Course Offerings

Courses currently offered by the Biology Department

Huggett_plant _phys_lab

Students in Brett Huggett’s Plant Physiology class (Bio 380) learn hands-on about how plants function.

Courses offered for the current and upcoming terms can be accessed through the Garnet Gateway. To help students plan for the future, projected course offerings for the current year and two years beyond are provided by the department. These projections are subject to change and are updated on a regular basis.

Courses
BI/EA 113. Marine Science.
An integrated, interdisciplinary marine science overview encompassing physical, biological, and social aspects of the marine environment. Oceanography topics encompass origins and geological history of the oceans, structure of basins and sediments, ocean chemistry, as well as currents, waves, and tides. Biological subjects include diversity, physiology, and behavior of marine organisms, ecology of major marine communities, and global change biology. Social considerations include human impacts on marine environments (including fisheries) and conservation. Not open to students who have received credit for BI/GE 113. Enrollment limited to 39. (Community-Engaged Learning.) [Q] [QF] [S] [SR] Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 117. Plants and Human Affairs.
Economic botany is the study of how humans use plants for food, shelter, medicine, or textiles. Ethnobotany is the study of traditional knowledge and customs of particular human cultures concerning the use of plants for sustenance and for medicinal and religious purposes. This course provides a broad overview of both disciplines, with an introduction to plant anatomy and biology. Students explore the human uses of plants (and fungi) for perfumes, spices, medicines, hallucinogens, fermentation products, oils, rubber, textiles, wood, sugar, cereals, and legumes, in addition to exploring how various indigenous cultures have used plants. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO s11. Enrollment limited to 39. [S] [SR] B. Huggett.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 126. Science Communication.
The ability to effectively communicate science-related topics to nonexperts is essential for a successful career in science, and also critical for fostering public support of taxpayer-funded science research programs. Using recent examples from the biological sciences, students explore various ways and means to communicate science to public audiences through creative project-based learning exercises, including written science journalism articles, public speaking to local community groups, and multimedia video productions. Students examine how narratives and storytelling can be more effective for public engagement and comprehension of science than the information deficit model, and inevitably learn a fair amount of biology along the way. Not open to students who have received credit for FYS 465. Enrollment limited to 39. (Community-Engaged Learning.) [CP] [S] A. Mountcastle.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 127. Emerging and Reemerging Infections across the Globe.
Emerging infections are those that are newly described, appear in different geographic regions, or move into new host populations. Reemerging infections are those that were controlled in the past but are again of concern. In this course students examine the biology of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other organisms that cause these infections as well as the mechanisms by which they produce disease. Consideration is given to transmission patterns, treatments, and prevention. Topics may include infections of global concern such as malaria, tapeworms, dengue fever, HIV-AIDS, polio and other childhood diseases, cholera, and tuberculosis. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO s28 or FYS 236 or 262. Enrollment limited to 39. [S] [SR] Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 128. Out of the Sea.
This course examines human existence through the lens of the world’s oceans. Students consider animal evolution on deep time scales and how signs of our marine origins can be found throughout our bodies. Next, they focus on more recent time scales, and evaluate the role of oceans in human migrations. In the process of “finding our roots,” a goal of this course is to demonstrate human connections, and to deconstruct typological concepts of "human race." Finally, oceans control global climate and students explore human-induced changes to global environments, and how oceans might offer solutions to sustainable existence. Enrollment limited to 39. (Africana: Introductory Sequence.) [S] [SR] A. Hill.
BIO 129. Human Nutrition.
This course examines nutrition and its relationship to health and disease. Emphasis is on the chemical, anatomical, and physiological aspects of ingestion, digestion, absorption, and metabolism of macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids) and micronutrients (vitamins and minerals). This course explores the relationships between nutrition and disease and the role of nutrition to reinstate health. It also considers the relationship among nutrition, the scope of practice of different healthcare providers, and culture. This course fulfills the nutrition prerequisite for students planning to apply to health professions programs such as nursing, physician assistant, physical therapy, and occupational therapy. Recommended background: high school biology and chemistry. Enrollment limited to 39. B. Salazar-Perea.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 133. Biology of Cooperation.
