Course Offerings

Courses currently offered by the Biology Department

Huggett_plant _phys_lab

Students in Brett Huggett’s Plant Physiology class (Bio 380) learn hands-on about how plants function.

Courses offered for the current and upcoming terms can be accessed through the Garnet Gateway. To help students plan for the future, projected course offerings for the current year and two years beyond are provided by the department. These projections are subject to change and are updated on a regular basis.

Courses

BIO 108. Cancer.

Despite a robust increase in cancer research, the World Health Organization predicts that cancer cases are still expected to rise 70% over the next two decades. In this course, students examine the biological basis of cancer, including the role of oncogenes and tumor suppressors in regulating how the cell divides, how environmental agents and viruses can induce DNA mutations leading to cancerous growth, and the genetic basis of certain predispositions of inherited cancers. Students also learn about the history of cancer treatment, to understand where we are in the fight against this disease. Enrollment limited to 39. [S] Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BI/GE 113. Marine Science.

An integrated, interdisciplinary marine science overview encompassing physical, biological, and social aspects of the marine environment. Oceanography topics encompass origins and geological history of the oceans, structure of basins and sediments, ocean chemistry, as well as currents, waves, and tides. Biological subjects include diversity, physiology, and behavior of marine organisms, ecology of major marine communities, and global change biology. Social considerations include human impacts on marine environments (including fisheries) and conservation. Enrollment limited to 39. [Q] [QF] [S] [SR] Staff.
Concentrations

BIO 114. Extreme Physiology.

Physiology, the study of how organisms function, has benefited tremendously from studies of amazing animals doing amazing things. How do bar-headed geese fly over the top of Mount Everest when humans struggle to reach the summit? How do fish withstand body temperatures below the freezing point of water? This course explores how animals work under extreme environmental conditions and what this reveals about human physiology in health and disease. Enrollment limited to 39. [S] [SR] R. Bavis.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 124. Plants and Human Affairs/Lab.

Economic botany is the study of how humans use plants for food, shelter, medicine, or textiles. Ethnobotany is the study of traditional knowledge and customs of particular human cultures concerning the use of plants for sustenance and for medicinal and religious purposes. This course provides a broad overview of both disciplines, with an introduction to plant anatomy and biology. Students explore the human uses of plants (and fungi) for perfumes, spices, medicines, hallucinogens, fermentation products, oils, rubber, textiles, wood, sugar, cereals, and legumes, in addition to exploring how various indigenous cultures have used plants. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO 117. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO s11. Enrollment limited to 39. [L] [QF] [S] [SR] B. Huggett.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 126. Science Communication.

The ability to effectively communicate science-related topics to nonexperts is essential for a successful career in science, and also critical for fostering public support of taxpayer-funded science research programs. Using recent examples from the biological sciences, students explore various ways and means to communicate science to public audiences through creative project-based learning exercises, including written science journalism articles, public speaking to local community groups, and multimedia video productions. Students examine how narratives and storytelling can be more effective for public engagement and comprehension of science than the information deficit model, and inevitably learn a fair amount of biology along the way. Not open to students who have received credit for FYS 465. Enrollment limited to 39. (Community-Engaged Learning.) [CP] [S] A. Mountcastle.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 127. Emerging and Reemerging Infections across the Globe.

Emerging infections are those that are newly described, appear in different geographic regions, or move into new host populations. Reemerging infections are those that were controlled in the past but are again of concern. In this course students examine the biology of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other organisms that cause these infections as well as the mechanisms by which they produce disease. Consideration is given to transmission patterns, treatments, and prevention. Topics may include infections of global concern such as malaria, tapeworms, dengue fever, HIV-AIDS, polio and other childhood diseases, cholera, and tuberculosis. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO s28 or FYS 236 or 262. Enrollment limited to 39. [S] Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 128. Out of the Sea.

This course examines human existence through the lens of the world’s oceans. Students consider animal evolution on deep time scales and how signs of our marine origins can be found throughout our bodies. Next, they focus on more recent time scales, and evaluate the role of oceans in human migrations. In the process of “finding our roots,” a goal of this course is to demonstrate human connections, and to deconstruct typological concepts of human race. Finally, oceans control global climate and students explore human-induced changes to global environments, and how oceans might offer solutions to sustainable existence. Enrollment limited to 39. (Africana: Introductory Sequence.) [S] [SR] A. Hill.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 129. Human Nutrition.

