inseparable from social responsibility and service to others. Civic engagement and service-learning not only contribute to a student's academic experience at college, but also enhance community life through the tangible contributions they make to others. Through projects conducted in academic courses, senior thesis, Short Term units, and summer fellowships, students, faculty, and staff enrich academic study by undertaking work in the public sphere in collaboration with community partners. More than half of all students take part in service-learning projects during their college years, and many faculty members link service-learning in course curricula.

The mission of the Harward Center for Community Partnerships is to integrate community-based learning and community service into the Bates educational experience. Established in 2002, the center coordinates the College’s myriad programs for civic and community engagement, incorporating service-learning programs and community volunteer work, as well as the Bates-Morse Mountain Conservation Area. The Harward Center builds on a legacy of innovative, rigorous service-learning at Bates. It serves as a clearing house for faculty, staff, and students interested in service-learning or community-based research projects, and for community organizations, schools, and government agencies that seek to engage the College. It sponsors community projects in areas as diverse as basic social services; education; literacy programs; municipal government; environmental education and advocacy; health and mental health services; public art, music, dance, and other cultural projects; and legal advocacy. The Harward Center oversees a number of grant programs, including the Crafts Service Awards, for students pursuing service-learning projects during the academic year; Harward Summer Student Fellowships, for service-learning projects during the summer; and Community Work-Study Fellowships, providing service-learning opportunities for eligible students in community agencies during the academic year and the summer. The center also coordinates Bates volunteer opportunities in the Lewiston-Auburn community.

Undergraduate Fellowships

The College supports two special undergraduate fellowship programs designed for highly motivated students who wish to synthesize their academic and life experiences in a unique fellowship of their own design. Fellowships usually take place during the summer, though some occur during the Short Term or during a semester's leave. Fellowships may focus on research, service-learning, career exploration, social activism, or some combination; they always involve a dimension of challenge, personal growth, and transformation.

Otis Fellowships support students whose interests and projects involve the relationship of individuals and societies to the natural world. Otis Fellowships have taken students to the national parks and Native American reservations of the American West; the fishing villages of the Canadian Maritimes; indigenous communities in Bolivia, Lesotho, Mexico, and the Arctic; monasteries and farms in Ireland; the high Andes of Peru; the national parks of South Africa; the lakes of Siberia; and the steppes of Mongolia. Information on Otis Fellowships can be found on the student research Web site (

Phillips Students Fellowships provide qualified students with an opportunity to conduct a project of their own design in an international or cross-cultural setting. Recent Phillips Fellows have studied Buddhism in Thailand, traditional dress in Nigeria, drumming in Ghana, and folk music and dance in France and the Canadian Maritimes. They have examined education in Kenya, African-American intermarriage in the Seminole community, the life stories of Jews who immigrated to Mexico during World War II, the prospects for an African economic union, women's empowerment in South Africa, and the relationship of art and politics in Cuba and France. Information on Phillips Fellowships can be found on the student research Web site (

Office of Career Services

The principal charge of the Office of Career Services (OCS) is to help students become aware of their interests, skills, and values, and how these relate to the career possibilities available after graduation. The OCS complements academic advising efforts by providing integrated career services including career counseling, computerized career-interest testing, a library of career information, employment listings, access to thousands of alumni career advisors, a confidential Web-accessible reference service, interviews with prospective employers, contact with representatives from graduate and professional schools, and links to job and career information through the OCS home page ( Although the Office of Career Services does not function as a job or internship placement agency, students are encouraged to use the OCS beginning in their first year at Bates in order to integrate their academic, career, and personal goals into a professional focus.