This course explores how and why organisms cooperate with a strong focus on scientific reasoning skills. Types of cooperation considered include mutually beneficial interactions among species, sociality and cooperation within species, and cooperation between cells in multicellular organisms. Students ask how evolution by natural selection can favor cooperation and altruistic behavior, exploring benefits of cooperation in a wide variety of biological contexts. Activities provide students with experience evaluating scientific information and using results of scientific research to assess alternative hypotheses about cooperation. Enrollment limited to 39. [S] [SR] C. Essenberg.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 195A. Lab-Based Biological Inquiry: Marine Biology in a Changing Ocean.
In this course-based research experience in the biological sciences, students build research skills through open-ended, authentic experimentation or observations of the natural world. They gain experience reading scientific literature, formulating and testing hypotheses, analyzing data, interpreting results, communicating in disciplinary style, and working in teams. The marine biology version of the course is focused on the living (including humans) and nonliving influences on organisms that live in marine environments. Topics encompass ecology, evolution, and natural history. Intended for students majoring in biology, biochemistry, neuroscience, or environmental studies, or preparing for a health-related career. Several class meetings during the semester involve field trips that may run past the official scheduled time. Recommended corequisite(s): CHEM 107A or 108A. Not open to juniors or seniors. Enrollment limited to 16. K. Dobkowski.
BIO 195B. Lab-Based Biological Inquiry: Host-Parasite Evolution.
In this course-based research experience in the biological sciences, students build research skills through open-ended, authentic experimentation or observations of the natural world. Students gain experience reading scientific literature, formulating and testing hypotheses, analyzing data, interpreting results, communicating in disciplinary style, and working in teams. The host-parasite evolution version of the course is focused on how hosts and parasites interact to shape each other’s traits, with roots in ecology, evolution, immunology, and life history theory. Intended for students majoring in biology, biochemistry, neuroscience, or environmental studies, or preparing for a health-related career. Recommended corequisite(s): CHEM 107A or 108A. Not open to juniors or seniors. Enrollment limited to 16. D. Dearborn.
BIO 195C. Lab-Based Biological Inquiry: Symbiotic Microalgae.
This is a course-based research experience in the biological sciences. Students build research skills through open-ended, authentic experimentation or observations of the natural world. Students gain practice reading scientific literature, formulating and testing hypotheses, analyzing data, interpreting results, communicating in disciplinary style, and working in teams. The symbiotic microalgae version of the course investigates the potential of microalgae isolated from animal host cells as renewable and sustainable sources of biofuels and bioactive medicinal products. Topics encompass areas of molecular and cellular biology, ecology, evolution, physiology, and biotechnology. The course is intended for students majoring in biology, biochemistry, neuroscience, or environmental studies, or preparing for a health-related career. Recommended co-requisite(s): CHEM 107A or 108A. Not open to juniors or seniors. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO 190. Enrollment limited to 16. A. Hill.
BIO 195D. Lab-Based Biological Inquiry: Living in a Microbial World.
This is a course-based research experience in the biological sciences. Students build research skills through open-ended, authentic experimentation or observations of the natural world. Students gain practice reading scientific literature, formulating and testing hypotheses, analyzing data, interpreting results, communicating in disciplinary style, and working in teams. The microbial community version of the course examines how and why microbial communities form in nature, the roles of such communities, and how they can be controlled. Topics encompass areas of microbiology, molecular and cellular biology, ecology, evolution, and biotechnology. Intended for students majoring in biology, biochemistry, neuroscience, or environmental studies, or preparing for health-related careers. Recommended corequisite(s): CHEM 107A or 108A. Not open to juniors or seniors. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO 190. Enrollment limited to 16. Staff.
BIO 195E. Lab-Based Biological Inquiry: Sponge Fluid Dynamics.
In this course-based research experience in the biological sciences, students build research skills through open-ended, authentic experimentation or observations of the natural world. Students gain practice reading scientific literature, formulating and testing hypotheses, analyzing data, interpreting results, communicating in disciplinary style, and working in teams. The sponge fluid dynamics version of the course investigates water flow around and through sponges, and the effects of sponge morphology on current-induced flow. Topics encompass areas of physiology, ecology, evolution and fluid dynamics. This course is intended for students majoring in biology, biochemistry, neuroscience, or environmental studies, or preparing for a health-related career. Recommended corequisite(s): CHEM 107A or 108A. Not open to juniors or seniors. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO 190. Enrollment limited to 16. A. Mountcastle.