This course examines nutrition and its relationship to health and disease. Emphasis is on the chemical, anatomical, and physiological aspects of ingestion, digestion, absorption, and metabolism of macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids) and micronutrients (vitamins and minerals). This course explores the relationships between nutrition and disease and the role of nutrition to reinstate health. It also considers the relationship among nutrition, the scope of practice of different healthcare providers, and culture. This course fulfills the nutrition prerequisite for students planning to apply to health professions programs such as nursing, physician assistant, physical therapy, and occupational therapy. Recommended background: high school biology and chemistry. Enrollment limited to 39. B. Salazar-Perea.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 133. Biology of Cooperation.

This course explores how and why organisms cooperate. Types of cooperation considered include mutually beneficial interactions among species, sociality and cooperation within species, and cooperation between cells in multicellular organisms. Students ask how evolution by natural selection can favor cooperation and altruistic behavior, exploring benefits of cooperation in a wide variety of biological contexts. Activities provide students with experience evaluating scientific information and using results of scientific research to assess alternative hypotheses about cooperation. Students develop their own cooperation and communication skills through group activities and a community-engaged learning project.Not open to students who have received credit for BIO s10. Enrollment limited to 39. (Community-Engaged Learning.) [S] [SR] C. Essenberg.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 158. Evolutionary Biology.

Evolution is the great unifying theory in biology. It is the context into which all other biological subjects fit. The course examines various aspects of evolution, including the origin of life, the major events in the evolution of life on Earth, the processes that result in evolutionary change, the nature of the fossil record, the history of evolutionary theories, and creationist objections to these theories. Enrollment limited to 39. [S] [SR] D. Dearborn.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 195A. Lab-Based Biological Inquiry: Marine Biology in a Changing Ocean.

In this course-based research experience in the biological sciences, students build research skills through open-ended, authentic experimentation or observations of the natural world. They gain experience reading scientific literature, formulating and testing hypotheses, analyzing data, interpreting results, communicating in disciplinary style, and working in teams. The marine biology version of the course is focused on the living (including humans) and nonliving influences on organisms that live in marine environments. Topics encompass ecology, evolution, and natural history. Intended for students majoring in biology, biochemistry, neuroscience, or environmental studies, or preparing for a health-related career. Recommended corequisite(s): CHEM 107A or 108A. Not open to juniors or seniors. Enrollment limited to 16. K. Dobkowski.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 195B. Lab-Based Biological Inquiry: Host-Parasite Evolution.

In this course-based research experience in the biological sciences, students build research skills through open-ended, authentic experimentation or observations of the natural world. Students gain experience reading scientific literature, formulating and testing hypotheses, analyzing data, interpreting results, communicating in disciplinary style, and working in teams. The host-parasite evolution version of the course is focused on how hosts and parasites interact to shape each other’s traits, with roots in ecology, evolution, immunology, and life history theory. Intended for students majoring in biology, biochemistry, neuroscience, or environmental studies, or preparing for a health-related career. Recommended corequisite(s): CHEM 107A or 108A. Not open to juniors or seniors. Enrollment limited to 16. D. Dearborn.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 203. Bioinspiration and Biomimetics.

Wind turbine blades inspired by insect wings are more efficient than conventional blades. The nose cones of Japanese bullet trains are modeled after kingfisher beaks to reduce noise pollution. Condiment bottles will soon feature a non-stick surface inspired by lotus leafs. Technology is increasingly looking to biology for design inspiration because evolution often yields elegant and robust solutions to real-world problems. In this project-based course, students explore examples of biological form and function, and use this knowledge to design a product that is inspired by nature to solve a problem faced by today’s society. Prerequisite(s): BIO 190 or 195. Enrollment limited to 19. [CP] [SR] A. Mountcastle.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 205. Biomechanics.

This course explores how plants and animals interact with their physical world. Students draw on principles and tools of physics and mechanical engineering to characterize the functional implications of biological design and analyze how organisms generate and respond to flows, loads, and motions. Recommended background: prior experience with calculus. Enrollment limited to 19. [L] [Q] [S] A. Mountcastle.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 211. Marine Invertebrates/Lab.