The Writing Workshop

The College values students' ability to think critically and write clear, vigorous prose. The Writing Workshop helps students assess their needs and hone their writing skills through hour-long tutorials with members of its staff of professional writers. The Writing Workshop is open to any Bates student. Assistance is available for all academic writing, including scientific papers, senior theses, and honors theses. Students may use the workshop to learn to analyze assignments, generate and organize ideas, revise drafts, and polish their writing (

The Mathematics and Statistics Workshop

Dedicated to encouraging quantitative literacy and reasoning, the Mathematics and Statistics Workshop offers a variety of tutoring and help sessions to students seeking assistance with mathematical reasoning and comprehension. Throughout the fall and winter semesters, drop-in help sessions are offered Monday through Thursday afternoons for students in any introductory-level class with a mathematical component. In addition, two-hour calculus help sessions are conducted by student tutors each weeknight. One-on-one assistance is available for students in any course requiring a command of quantitative or statistical skills, as well as skills with certain mathematical software packages. During Short Term services are available by appointment, (

Peer Assistance Program

Peer assistance programs support student learning and faculty teaching, and provide leadership opportunities and teaching experience for sophomores, juniors, and seniors. The Peer Writing Assistant Program offers students collaborative writing assistance. Some writing assistants are based in Ladd Library during the evenings. Any Bates student may discuss assignments and drafts with these writing assistants, who look for clear theses, sharp ideas, effective organization, sound evidence, and strong writing style. Other peer writing assistants are assigned to some first-year seminars and other writing-attentive courses, working one-to-one with students in the course.

Students also work as leaders in Peer-Assisted Learning Groups (PALG) for all students in several classes in the sciences, including Biology 102 and 242; Chemistry 107A and 107B, 108A, 108B, 217, and 218; and Physics 107 and 108. The PALG program features regularly scheduled, out-of-class, peer-facilitated study sessions, usually once a week to compare notes, discuss course material, and develop study strategies.

Many departments and programs hire students as teaching assistants (TAs) to work with students in variety of ways. Technical Writing Assistants (TWAs) work with students in 100-level and core biology courses. They function as peer writing assistants for biology students preparing lab reports and honing science writing skills, and may also serve as laboratory teaching assistants.

Information and Library Services

The Library. The George and Helen Ladd Library is one of the most central and important facilities of the College, housing books, periodicals, government publications, musical scores, maps, microforms, sound and video recordings, access to online databases, material in other electronic formats, and other items essential for students and faculty to carry on their research. The library offers a learning environment conducive to study and research, and provides easy access to information in a variety of formats. The Library houses more than 840 study spaces, including individual carrels, lounge and table seating, workstations, listening stations, and viewing stations. More than 275 campus network jacks at seats and carrels are available, along with wireless network access through the Library. A networked computer instruction room and an online reference area are located on the main floor. Quiet study is encouraged throughout the building, except in areas designated for group studying.

The central portal for information is the online catalog, accessible via computers throughout the library and on the campus network. The online system is also accessible, as are many electronic resources, through the library's Web site ( Expert reference librarians offer instructional and reference services, as well as consultation on an individual basis. The audio and video collections are housed on the ground floor. The microform area provides reader-printers for material in those formats, including newspapers and other periodicals, books, and documents. Current periodicals are available on the main floor.

In all, the library contains more than 610,000 cataloged volumes in print, 300,000 pieces of microform, and 34,000 recordings, and it provides access to thousands of sources of information online. More than 25,000 periodicals are available in electronic form. Ladd Library resources are augmented by the collections of Bowdoin and Colby colleges, constituting a combined cataloged collection of more than two million volumes. The three college libraries consider these collections as part of the total material available to their students and encourage faculty, students, and staff to use the consortium's resources before searching elsewhere. The Bates identification card allows Bates students, faculty, and staff to borrow materials from the Bowdoin and Colby libraries. Through the MaineCat statewide catalog (a service of Maine Info Net), Bates users may initiate loan requests for materials at Bowdoin or Colby, as well as other academic and public libraries throughout the state. Bates is also a member of NExpress, a library consortium that includes Colby, Bates, Bowdoin, Wellesley, and Williams colleges, as well as Northeastern University.