BIO 195F. Lab-Based Biological Inquiry: Phenotypic Plasticity and the Changing World.
This is a course-based research experience in the biological sciences. Students build research skills through open-ended, authentic experimentation or observations of the natural world, gaining practice reading scientific literature, formulating and testing hypotheses, analyzing data, interpreting results, communicating in disciplinary style, and working in teams. This version of the course explores how environmentally induced variation in morphology, physiology, and behavior influences animal performance and the role this plasticity may play as animals respond to climate change and pollution. Topics encompass areas of physiology, biochemistry, ecology, and evolution. Intended for students majoring in biology, biochemistry, neuroscience, or environmental studies, or preparing for a health-related career. Recommended corequisite(s): CHEM 107A or 108A. Not open to juniors or seniors. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO 190. Enrollment limited to 16. R. Bavis.
BIO 195G. Lab-Based Biological Inquiry: Growing Wildflowers.
This is a course-based research experience in the biological sciences. Students build research skills through open-ended, authentic experimentation or observations of the natural world. Students gain practice reading scientific literature, formulating and testing hypotheses, analyzing data, interpreting results, communicating in disciplinary style, and working in teams. This version of the course is focused on developing effective seed propagation methods for native wildflowers needed to improve pollinator habitat in the Lewiston-Auburn area. Topics encompass ecology, evolution, physiology, and conservation biology. The course is intended for students majoring in biology, biochemistry, neuroscience, or environmental studies, or preparing for a health-related career; it is recommended that students taking BIO 195 simultaneously enroll in CHEM 107A or CHEM 108A. Not open to seniors. Enrollment limited to 16. C. Essenberg.
BIO 195H. Lab-Based Biological Inquiry: Cellular Neuroscience.
This is a course-based research experience in the biological sciences. Students build research skills through open-ended, authentic experimentation or observations of the natural world. Students gain practice reading scientific literature, formulating and testing hypotheses, analyzing data, interpreting results, communicating in disciplinary style, and working in teams. The cellular neuroscience version of the course investigates how lipids regulate the activity of neuronal cells, and how a combination of experimental and computational approaches can be used to study cellular metabolic networks. Topics encompass areas of physiology, neuroscience, molecular and cellular biology, mathematical modeling, and evolution. Intended for students majoring in biology, biochemistry, neuroscience, or environmental studies, or preparing for a health-related career; it is recommended that students taking BIO 195 simultaneously enroll in CHEM 107 or CHEM 108. Not open to juniors or seniors. Enrollment limited to 16. M. Kruse.
BIO 195J. Lab-Based Biological Inquiry: Life of a Forest.
This is a course-based research experience in the biological sciences. Students build research skills through open-ended, authentic experimentation or observations of the natural world. Students gain practice reading scientific literature, formulating and testing hypotheses, analyzing data, interpreting results, communicating in disciplinary style, and working in teams. This version of the course is focused on how forests grow and survive with emphasis on plant biology, forest ecology, and mycology. Intended for students majoring in biology, biochemistry, neuroscience, or environmental studies, or preparing for a health-related career; it is recommended that students taking BIO 195 simultaneously enroll in CHEM 107 or CHEM 108. Not open to juniors and seniors. Enrollment limited to 16. B. Huggett.
BIO 195K. Lab-Based Biological Inquiry: Poisons.
This is a course-based research experience in the biological sciences. Students build research skills through open-ended, authentic experimentation or observations of the natural world. Students gain practice reading scientific literature, formulating and testing hypotheses, analyzing data, interpreting results, communicating in disciplinary style, and working in teams. This version of the course surveys historical and emerging poisons, examines their impact on human health, and tests the behavioral and molecular effects of exposure to poisons using animal models. Intended for students majoring in biology, biochemistry, neuroscience, or environmental studies, or preparing for a health-related career. Recommended corequisite(s): CHEM 107A or 108A. Not open to juniors or seniors. Enrollment limited to 16. L. Williams.
BIO 202. Cellular Basis of Life.