A survey of the varieties, morphology, development, evolution, and behavior of invertebrates with an emphasis on marine animals. Laboratory work includes the study, through dissection and experiment, of representative organisms. The course includes field trips to local marine habitats. Prerequisite(s): BIO 190 or 195. Enrollment limited to 14 per section. [L] [S] Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 217. Human Anatomy and Physiology I.

This course explores human anatomy and physiology with an integrative approach that links all organ systems to the neuroendocrine system and examines the interactions among organ systems. Topics include the organization of the human body; the nervous system and special senses; and the endocrine, musculoskeletal, and integumentary systems. This course is intended to fulfill the human anatomy and physiology prerequisite for students planning to apply to health professions programs such as nursing, physician assistant, physical therapy, and occupational therapy. Students planning to apply to veterinary programs should enroll in BIO 311 and BIO 337. Prerequisite(s): BIO 190 or 195 and CHEM 108A. Enrollment limited to 16. B. Salazar-Perea.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 218. Human Anatomy and Physiology II.

A continuation of BIO 217, this course explores human anatomy and physiology with an integrative approach that links all organ systems to the neuroendocrine system and examines the interactions among organ systems. Topics include the cardiovascular, immune, respiratory, urinary, digestive, and reproductive systems. This course is intended to fulfill the human anatomy and physiology prerequisite for students planning to apply to health professions programs such as nursing, physician assistant, physical therapy, and occupational therapy. Students planning to apply to veterinary programs should enroll in BIO 311 and BIO 337. Prerequisite(s): BIO 217. Enrollment limited to 16. B. Salazar-Perea.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 221. Plant and Fungal Diversity/Lab.

This course provides an overview of the evolution and diversity of plants and fungi. In lecture and laboratory studies, students are introduced to the anatomical and functional characteristics that define each group with an emphasis on adaptations to the environment. Throughout the course, the ecological importance and human uses of plants and fungi are explored. Prerequisite(s): one 100-level biology course. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 21. [L] [Q] [QF] [S] [SR] B. Huggett.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 242. Cellular and Molecular Biology/Lab.

A view of life at the cellular and molecular levels. Topics include cellular energetics, membrane phenomena, genetics, and molecular biology. Laboratory studies include enzymology, bacterial transformation, the light reactions of photosynthesis, Mendelian genetics, bioinformatics, and DNA analysis using gel electrophoresis and polymerase chain reaction. Quantitative analysis of data and peer-reviewed scientific writing are emphasized. This course is required for the biology, biochemistry, and neuroscience majors. Prerequisite(s): BIO 190 or 195 and CHEM 108A Enrollment limited to 30. [W2] [L] [Q] [S] [SR] Staff.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

BIO 244. Biostatistics.

A course in the use of statistics in the biological sciences. The course focuses on core concepts and skills necessary for the analysis and interpretation of data, including types of data, the fundamentals of study design, sampling distributions, the meaning and interpretation of p-values and confidence intervals, statistical errors, and power. Students learn to select and carry out appropriate statistical tests for a variety of simple datasets. Statistical methods considered include analysis such as binomial tests, Fisher's exact tests, t- and chi-square tests, 1- and 2-way ANOVA, correlation and regression, and simple nonparametric techniques for numerical data. Prerequisite(s): BIO 190 or 195. Enrollment limited to 49. Normally offered every year. [Q] [QF] [S] [SR] C. Essenberg.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BI/ES 246. Conservation Biology.

Conservation biology draws on biology, policy, ethics, and other disciplines to conserve biological diversity. This course introduces core ecological concepts underlying conservation practice while also exploring its interdisciplinary nature. Students examine conservation at multiple scales, including the conservation of genetic diversity, populations, species, biological communities, and ecosystems. Classroom activities help students develop scientific reasoning skills and apply them to conservation problems. Readings and discussions encourage students to consider social, ethical, and other perspectives on conservation work. Prerequisite(s): BIO 190, 195 or ENVR 203. Enrollment limited to 39. (Community-Engaged Learning.) [Q] [S] [SR] C. Essenberg.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BI/MA 255A. Mathematical Models in Biology.