The College library was founded in 1863 with fewer than 800 volumes, but possessed more than 20,000 when Coram Library opened in 1901. In 1883 the library was designated the first depository for U.S. government documents in Maine. It is also a selective depository for documents of the State of Maine. Ladd Library opened in 1973; renovations in the last decade have included redesigned areas for electronic services, full integration of electronic resources, improved seating, and additional group study rooms. The library functions as the primary point of service for Information and Library Services, with circulation, reference, and Help Desk Services centrally located.

Archives and Special Collections. The Edmund S. Muskie Archives and Special Collections Library fosters research and scholarship by encouraging access to Bates College records and other historical materials by students and faculty, as well as scholars from the community at large. These collections enable students from Bates and elsewhere to perform historical research using primary documentary material. The collections have three major divisions.

The Bates College Archives serves as the official repository of records, publications, photographs, honors theses, oral histories, and other materials of permanent administrative, legal, fiscal, and historical value. It documents the history of the College from its founding in 1855 to the present.

The Manuscript Collections include materials related to the history of Bates College, including the papers of faculty, staff, alumni, and others with strong ties to the College. In addition, because of its roots as a Freewill Baptist institution, the library collects pamphlets, papers, letters, diaries, church records, and other materials related to Freewill Baptist organizations, mission work, families, ministers, and individuals, with particular emphasis on nineteenth-century Freewill Baptist material with Bates or New England connections. Among the latter are the letters of Lydia Coombs, a Freewill Baptist missionary in India, and the papers of J. S. (Josiah Spooner) Swift, a Freewill Baptist minister and publisher in Farmington, Maine.

Other notable strengths of the manuscript collections include material related to the life and work of Edmund S. Muskie, for whom the archives are named, and environmentalism. The Edmund S. Muskie Papers include almost all the extant records of the life and work of Edmund S. Muskie (1914–1996), a 1936 Bates graduate who dominated Maine politics from the mid-1950s to 1981 and became a national leader for environmental protection, government reform, and fiscal responsibility. The library also houses the Edmund S. Muskie Oral History Project, including collections of taped interviews with individuals who knew Muskie or who offer insights into the events and conditions that shaped his life and times. The Dorothy Freeman Collection contains a large body of correspondence with the biologist, writer, and conservationist Rachel Carson.

The Rare Book Collection include publications pertaining to the Freewill Baptists in Maine and New England; nineteenth-century French history and literature; fine-press books published in Maine; Judaica; and nineteenth-century books on natural history, particularly ornithology.

Computing and Media Services. Bates offers a fully integrated campus computing network that supports Macintosh, Windows, and UNIX platforms with access to Internet servers on the campus. Computer labs are equipped with more than 175 workstations clustered in Coram Library, Pettigrew Hall, Hathorn Hall, Pettengill Hall, Dana Chemistry Hall, Carnegie Science Hall, and Ladd Library. Special facilities include interactive classrooms with large video screens for group instruction, graphics workstations, plotters, color laser printers, scanners, and digital editing machines for producing broadcast-quality video. Information and Library Services staff offer workshops in research and computing skills.

The College's computer systems continue to expand in response to user needs. All students are assigned a user ID that affords access to Bates computers and network services, including the library catalog, network storage, and electronic mail. The Bates College Web site ( provides the Internet community with access to Bates information, links Bates users with the Internet, and gives students online access to on-campus services, including registration, course evaluations, their financial records, and numerous library research databases, the College Catalog, Web pages for specific courses, information from Help Desk Services, campus employment and career services information, student grant guidelines, and students' personal home pages. Through the Bates proxy server, many on-campus services and library databases are available to Bates students and faculty as they work and study throughout the world.