A view of life at the cellular and molecular levels drawing examples from organisms. Topics include the chemical basis of cellular life, cellular structure and function, cellular division, and the expression of genes in cells. Prerequisite(s): BIO 195 and CHEM 108A. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO 242. Enrollment limited to 39. Normally offered every semester. [S] [SR] Staff.
BIO 204. Biological Research Experience: Molecules to Ecosystems.
This is an intermediate-level research experience in the biological sciences. Students learn and apply research methods using multiple approaches that span a range of disciplines in biology, from molecular to ecological. Research topics include a place-based component that engages students in the Lewiston-Auburn area or in nearby ecosystems. Students practice common conventions for communication within the biological sciences. Only open to sophomores and juniors. Prerequisite(s): BIO 195. Recommended background: CHEM 108A. Enrollment limited to 18. [W2] Normally offered every semester. [SR] Staff.
BIO 206. Evolution and Interactions of Life.
An introduction to ecological and evolutionary patterns, principles, and processes. Topics include speciation, mechanisms of evolution, pivotal events in evolutionary history, adaptation to environmental challenges, life history strategies, population dynamics, community structure and species interactions, and ecosystem processes in a changing world. Only open to sophomores and juniors. Prerequisite(s): BIO 195 or ENVR 203. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO 270. Enrollment limited to 39. Normally offered every semester. [S] [SR] R. Bavis, D. Dearborn, B. Huggett.
BIO 213. Marine Botany.
Marine animals, from tiny zooplankton to giant marine mammals, rely on marine "plants" (photosynthesizers) to form the base of productive, multilevel food webs. This course introduces students to the fascinating underwater world of marine photosynthesizers (microalgae, seaweeds, seagrasses, etc.), including key adaptations, ecology, physiology, life history strategies, and interactions with other species, including humans. Students consider conservation strategies and challenges and the effects of climate change on marine environments. They also gain experience in science communication, hone critical thinking skills, and have multiple opportunities to collaborate with peers. Prerequisite(s): BIO 190 or BIO 195. Enrollment limited to 29. One-time offering. K. Dobkowski.
BIO 217. Human Anatomy and Physiology I.
This course explores human anatomy and physiology with an integrative approach that links all organ systems to the neuroendocrine system and examines the interactions among organ systems. Topics include the organization of the human body; the nervous system and special senses; and the endocrine, musculoskeletal, and integumentary systems. This course is intended to fulfill the human anatomy and physiology prerequisite for students planning to apply to health professions programs such as nursing, physician assistant, physical therapy, and occupational therapy. Students planning to apply to veterinary programs should enroll in BIO 311 and BIO 337. Prerequisite(s): BIO 190 or 195 and CHEM 108A. Enrollment limited to 16. B. Salazar-Perea.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 218. Human Anatomy and Physiology II.
A continuation of BIO 217, this course explores human anatomy and physiology with an integrative approach that links all organ systems to the neuroendocrine system and examines the interactions among organ systems. Topics include the cardiovascular, immune, respiratory, urinary, digestive, and reproductive systems. This course is intended to fulfill the human anatomy and physiology prerequisite for students planning to apply to health professions programs such as nursing, physician assistant, physical therapy, and occupational therapy. Students planning to apply to veterinary programs should enroll in BIO 311 and BIO 337. Prerequisite(s): BIO 217. Enrollment limited to 16. B. Salazar-Perea.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 221. Plant and Fungal Diversity/Lab.
This course provides an overview of the evolution and diversity of plants and fungi. In lecture and laboratory studies, students are introduced to the anatomical and functional characteristics that define each group with an emphasis on adaptations to the environment. Throughout the course, the ecological importance and human uses of plants and fungi are explored. Prerequisite(s): one 100-level biology course. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 21. [L] [Q] [QF] [S] [SR] B. Huggett.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 244. Biostatistics.
A course in the use of statistics in the biological sciences, focusing on core concepts and skills necessary for the analysis and interpretation of data, including types of data, the fundamentals of study design, sampling distributions, the meaning and interpretation of p-values and confidence intervals, statistical errors, and power. Students learn to select and carry out appropriate statistical tests for a variety of simple datasets. Statistical methods considered include analyses such as binomial tests, Fisher's exact tests, t- and chi-square tests, 1- and 2-way ANOVA, correlation and regression, and simple nonparametric techniques for numerical data. Prerequisite(s): BIO 190, 195, or ENVR 203, 240, or 310. Enrollment limited to 49. Normally offered every year. [Q] [QF] [S] [SR] C. Essenberg.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BI/ES 246. Conservation Biology.