Mathematical models are increasingly important throughout the life sciences. This course provides an introduction to a variety of models in biology, with concrete examples chosen from biological and medical fields. Students work both theoretically and with computer software to analyze models, compute numerical results, and visualize outcomes. Prerequisite(s): MATH 205. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 29. [Q] M. Greer.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 270. Ecology and Evolution/Lab.

An introduction to ecological and evolutionary patterns, principles, and processes. Topics include life history and adaptation, speciation, mechanisms of evolution, population dynamics and interactions, community structure, and ecosystem processes. Laboratories include experimental investigations of several levels of biological organization using cooperative lab groups. Prerequisite(s): BIO 190 and 195. [W2] [L] [Q] [S] [SR] Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BI/ES 271. Dendrology and the Natural History of Trees/Lab.

In this field-based course, students engage in the scientific study of the natural history and identification of trees and important shrubs native to New England, and some commonly planted non-native trees. Topics include the anatomy, function, taxonomy, biology, and uses of trees. Lecture topics support weekly outdoor laboratories, which include trips to such field sites as the Saco Heath, Thorncrag Bird Sanctuary, and Wolfe's Neck State Park. Study of the woody flora of New England serves as a foundation for further work in biology, environmental studies, conservation, or related fields. Prerequisite(s): BIO 117, 124, 190, 195, or ENVR 203. Enrollment limited to 24. [L] [S] [SR] B. Huggett.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BI/ES 302. Restoration Ecology/Lab.

Ecological restoration assists the recovery of ecosystems damaged or destroyed by human activities, improving habitat for threatened species and increasing the ability of natural systems to serve a wide variety of human needs. Students learn ecological concepts and practical approaches used in this important and growing field and explore the complex human values that shape restoration goals and practices. Course activities emphasize critical reading of the primary scientific literature, discussion of restoration goals and practices, and developing skills relevant to restoration work. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: BI/ES 246, 271, 333; BIO 270, s32, s37; ENVR 240 or 310. Not open to students who have received credit for BI/ES 303. Enrollment limited to 15. (Community-Engaged Learning.) [S] [SR] C. Essenberg.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BI/ES 303. Restoration Ecology.

Ecological restoration assists the recovery of ecosystems damaged or destroyed by human activities, improving habitat for threatened species and increasing the ability of natural systems to serve a wide variety of human needs. Students learn ecological concepts and practical approaches used in this important and growing field and explore the complex human values that shape restoration goals and practices. Course activities emphasize discussion of restoration goals and practices and critical reading of the primary scientific literature. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: BI/ES 246, 271, 333; BIO 270, s32, s37; ENVR 240 or 310. Not open to students who have received credit for BI/ES 302. Enrollment limited to 15. (Community-Engaged Learning.) [S] [SR] C. Essenberg.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BI/CH 304. Biochemistry of Virus Replication and Host Cell Defense Systems.

Viruses that infect eukaryotic cells have evolved a wide range of strategies to co-opt the biochemical machinery of host cells for the purpose of maximizing virus replication success. Eukaryotic cells have simultaneously evolved mechanisms to limit the extent to which viruses can establish successful infections. This course examines, in large part through the primary literature, the replication biochemistry used by representative examples of mammalian viruses and the cellular biochemical pathways designed to defend cells and organisms from viral takeover. Students are expected to apply what they learn by preparing a grant application narrative as a final project. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242 and CHEM 218. Enrollment limited to 15. [S] T. Lawson.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BI/NS 305. Gene Editing in Biology and Neuroscience.

The development of genome editing techniques by molecular biologists has raised great hopes that a treatment for genetic disorders such as cystic fibrosis or Huntington’s disease might finally be available. In this course, students analyze how genome editing techniques such as CRISPR/Cas9 have evolved, how they can be applied to study the role of individual genes or to alter mutant genes, and what approaches exist for the delivery of DNA-modifying enzymes into an organism. In addition, students use scientific publications and popular literature to discuss ethical implications of usage of genome editing techniques for society. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242. Enrollment limited to 15. M. Kruse.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BI/NS 308. Neurobiology/Lab.