Many courses use computing extensively. In economics, for example, integration of theoretical and empirical work requires computer use for statistical analysis and modeling. In psychology, data sets are generated to simulate research studies that students then analyze and interpret. As a member of the Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR), Bates offers access to a growing number of social science studies. Data from ICPSR and other economic time-series databases as well as data collected by faculty and student researchers are analyzed in statistical packages including SPSS and SAS. The Department of Music uses computers to teach composition and to introduce graphics applications, and music, dance, and art students use them to create multimedia works. Students of foreign languages make extensive use of the Language Resource Center in Hathorn Hall. Currently, more than 100 workstations are found in laboratory settings in the biology, chemistry, classics, economics, foreign language, geology, mathematics, music, physics and astronomy, psychology, and sociology departments. All Bates classrooms have high-speed network connections; one-third are equipped with workstations, digital projection, and sound equipment.

Information and Library Services provides many opportunities for students to enhance computing skills by working in technology-related jobs in Help Desk Services, Classroom Technology, Network and Infrastructure Services, Web Services, or on faculty projects through Academic Technology Services.

The Bates College Imaging and Computing Center

In January 2007, the Bates College Imaging and Computing Center opened. Located in Coram Library, the center houses optical and computer equipment for the capture, interpretation, and analysis of information in visual formats. The center's imaging lab houses optical microscopes, a small prep lab, and a digital photography lab. An adjoining gallery and a computer room provide exhibition space and computer workstations. The imaging and computing center's capabilities have applications across the disciplines, from the visualization of nanostructures and the presentation of large amounts of genomic data to GIS plotting of social science data and the production of works of art.

The Laboratories

Laboratories and studios for student and faculty use are located throughout the campus. Chemistry and biochemistry laboratories and instruments are situated in Dana Chemistry Hall. Biology, environmental studies, geology, neuroscience, and physics laboratories are housed in Carnegie Science Hall. Astronomy students and faculty use the Stephens Observatory with its 0.32-meter reflecting telescope and the Spitz A-3 planetarium projector, also located in Carnegie. Archeology and psychology laboratories are housed in Pettengill Hall.

The Department of Romance Languages and Literatures, the Department of German and Russian Studies, and the Program in East Asian Studies make extensive use of the Language Resource Center in Hathorn Hall. This facility offers a variety of language-specific software to enhance classroom activities, word processing, and World Wide Web multimedia exploration.Web browsers are available in Chinese, Japanese, French, Spanish, German, and Russian. The center is equipped with fifteen computers with AV screens and VHS/DVD players, with video projection for classroom instruction.

Resources for the Arts

In Pettigrew Hall, theater, dance, and performance-art students use the proscenium stage of the Miriam Lavinia Schaeffer Theatre, which seats more than 300. The Department of Theater and Rhetoric conducts experimental and studio work in the smaller facilities of the Gannett Theater. The Marcy Plavin Dance Studios are located in Merrill Gymnasium.

The Olin Arts Center houses art studios for painting, drawing, printmaking, photography, and ceramics. It provides the Department of Music with music studios and rehearsal rooms for individuals and groups, as well as laboratories for computer-based composition. An acoustically exceptional 300-seat concert hall in the building is the site of performances year-round, ranging from student thesis recitals and weekly Noonday Concerts by Bates musicians to special appearances by internationally known musicians.

The Bates College Museum of Art

Also in the Olin Arts Center is the Bates College Museum of Art. Established in 1953, the museum maintains a small but significant permanent collection of American and European art, including the Marsden Hartley Memorial Collection, featuring paintings, drawings, personal papers, and memorabilia of this great early-twentieth-century modernist, a native of Lewiston. The Museum of Art is an important academic resource, supporting teaching and learning across the curriculum. It is also a leading arts and cultural center in the region. In two floors of galleries the museum exhibits the work of historical and contemporary artists; in addition to diverse group and solo shows, the museum hosts an annual exhibition of work by senior art majors. Lectures, tours, studio workshops, internships, and school programs are offered through the museum's education program.

The Bates-Morse Mountain Conservation Area and the Bates College Coastal Center at Shortridge

The Bates-Morse Mountain Conservation Area (BMMCA) Corporation owns nearly 600 acres of rare undeveloped Maine coastland, managed by the College for conservation and research. The land lies between two tidal rivers in Phippsburg, and encompasses salt marsh, dune habitat, forested wetlands and uplands, and granite ledge outcrops including a panoramic overlook from the top of Morse Mountain, 180 feet above sea level.