The work of conserving the ecological systems on which we and other species rely draws on many disciplines, including biology, policy, ethics, and other disciplines to conserve biological diversity. This course focuses on the biological aspects of conservation work while also considering their context within a complex, interdisciplinary endeavor. Students examine conservation at multiple scales, including the conservation of species, biological communities, and ecosystems. Classroom activities help students develop scientific reasoning skills and apply them to conservation problems. Readings and discussions encourage students to consider social, ethical, and other perspectives on conservation work. Prerequisite(s): BIO 190, 195 or ENVR 203, 240, or 310. Enrollment limited to 39. [S] C. Essenberg.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BI/MA 255A. Mathematical Models in Biology.
Mathematical models are increasingly important throughout the life sciences. This course provides an introduction to a variety of models in biology, with concrete examples chosen from biological and medical fields. Students work both theoretically and with computer software to analyze models, compute numerical results, and visualize outcomes. Prerequisite(s): MATH 205. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 29. [Q] [QF] M. Greer.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BI/ES 271. Dendrology and the Natural History of Trees/Lab.
In this field-based course, students engage in the scientific study of the natural history and identification of trees and important shrubs native to New England, and some commonly planted non-native trees. Topics include the anatomy, function, taxonomy, biology, and uses of trees. Lecture topics support weekly outdoor laboratories, which may include trips to such field sites as the Saco Heath, Thorncrag Bird Sanctuary, and Wolfe's Neck State Park. Study of the woody flora of New England serves as a foundation for further work in biology, environmental studies, conservation, or related fields. Prerequisite(s): BIO 117, 124, 190, 195, or ENVR 203. Enrollment limited to 24. [L] [S] [SR] B. Huggett.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 301. Pathophysiology.
This course introduces the students to the understanding of human diseases that most commonly affect us. Students learn about the most common pathological conditions by organ systems, examining the abnormal function of cells and body systems, clinical manifestations, diagnostic testing, and adaptations used by the organism to restore homeostasis. Students apply critical thinking skills to integrate how the malfunction of one organ affects other organ systems and the individual as whole, with the goal of expanding students' knowledge of the human body. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: BIO 114, 217, 218, 311, 337, or NS/PY 160. Enrollment limited to 29. One-time offering. [S] [SR] B. Salazar-Perea.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BI/ES 302. Restoration Ecology/Lab.
Ecological restoration assists the recovery of ecosystems damaged or destroyed by human activities, improving habitat for threatened species and increasing the ability of natural systems to serve a wide variety of human needs. Students learn ecological concepts and practical approaches used in this important and growing field and explore the complex human values that shape restoration goals and practices. Course activities emphasize critical reading of the primary scientific literature, discussion of restoration goals and practices, and developing skills relevant to restoration work. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: BI/ES 246, 271, 306, 333; BIO 206, 221, 270, s32, s37; ENVR 221, 240, or 310. Not open to students who have received credit for BI/ES 303. Enrollment limited to 15. (Community-Engaged Learning.) [S] [SR] C. Essenberg.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BI/ES 303. Restoration Ecology.
Ecological restoration assists the recovery of ecosystems damaged or destroyed by human activities, improving habitat for threatened species and increasing the ability of natural systems to serve a wide variety of human needs. Students learn ecological concepts and practical approaches used in this important and growing field and explore the complex human values that shape restoration goals and practices. Course activities emphasize discussion of restoration goals and practices and critical reading of the primary scientific literature. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: BI/ES 246, 271, 306, 333; BIO 206, 221, 270, s32, s37; ENVR 221, 240, or 310. Not open to students who have received credit for BI/ES 302. Enrollment limited to 15. [S] C. Essenberg.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BI/CH 304. Biochemistry of Virus Replication and Host Cell Defense Systems.