An introduction to the molecular and cellular principles of neurobiology and the organization of neurons into networks. Also investigated are developmental and synaptic plasticity, analysis of signaling pathways in cells of the nervous system, and the development of neurobiological research, from studies on invertebrate systems to usage of stem cell-derived brain organoids. Laboratories include electrical recordings from nerve cells, computer simulation and modeling, and the use of molecular techniques in neurobiology. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242. Enrollment limited to 12 per laboratory section. Normally offered every year. [L] [Q] [QF] [S] [SR] M. Kruse.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 311. Comparative Anatomy of the Chordates/Lab.

An introduction to the comparative anatomy of the vertebrates and their kin, with laboratory study of both sharks and mammals. Prerequisite(s): BIO 190. Enrollment limited to 18. [L] [S] A. Mountcastle.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 313. Marine Ecology/Lab.

An examination of the complex ecological interactions that structure marine systems in a changing ocean. Habitats studied include intertidal, estuary, coral reef, deep sea, salt marsh, and pelagic. Laboratories include work in local marine communities and require occasional weekend trips. Prerequisite(s): BIO 270. Enrollment limited to 12 per laboratory section. [L] [Q] [QF] [S] [SR] Staff.
Concentrations

BIO 315. Microbiology/Lab.

A survey of the structure, function, and diversity of microorganisms, including viruses, bacteria, and eukaryotic microbes, with emphasis on adaptations to specific niches. Particular attention is given to organisms of ecological, medical, and industrial interest. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242. Enrollment limited to 25. Normally offered every year. [L] [Q] [S] Staff.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

BIO 321. Cellular Biochemistry.

This course explores the biochemical mechanisms of cellular functions with the goal of extending student knowledge about the structure, synthesis, and metabolism of biological macromolecules and contextualizing the regulation of these molecules in healthy and diseased cells and tissues. The course does not satisfy a requirement for the biochemistry major. Not open to students who have received credit for CHEM 321 or 322. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242. [S] Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BI/PL 323E. Philosophy of Evolution.

Evolutionary theory raises many deep and complicated philosophical issues as well as questions about how science operates: Are concepts like function, selection, and optimality scientifically legitimate? How do we make inferences about the unobserved past? Can thinking about the evolutionary past help us understand how biological processes, such as the mind, work today? It also raises questions about who we are and where we come from: How do we relate to other species? Can we better understand our moral and intellectual strengths and weaknesses by looking to evolution? In this course, students approach these questions from an interdisciplinary perspective, including philosophy, biology, and the cognitive sciences. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: PHIL 211; two courses in philosophy; or one course in philosophy and one course in biology. Enrollment limited to 15. [W2] [AC] M. Dacey.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 328. Developmental Biology/Lab.

Developmental biology is a dynamic field that addresses questions related to how organisms come into being and grow. This course introduces students to developmental biology with a particular emphasis on the molecular basis for developmental events. The course focuses on the mechanisms involved in making cells that are different from one another (cell differentiation) and the associated mechanisms by which patterns are created (morphogenesis). In the lab, students explore the phenomenon of development in several of the most prominently utilized model organisms. The lab culminates in an independent project. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242. Enrollment limited to 19. Normally offered every year. [L] [S] [SR] L. Williams.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 331. Molecular Biology/Lab.

A laboratory and lecture introduction to the molecular biology of genes and chromosomes. The course emphasizes current research about gene structure and function, experimental techniques, and eukaryotic genetics. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242. Normally offered every year. [L] [S] [SR] L. Williams.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

BIO 332. Ecology and Evolution of Mutualisms.

Mutually-beneficial interactions between species are ubiquitous in nature and play vital roles in maintaining ecosystems. This course explores how these mutualistic interactions between species are maintained in the face of conflict and how they shape the ecology of species and ecosystems. Students study the natural history of a variety of mutually beneficial interactions among species. Course activities emphasize critical reading of the primary scientific literature, using models to understand natural systems, framing scientific questions and hypotheses, and scientific study design. Prerequisite(s): BIO 270. Enrollment limited to 15. [S] [SR] C. Essenberg.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BI/ES 333. The Genetics of Conservation Biology/Lab.