The College conducts educational programs, scientific research, and literary study consistent with the conservation of the ecological and aesthetic values of the property in its natural state and with the protection of its ecosystems. The principal researchers are Bates College faculty and students, as well as scientists from other educational and research institutions. Limited public visitation is permitted as long as it is conducted in ways consistent with the area's mission and does not interfere with the area's quiet natural beauty and relative solitude. The area is open year-round during daylight hours, but domestic animals, vehicles, and camping are not permitted in any season.

Near the BMMCA, the Bates College Coastal Center at Shortridge includes a seventy-acre woodland and wetland habitat, a ten-acre freshwater pond, and a research center and field station.

The Shortridge Center is primarily used for academic purposes, particularly research associated with the Meetinghouse Pond environs and the BMMCA. The facility provides a base location and support for research activities of Bates faculty and students. The BMMCA and the Coastal Center at Shortridge are overseen by the Harward Center for Community Partnerships.

Confidentiality of Education Records

The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) affords students certain rights with respect to their education records.

1. FERPA affords the right to inspect and review the student's education records within forty-five days of the day the College receives a request for access. Students should submit to the registrar, dean of students, chair of the academic department or program, or other appropriate official written requests that identify the records they wish to inspect. The College official makes arrangements for access and notifies the student of the time and place where the records may be inspected. If the records are not maintained by the College official to whom the request is submitted, the official advises the student of the correct official to whom the request should be addressed.

2. FERPA affords the right to request the amendment of the student's education records that the student believes are inaccurate or misleading. A student may ask the College to amend a record that he or she believes is inaccurate or misleading. The student should write the College official responsible for the record, clearly identify the part of the record he or she wants changed, and specify why it is inaccurate or misleading. If the College decides not to amend the record as requested by the student, the College notifies the student of the decision and advises the student of his or her right to a hearing regarding the request for amendment. Additional information regarding the hearing procedures is provided to the student when notified of the right to a hearing.

3. FERPA affords the right to consent to disclosures of personally identifiable information contained in the student's education records, except to the extent that FERPA authorizes disclosure without consent. One exception that permits disclosure without consent is disclosure to College officials, or officials of institutions with which the College has consortial agreements, with legitimate educational interests. A College official is a person employed by Bates in an administrative, supervisory, academic, or support-staff position (including Security and Health Center staff); a person or company with whom the College has contracted (such as an attorney, auditor, or collection agent); a person serving on the Board of Trustees; or a student serving on an official committee, such as the Committee on Student Conduct, or assisting another College official in performing his or her tasks. A College official has a legitimate educational interest if the official needs to review an education record in order to fulfill his or her professional responsibility.

4. FERPA affords the right to file a complaint with the U.S. Department of Education concerning alleged failures by the College to comply with the requirements of FERPA. The name and address of the office that administers FERPA is Family Policy Compliance Office, U.S. Department of Education, 400 Maryland Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20202-5901.

Bates College reserves the right to refuse to permit a student to inspect those records excluded from the FERPA definition of education records and to deny transcripts or copies of records not required to be made available by FERPA if the student has an unpaid financial obligation to the College or if there is an unresolved disciplinary action against him or her. Fees are not assessed for search and retrieval of the records, but there may be a charge for copying and postage.

The Office of the Registrar and Academic Systems makes available copies of the federal regulations and the institutional policy on educational records as well as additional information about the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974.

Directory Information. Bates identifies the following as directory information: name; Bates identification (ID) number; class; address (campus, home, and e-mail); telephone listings; major and minor fields of study; participation in officially recognized sports, extracurricular activities, and off-campus study programs; dates of attendance; degrees, honors, and awards received from the College; and individually identifiable photographs and electronic images of the student solicited or maintained directly by Bates as part of the educational record.