Viruses that infect eukaryotic cells have evolved a wide range of strategies to co-opt the biochemical machinery of host cells for the purpose of maximizing virus replication success. Eukaryotic cells have simultaneously evolved mechanisms to limit the extent to which viruses can establish successful infections. This course examines, in large part through the primary literature, the replication biochemistry used by representative examples of mammalian viruses and the cellular biochemical pathways designed to defend cells and organisms from viral takeover. Students are expected to apply what they learn by preparing a grant application narrative as a final project. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242, or BIO 195 and 202, and CHEM 218. Enrollment limited to 15. [S] [SR] T. Lawson.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BI/NS 305. Gene Editing in Biology and Neuroscience.
The development of genome editing techniques by molecular biologists has raised great hopes that a treatment for genetic disorders such as cystic fibrosis or Huntington’s disease might finally be available. In this course, students analyze how genome editing techniques such as CRISPR/Cas9 have evolved, how they can be applied to study the role of individual genes or to alter mutant genes, and what approaches exist for the delivery of DNA-modifying enzymes into an organism. In addition, students use scientific publications and popular literature to discuss ethical implications of usage of genome editing techniques for society. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242, or BIO 195 and 202. Enrollment limited to 15. [QF] [S] [SR] M. Kruse.
BI/NS 308. Neurobiology.
An introduction to the molecular and cellular principles of neurobiology and the organization of neurons into networks. Also investigated are developmental and synaptic plasticity, analysis of signaling pathways in cells of the nervous system, and the development of neurobiological research, from studies on invertebrate systems to usage of stem cell-derived brain organoids and gene-editing techniques such as CRISPR/Cas9. Laboratories include analysis of nerve cell activity, computer simulation and modeling, and the use of molecular techniques in neurobiology. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242, or BIO 195 and 202. The course may be offered with a lab in some semesters; this is indicated in the Schedule of Courses. Enrollment limited to 12 per laboratory section. Normally offered every year. [L] [Q] [QF] [S] [SR] M. Kruse.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 311. Comparative Anatomy of the Chordates/Lab.
An introduction to the comparative anatomy of the vertebrates and their kin, with laboratory study of both sharks and mammals. Prerequisite(s): BIO 190 or 195. Enrollment limited to 18. [L] [S] [SR] A. Mountcastle.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 313. Marine Ecology/Lab.
An examination of the complex ecological interactions that structure marine systems in a changing ocean. Habitats studied include intertidal, estuary, coral reef, deep sea, salt marsh, and pelagic. Laboratories include work in local marine communities and require occasional weekend trips. Prerequisite(s): BIO 206 or 270. Enrollment limited to 12 per laboratory section. [L] [Q] [QF] [S] [SR] Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 315. Microbiology/Lab.
A survey of the structure, function, and diversity of microorganisms, including viruses, bacteria, and eukaryotic microbes, with emphasis on adaptations to specific niches. Particular attention is given to organisms of ecological, medical, and industrial interest. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242, or BIO 202 and 204. Enrollment limited to 25. (Community-Engaged Learning.) Normally offered every year. [L] [Q] [S] Staff.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

BIO 321. Cellular Biochemistry.
This course explores the biochemical mechanisms of cellular functions with the goal of extending student knowledge about the structure, synthesis, and metabolism of biological macromolecules and contextualizing the regulation of these molecules in healthy and diseased cells and tissues. The course does not satisfy a requirement for the biochemistry major. Not open to students who have received credit for CHEM 321 or 322. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242, or BIO 202 and 204. Strongly recommended: CHEM 217 and 218. Enrollment limited to 39. [S] Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BI/PL 323E. Philosophy of Evolution.
Evolutionary theory raises many deep and complicated philosophical issues as well as questions about how science operates: Are concepts like function, selection, and optimality scientifically legitimate? How do we make inferences about the unobserved past? Can thinking about the evolutionary past help us understand how biological processes, such as the mind, work today? It also raises questions about who we are and where we come from: How do we relate to other species? Can we better understand our moral and intellectual strengths and weaknesses by looking to evolution? In this course, students approach these questions from an interdisciplinary perspective, including philosophy, biology, and the cognitive sciences. Prerequisite(s): one of the following: PHIL 211; two courses in philosophy; or one course in philosophy and one course in biology. Enrollment limited to 15. [W2] [AC] M. Dacey.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 326. Cancer Biology/Lab.