Conserving biodiversity is important at multiple scales, including genetic variation within species. Does a species have enough variation to evolve in a changing world? Are individuals differentially adapted to local environmental variation? In a captive population of a rare animal, which individuals should be bred to minimize the erosion of genetic variation? Lectures and labs cover the fundamentals of classical, molecular, and population genetics, applying them to current issues in biological conservation. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242 or 270. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO 330. Enrollment limited to 15. [L] [S] [SR] D. Dearborn.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 337. Animal Physiology/Lab.

The major physiological processes of animals, including digestion, circulation, respiration, excretion, locomotion, and both neural and hormonal regulation. Examples are drawn from several species and include a consideration of the cellular basis of organ-system function. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242. Enrollment limited to 16. [L] [Q] [S] [SR] R. Bavis.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

BIO 342. Ecological and Evolutionary Physiology.

This course explores the interaction between the environment and physiological phenotypes in animals while emphasizing the role of evolutionary processes in shaping physiological variation. Topics may include the evolution of endothermy, adaptation to extreme environments (e.g., high altitudes, deserts), and controversial concepts such as symmorphosis. Readings from the primary scientific literature highlight diverse methodological approaches used to understand the evolution of physiological traits, such as comparative and phylogenetic analysis, selection experiments, genetic and phenotypic manipulation, and quantitative genetics. Prerequisite(s): BIO 270. [S] [SR] R. Bavis.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 351. Immunology/Lab.

The immune system is studied as an example of the body's chemical communication networks and as one mechanism for memory. Topics include production of an immune response, immune surveillance in the maintenance of health, the effects of psychological and environmental factors on the immune system and on health, and the effects of immune dysfunctions (autoimmune diseases and immune deficiencies including AIDS). The course emphasizes the human immune system but briefly covers comparative immunology. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO 350. Enrollment limited to 29. [L] [S] Staff.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

BIO 355. Advanced Topics in Evolution.

This course offers an advanced exploration of how evolution works. The first portion of the course is devoted to an overview of the major topics in evolution, ranging from micro-scale processes, such as mutation, to macro-scale processes, such as mass extinction events. The second portion of the course delves deeply into a small number of topics which vary from year to year but may include, for example, host-parasite arms races, sexual selection, and the evolution of aging. Prerequisite(s): BIO 270. Enrollment limited to 15. [SR] D. Dearborn.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 360. Independent Study.

Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study per semester. Normally offered every semester. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 365. Special Topics.

Offered at irregular intervals by a faculty member in an area of contemporary interest.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 380. Plant Physiology/Lab.

A study of organismal and cellular functions important in the life of green plants. Topics include mineral nutrition, water relations, carbon assimilation, metabolism, and regulatory processes with an emphasis on how plant structure and function are influenced by pressures in the growing environment or by interactions with other organisms. Weekly laboratories provide a research-led approach to understanding physiological processes in plants. Prerequisite(s): BIO 190 or 195 and CHEM 108A in addition to one of the following courses: BIO 221, 242, 270, or BI/ES 271. Enrollment limited to 19. [L] [Q] [QF] [S] [SR] B. Huggett.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

BIO 457. Senior Thesis.

Permission of the department and the thesis advisor are required. Students register for BIO 457 in the fall semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both BIO 457 and 458. Instructor permission is required. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 458. Senior Thesis.

Permission of the department and the thesis advisor are required. Students register for BIO 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both BIO 457 and 458. Instructor permission is required. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 460. Junior Seminar.

Reading original biological literature is an essential skill for biology majors. Focusing on the topics addressed by invited speakers for the semester's biology seminar program, students review articles, write analyses, and contribute oral presentations in a small group format. Students attend afternoon and/or evening seminars and discuss the content, context, and presentation of original investigations. Prerequisite(s): BIO 190 or 190, 242, and 270. One of these courses may be taken concurrently, only by permission of the instructor. Not open to students who have received credit for NRSC 460. Enrollment limited to 19. [W3] Normally offered every year. [SR] Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 472. Seminar and Research in Physiology/Lab.

Laboratory or library study of a current research topic in animal physiology. A topic is selected with reference to the research interests of the instructor. Recommended background: BIO 337. Enrollment limited to 6. Instructor permission is required. [W3] [L] [Q] [QF] [S] [SR] Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 473. Seminar and Research in Cell Biology.

Laboratory and library study of a current research topic in the experimental study of biology at the cellular level. A topic is selected with reference to the research interests of the instructor. Recommended background: BIO 242. Enrollment limited to 6. Instructor permission is required. [W3] [QF] [SR] Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 476. Seminar and Research in Evolutionary Biology.

Laboratory or library study of a current research topic in evolutionary biology. A topic is selected in reference to the research interests of the instructor. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242 and 270. Enrollment limited to 6. Instructor permission is required. [W3] [L] [Q] [S] [SR] D. Dearborn.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 477. Seminar and Research in Microbiology/Lab.

Laboratory and library study of a current research topic in microbiology or immunology. Topics are selected with reference to the research interests of the instructor and students. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242. Enrollment limited to 6. Instructor permission is required. [W3] [L] [Q] [S] Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

Short Term Courses

BIO s10. Biology of Cooperation.

This course explores why organisms cooperate and how cooperation can be maintained in the face of cheating. Topics include the evolution of sociality and cooperation within species as well as mutually beneficial interactions among species. Students consider how the same broad ideas about conflict and cooperation can apply to organisms ranging from bacteria to humans and explain phenomena as disparate as pollination and cancer. Students evaluate evidence for various models of cooperation, learn how to use data to understand why organisms cooperate, and develop their own cooperation and communication skills through group activities and a community-engaged learning project. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO 133. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 29. (Community-Engaged Learning.) [S] [SR] C. Essenberg.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO s13. Health and Medicine: At Home and Abroad.

In this course, students examine and compare the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States and Spain, a developed country with a healthcare delivery system different from that in the United States. Through readings, discussion, shadowing, and on-site visits with healthcare professionals during a two-week visit to Spain, students arrive at a deeper understanding of the biology underlying the diseases they investigate and how those diseases are treated in each healthcare system. Such a study allows students to compare the influence and importance of culture and community on the interplay of health and disease. Prerequisite(s): one course that informs the study of health and medicine, which includes 100-level biology courses and courses in anthropology, gender and sexuality studies, psychology, or sociology with topics related to health and medicine. Recommended background: Previous study of Spanish is recommended. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 12. Instructor permission is required. [S] K. Palin.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

INDC s15. Health, Culture, and Community.

This course examines dimensions of health through classroom and community-based experiences, with a special emphasis on current public health issues. The course covers the history and organization of public health; methods associated with health-related research; disparities in health, including those related to race, class, and gender; public policy and health; population-based approaches to public health; and cultural constructions of health and illness. The course is designed to be integrative: expertise from different disciplines is used to address current challenges in public health. Cross-listed in anthropology, biology, and psychology. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 30. (Psychology: Diversity.) K. Palin.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO s20. Gut Biology.

What is gut biology? The gut is an ecosystem full of complex interactions between human and microbial cells. Like all ecosystems, the environmental features of the gut affect its stability and diversity, which can influence our overall health. This laboratory-based course looks at the anatomy, physiology, and ecology of the gut to reveal how it supports the intricate communication network between microbial and human cells. Basic biology laboratory techniques including light microscopy, histology, DNA/RNA characterization, and bioinformatic data analysis are used to study the nature of this symbiosis. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO s24. Enrollment limited to 20. [W2] Normally offered every year. [L] [S] L. Brogan.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO s23. Understanding Cancer/Lab.

As a cause of mortality in the Western world, cancer is second only to cardiovascular disease. What causes cancer? How is cancer diagnosed and classified? How do flaws in fundamental biological processes drive cancerous growth? What are current therapeutic options and potential new treatments in the fight against cancer? These questions are explored in the classroom and the laboratory. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO 108. Enrollment limited to 40. [L] [S] Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BI/CH s24. Introduction to Scanning Microscopies.

Many of the recent advances in microscopy have been based on scanning a probe, which can be a light beam, electron beam, or mechanical tip, across a sample. This course provides hands-on experience with, and a discussion of the theory underlying, scanning microscopies. Students learn to use a scanning electron microscope and a confocal microscope and complete an individual project. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: CHEM 107A, 108A; PHYS 107, 108. Enrollment limited to 14. [SR] M. Côté.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO s29. Experimental Biology.