Despite a robust increase in cancer research, the World Health Organization predicts that incidents of cancer are still expected to rise 70% over the next two decades. All of these cancers begin as a single cell. This course is designed to introduce students to the cancer cell and the various processes through which this single preneoplastic cell establishes a clonal niche and metastasizes. Drawing on primary literature, students consider current topics in the field of cancer biology and how they relate to current therapeutic potentials. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242, or BIO 202 and 204. Not open to students who have received credit for BIO 327. Enrollment limited to 19. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 328. Developmental Biology/Lab.
Developmental biology is a dynamic field that addresses questions related to how organisms come into being and grow. This course introduces students to developmental biology with a particular emphasis on the molecular basis for developmental events. The course focuses on the mechanisms involved in making cells that are different from one another (cell differentiation) and the associated mechanisms by which patterns are created (morphogenesis). In the lab, students explore the phenomenon of development in several of the most prominently utilized model organisms. The lab culminates in an independent project. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242, or BIO 202 and 204. Enrollment limited to 19. Normally offered every year. [L] [S] [SR] L. Williams.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO 331. Molecular Biology/Lab.
A laboratory and lecture introduction to the molecular biology of genes and chromosomes. The course emphasizes current research about gene structure and function, experimental techniques, and eukaryotic genetics. Prerequisite(s): BIO 242, or BIO 202 and 204. Enrollment limited to 20. Normally offered every year. [L] [S] [SR] L. Williams.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

BI/ES 333. The Genetics of Conservation Biology/Lab.
Conserving biodiversity is important at multiple scales, including genetic variation within species. Does a species have enough variation to evolve in a changing world? Are individuals differentially adapted to local environmental variation? In a captive population of a rare animal, which individuals should be bred to minimize the erosion of genetic variation? Lectures and labs cover the fundamentals of classical, molecular, and population genetics, applying them to current issues in biological conservation. Prerequisite(s): BIO 202, 206, 242 or 270. Not open to students who have received credit for BI/ES 336 or BIO 330. Enrollment limited to 15. [L] [S] [SR] D. Dearborn.
BI/ES 336. The Genetics of Conservation Biology.
Conserving biodiversity is important at multiple scales, including genetic variation within species. Does a species have enough variation to evolve in a changing world? Are individuals differentially adapted to local environmental variation? In a captive population of a rare animal, which individuals should be bred to minimize the erosion of genetic variation? Lectures and labs cover the fundamentals of classical, molecular, and population genetics, applying them to current issues in biological conservation. Prerequisite(s): BIO 202, 242, 206, or 270. Not open to students who have received credit for BI/ES 333 or BIO 330. Enrollment limited to 15. [S] [SR] D. Dearborn.
BIO 337. Animal Physiology/Lab.
The major physiological processes of animals, including digestion, circulation, respiration, excretion, locomotion, and both neural and hormonal regulation. Examples are drawn from several species and include a consideration of the cellular basis of organ-system function. Prerequisite(s): BIO 202 or 242. Enrollment limited to 16. [L] [Q] [S] [SR] R. Bavis.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

BIO 360. Independent Study.
Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study per semester. Normally offered every semester. Staff.
BIO 365. Special Topics.
Offered at irregular intervals by a faculty member in an area of contemporary interest.
BIO 380. Plant Physiology/Lab.
A study of organismal and cellular functions important in the life of green plants. Topics include mineral nutrition, water relations, carbon assimilation, metabolism, and regulatory processes with an emphasis on how plant structure and function are influenced by pressures in the growing environment or by interactions with other organisms. Weekly laboratories provide a research-led approach to understanding physiological processes in plants. Prerequisite(s): BIO 190 or 195 and CHEM 108A in addition to one of the following courses: BIO 221, 242, 270, or BI/ES 271. Enrollment limited to 19. [L] [Q] [QF] [S] [SR] B. Huggett.
Interdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

BIO 457. Senior Thesis.
Permission of the department and the thesis advisor are required. Students register for BIO 457 in the fall semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both BIO 457 and 458. Instructor permission is required. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
BIO 458. Senior Thesis.
Permission of the department and the thesis advisor are required. Students register for BIO 458 in the winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both BIO 457 and 458. Instructor permission is required. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
BIO 460. Junior Seminar.
Reading original biological literature is an essential skill for biology majors. Focusing on the topics addressed by invited speakers for the semester's biology seminar program, students review articles, write analyses, and contribute oral presentations in a small group format. Students attend afternoon and/or evening seminars and discuss the content, context, and presentation of original investigations. Prerequisite(s): BIO 190, 195, 202, or 242, and 206 or 270. One of these courses may be taken concurrently, only by permission of the instructor. Not open to students who have received credit for NRSC 460. Enrollment limited to 19. [W3] Normally offered every year. [SR] Staff.
BIO 470. Seminar and Research in Ecology.
Laboratory, field, or library study of a current research topic in experimental ecology. A topic is selected with reference to the research interests of the instructor. Prerequisite(s): Biology 270. Enrollment limited to 6. Instructor permission is required. [W3] [L] [QF] [S] [SR] C. Essenberg.
BIO 472. Seminar and Research in Physiology/Lab.
Laboratory or library study of a current research topic in animal physiology. A topic is selected with reference to the research interests of the instructor. Only open to seniors. Recommended background: BIO 337. Enrollment limited to 6. Instructor permission is required. [W3] [L] [Q] [QF] [S] [SR] Staff.
BIO 476. Seminar and Research in Evolutionary Biology.
Laboratory or library study of a current research topic in evolutionary biology. A topic is selected in reference to the research interests of the instructor. Open to seniors only. Enrollment limited to 6. Instructor permission is required. [W3] [L] [Q] [S] [SR] D. Dearborn.
BIO 477. Seminar and Research in Microbiology/Lab.
Laboratory and library study of a current research topic in microbiology or immunology. Topics are selected with reference to the research interests of the instructor and students. Open to seniors only. Enrollment limited to 6. Instructor permission is required. [W3] [L] [Q] [S] Staff.
Short Term Courses
BI/ES s14. The Ecology of Place: Field Methods for Coastal Research at Bates-Morse Mountain.
This course immerses students in coastal issues facing Maine with the Bates-Morse Mountain Conservation Area and Phippsburg as the course setting. Students examine community dependence on fisheries and aquaculture and learn how to assess the health of the environment, including salt marshes, mudflats, the rocky intertidal zone, sandy beaches, and coastal forests. By combining the study of human and natural systems, students consider ways to manage resources within the broader context of a changing environment. The course introduces social-ecological systems theory and field methods including basic experimental design, data collection, and analysis. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 14. Normally offered every year. C. Cleaver.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO s27. Ecology is Everywhere.
This course explores the foundations of ecology through readings, online resources, and a hands-on, community-based project that allows students to explore the ecology of their own geographic location. Students design a natural history field guide to the student’s "ecosystem," appropriate for a general audience, helping students combine their knowledge of ecology with effective science communication techniques. Recommended background: one college-level science course. Enrollment limited to 15. [S] [SR] K. Dobkowski.
BIO s30. Ecology and Natural History of the Maine Coast.
This course examines the ecology and natural history of the coast of Maine using a combination of experiential learning (field trips, lab activities, group research project) and interactive lectures and presentations by guest speakers. Students have the opportunity to experience the ecology and natural history of the Maine coast, including saltmarsh, sandy beach, mudflat, and rocky shore ecosystems. This course includes at least one community-engaged learning activity. Students gain skills in the identification of local marine flora and fauna, experimental design and hypothesis testing, and science communication to varied audiences. Prerequisite(s): one biology course. Enrollment limited to 12. One-time offering. K. Dobkowski.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO s31. Avian Biology/Lab.
Birds are among the most conspicuous animals in the environment, occupying terrestrial and aquatic niches from the tropics to the poles. This course examines the origin and diversification of birds and explores avian morphology, physiology, and behavior in an ecological and evolutionary context. Topics include flight, communication, feeding, migration, and reproduction. The course includes a laboratory and may require several extended field trips. Prerequisite(s): BIO 206 or 270. Enrollment limited to 12. [SR] D. Dearborn.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

BIO s50. Independent Study.
Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the program/department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study during a Short Term. Normally offered every year. Staff.