This course introduces students to how scientific knowledge is produced. In the unique setting of the Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory, an internationally known research facility, students design and carry out lab and field research projects. Students learn the fundamentals of data collection, interpretation, and presentation. Through discussions and attendance at formal scientific seminars, students also consider the nature and social value of the scientific process. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO s20 or s24. Enrollment limited to 12. [L] [S] L. Brogan.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO s30. Ecology and Natural History of the Maine Coast.

This course examines the ecology and natural history of the coast of Maine using a combination of experiential learning (field trips, lab activities, group research project) and interactive lectures and presentations by guest speakers. Students have the opportunity to experience the ecology and natural history of the Maine coast, including saltmarsh, sandy beach, mudflat, and rocky shore ecosystems. This course includes at least one community-engaged learning activity. Students gain skills in the identification of local marine flora and fauna, experimental design and hypothesis testing, and science communication to varied audiences. Prerequisite(s): one biology course. Enrollment limited to 12. One-time offering. [QF] [SR] K. Dobkowski.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO s31. Avian Biology/Lab.

Birds are among the most conspicuous animals in the environment, occupying terrestrial and aquatic niches from the tropics to the poles. This course examines the origin and diversification of birds and explores avian morphology, physiology, and behavior in an ecological and evolutionary context. Topics include flight, communication, feeding, migration, and reproduction. The course includes a laboratory and requires several extended field trips. Prerequisite(s): BIO 270. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO 335. Enrollment limited to 12. [SR] D. Dearborn.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO s32. The Ecology and Evolutionary Biology of the Galápagos Archipelago.

This course studies the principles of ecology and evolutionary biology in the birthplace of the theory of evolution by natural selection. The Galápagos archipelago is one of the world's most important areas for biology given its isolation, rough terrain, and distinct oceanographic features. Students visit several islands during a three-week trip to explore terrestrial and marine ecosystems using field techniques. Island habitats are contrasted to learn how organisms have been shaped by the abiotic environment and by the spatial arrangement of the islands. Home stays and community-engaged learning are an integral part of the course. Prerequisite(s): BIO 158 or 270. Enrollment limited to 14. Instructor permission is required. (Community-Engaged Learning.) [L] [Q] [S] [SR] L. Williams.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO s37. The North Woods.

An investigation of the patterns and history of New England's forests and associated plant communities, with an emphasis on field study and research. Students review the influences of geological patterns, climate, unusual soil and water conditions, natural disturbances, invasive plants and insects, and human activities on community type, occurrence, and history. Central to the course are visits to a variety of field sites, where students learn to describe the structure, composition, and history of several communities. Primary literature is emphasized. Prerequisite(s): BIO 270 or ENVR 310. Enrollment limited to 8. (Community-Engaged Learning.) [L] [QF] [S] [SR] B. Huggett.
Concentrations

BIO s40. Experimental Developmental and Molecular Biology/Lab.

In this hands-on, laboratory-based course, students learn and practice the scientific method. Living and working at the Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory, known for its educational and research programs focusing on non-mammalian systems, students work with the important vertebrate model system, zebrafish, and utilize cutting-edge molecular and microscopy techniques to address questions related to protein pathways involved in the developmental process. Independent projects and oral presentations are a central requirement of the course. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242. Enrollment limited to 12. [L] [S] [SR] L. Williams.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO s44. Experimental Neuro/Physiology/Lab.

A study of contemporary research techniques in the fields of neurobiology, physiology, and pharmacology. Topics may include the pharmacology of recombinant neurotransmitter receptors or the physiology and pharmacology of invertebrate neurons. This course requires extensive laboratory work in independent projects. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242. Enrollment limited to 12. Instructor permission is required. [L] [S] Staff.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

BIO s47. Experimental Cell Biology/Lab.

In this laboratory-based course, students investigate how lipids and proteins act together to regulate cellular activity. Using state of the art research facilities on campus and at Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory near Bar Harbor, ME, students work with an immortalized cell line to address questions of neuronal signaling pathways by applying molecular, biochemical, and microscopy techniques. The course introduces students to the mathematical programming language R, and trains students in using R to analyze experimental data. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242. One-time offering. [L] [Q] [QF] [S] [SR] M. Kruse.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO s50. Independent Study.

Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study during a Short Term. Normally offered every year. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations