Spanish

Professors Fra-Molinero and López; Associate Professor Aburto Guzmán; Assistant Professor Pridgeon; Senior Lecturer George (chair)



Spanish is a cross-national and global language. It is the second language of the United States, and the first language of over 400 million people in Latin America, Europe, and Africa. It is a vehicle for myriad cultural expressions that find audiences far beyond its traditional trans-Atlantic axis to Asia and the Pacific, and it has given voice to struggles for social justice that have echoed around the world.

The Department of Spanish responds to the cultural richness and diversity of the people who speak Spanish as well as to the obligations and opportunities of a globalized world through a threefold mission:

1) the department enables students to acquire a strong and useful proficiency in Spanish that allows them to navigate cultural spaces in which over 400 million people interact worldwide;

2) the department fosters the development of interpretative skills and contextual knowledge to engage critically a broad range of cultural productions originating in the Spanish-speaking world;

3) the department contributes to the study of the humanities through a curriculum of courses taught in Spanish that includes studies of Latin American, Spanish and U.S. Latino literature, media, and visual arts, covering an array of historical periods and informed by diverse and varied theoretical approaches;

More information on the Spanish department is available on the website (bates.edu/Spanish/).

Learning Goals. The Department of Spanish has the following goals for Spanish majors and minors:

1) to understand spoken and written Spanish in a variety of linguistic registers and social contexts;

2) to communicate in Spanish orally in real-life situations and in interpersonal contexts;

3) to demonstrate presentation skills in Spanish, effectively discussing orally and in writing complex topics related to fields of academic study;

4) to display interpretative skills in Spanish (reading, viewing, and listening), engaging critically a broad range of cultural productions originating in the Spanish-speaking world;

5) to be conversant with Latin American, Spanish, and U.S. Latino literatures, media, and visual arts, across historical periods, applying diverse theoretical approaches to the study of the Spanish-speaking world.

First-year students as well as continuing students wishing to study Spanish at Bates must take the department placement exam prior to registration in order to determine their entry level course. The exam is available on the department website (bates.edu/spanish/placement-exam/)

Major Requirements. The major consists of ten courses above SPAN 202, plus a thesis or portfolio, including:

1) SPAN 205. Advanced Spanish, which may be waived for heritage speakers or for students who have completed part of their secondary education in a Spanish-speaking country.

2) SPAN 210. Writing Spanish.

3) SPAN 211. Introduction to Literary and Cultural Analysis.

4) Four elective courses, which may include a combination of the following:
a) 200-level courses above SPAN 211.
b) one Short Term course offered by the Spanish department.
c) one course taught in English and cross-listed in Spanish and another department or program (e.g., Africana, American studies, European studies, gender and sexuality studies, Latin American studies).
d) courses taken in an approved off-campus study program in a Spanish-speaking country (per study-abroad guidelines below).

5) Three 300-level courses on the literatures or cultures of Spain or Latin America taught in Spanish by Bates faculty; the required 200-level courses must be completed prior to taking these courses. Students studying for two semesters in a Spanish-speaking country need only complete two 300-level courses.

6) A capstone project, thesis, or portfolio that demonstrates proficiency in Spanish and competency in the humanities' approach to textual analysis. This may be a literary or cultural analysis of a topic related to the Spanish-speaking world, a creative project, a translation, or a digital portfolio. Thesis writers register for SPAN 457 in the fall, SPAN 458 in the winter, and SPAN 457 and 458 if completing an honors thesis.

Spanish and Latin American Studies Double Majors. Only one course from the Latin American studies major may be applied toward the Spanish major.

Minor in Spanish. A minor requires a minimum of seven courses in Spanish above SPAN 103. At least one of the seven courses must be a 300-level course offered by Bates faculty on campus; this may be a course taught in Spanish or a cross-listed course taught in English. One Short Term course offered by the Spanish department may be counted toward the minor. Advanced Placement courses may not be counted toward the minor.

Study Abroad. Spanish majors are encouraged to gain proficiency in the language through the experience of studying in a Spanish-speaking country. For the major a maximum of three credits is normally recognized for one semester, and five credits for two semesters of study in an approved program. For a minor the maximum number is two credits for one semester and three credits for two semesters. Students are encouraged to speak with their Spanish advisor regarding course offerings before going abroad, otherwise credit toward the major or minor is not guaranteed.

Pass/Fail Grading Option. The use of the pass/fail option is restricted to one course within the major and the minor but may not be elected for the 300-level courses.

Credit Transfer. Courses taken at other institutions in languages other than Spanish are not given credit by the department.

Courses

SPAN 103. Accelerated Elementary Spanish.

Designed for students with minimal experience in Spanish or another Romance language and for highly self-motivated students who wish to begin Spanish, the course reviews essential constructions and vocabulary. The course emphasizes oral proficiency and the development of reading and writing skills while fostering a cross-cultural understanding of the Spanish-speaking world with authentic texts and media. Not open to juniors or seniors. Enrollment limited to 22. Normally offered every year. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 201. Intermediate Spanish I.

Designed to increase students' vocabulary and improve foundational skills in speaking, listening, reading, and writing. The course provides a thorough review of grammar as well as an emphasis on conversational proficiency, expository writing, and the cultures of the Spanish-speaking world. Prerequisite(s): SPAN 103 or through placement exam. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 22. Normally offered every year. [AC] Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 202. Intermediate Spanish II.

Intensive practice in reading, composition, and conversation, as well as attention to selected grammar problems. The course focuses on discussion through visual presentations and selections of literature, art, and culture of the Spanish-speaking world. Prerequisite(s): SPAN 201 or through placement exam. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 22. Normally offered every year. [AC] Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 205. Advanced Spanish.

This course develops advanced skill in reading and writing as well as oral fluency and aural acuity through classroom activities and written assignments based on literary and nonliterary texts and audiovisual media. It introduces analytical and interpretative strategies necessary to engage and decode the breadth and variety of cultural productions originating in the Spanish-speaking world. Not open to students returning from off-campus study in a Spanish-speaking country. Not open to seniors. Prerequisiste(s): Spanish 202 or throught placement exam. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 19. Normally offered every semester. [AC] [HS] Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 210. Writing Spanish.

This course teaches skills useful for writing in upper-level courses, the senior thesis, or the senior portfolio in Spanish. Students develop the ability to be flexible and versatile writers in Spanish in a variety of forms of academic writing (narrative, descriptive, expositive, argumentative) and learn the importance of the writing process (drafting, revision, rewriting, editing). The course expands students' understanding of research and writing as tools for creating and communicating knowledge of the Spanish-speaking world by encouraging them to use Spanish to ask, research, and answer questions of significance and importance. Prerequisite(s): SPAN 205. Not open to seniors. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 25. [W2] Normally offered every year. [AC] [HS] Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 211. Introduction to Literary and Cultural Analysis.

In this course students learn the basic tools, concepts, and terminology of textual analysis. They become familiar with recent critical approaches to the study of modern Spanish and Spanish American literary and cultural work. Prerequisite(s): SPAN 205 or 210. Not open to seniors. Normally offered every year. [AC] [CP] Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 222. Short Narrative in the Spanish-speaking World.

This course considers the development, functions, and varieties of short narrative in the Spanish-speaking world. Students examine the thematic content of stories in light of sociohistorical contexts, and explore the evolution of the elements and language of story-telling in terms of categories of literary periodization. Prerequisite(s): SPAN 210 or 211. Not open to seniors. Enrollment limited to 29. [AC] Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 223. Drama and Performance in the Spanish-speaking World.

This course studies twentieth- and twenty-first-century works by playwrights and performers from the Spanish-speaking world and the contexts in which they are written, produced, and staged. From avant-garde drama to political action, queer performance, live art, dance, cultural tourism, and the spectacles of the commercial theater, students explore a range of drama and performance theories and practices, and the specific ways Hispanic writers and artists use traditional and alternative spaces as venue for engaging issues of social and aesthetic concern. Prerequisite(s): SPAN 205. Prerequisite(s) which may be taken concurrently: SPAN 210 or 211. Not open to students who have received credit for SPAN 233. Enrollment limited to 29. F. López.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 224. Protest and Justice.

At different times and in different countries, many writers, filmmakers, and other artists from the Spanish-speaking world have felt compelled to create works that confront various types of social injustice. These range from the effects of imperialism to political repression, and often address issues of race, sexuality, gender, and class. In this course students analyze these "texts" within their respective social, political, and historical contexts. Prerequisites(s): SPAN 210 or 211. Not open to seniors. Enrollment limited to 25. [AC] [HS] Staff.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

SPAN 228. Screen and Media.

This course examines the complex relationship between literature and screen media in terms of 1) the representative possibilities and limits each offer for the exploration and projection of relevant social, political, and cultural issues and 2) the processes, through study of different theoretical and aesthetic approaches, creators use to adapt works from one mode to the other. Through the analysis of literary and audiovisual productions from Latin America, Spain, and the United States, students engage the theoretical, technical, and practical debates among institutions, producers, and consumers that emerge in the process of transposing discourse across media forms. Prerequisite(s): SPAN 210 or 211. Not open to seniors. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 230. Readings in Spanish American and Spanish Caribbean Literature.

Students engage representative readings from Spanish American and Caribbean literatures from myths of origin in the pre-conquest period to the mid-twentieth century. The course examines the chronicles of conquest that set the tone for ongoing debates on the processes of coloniality. Through period texts, students consider debates on intellectual autonomy; regional and national identities; and the rights of indigenous people, African descendants, and women in the new nations of the nineteenth century. The course ends with an emphasis on literatures that provide divergent gendered, sexual, racial, and political viewpoints. The course is a multi-genre review that includes essay, chronicle, poetry, and testimony. Prerequisite(s): SPAN 210 or 211. Not open to seniors. Normally offered every year. Staff.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

SPAN 231. Readings in Spanish Literature.

What are the points of convergence and divergence between Spain and Europe? How has Spain articulated itself as European? How and by what motives has Spain emphasized its differences vis-à-vis Europe? In this course, students consider these questions by reading representative literary works by Spanish writers from all periods in light of the European context in which they were crafted. Students pay special attention to how broad, sweeping historical processes that stand as markers of European identity, such as wars, revolutions, and cultural and philosophical movements, are reflected in Spanish literature. Central themes include religion and expansion, modern monarchies and the making of the "people," the invention of the nation and the ideal citizen, and postcolonial disorders. Prerequisite(s): SPAN 210 or 211. Not open to seniors. Normally offered every year. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 301. Introduction to Translation.

An introduction to the basic principles of translation: theories, methods, and techniques. With an emphasis on practical issues related to both language and culture, students focus on linguistic structure, text analysis, idiomatic expressions, and cultural specificities. Students improve their knowledge of the Spanish language and develop their translation skills through extensive practice both in the classroom and beyond. Only open to junior and seniors. Enrollment limited to 15. F. López.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

LS/SP 317. Screening Citizenship: Jewish Latin American Film.

This course considers films from throughout Latin America made by Jewish directors. Students learn the history of Latin American film production as well as terms and skills necessary for audiovisual analysis. The course examines the ways in which film is used as a vehicle to explore and represent issues of identity, belonging, immigration, and assimilation that have long characterized Jewish experiences in Latin America. Moreover, the course focuses on filmmakers’ engagement with key social and political issues within their respective countries as well as on a regional or global scale. Taught in Spanish. Prerequisite(s): SPAN 211 and one additional 200-level Spanish course. Recommended background: SPAN 228. Enrollment limited to 15. S. Pridgeon.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

LS/SP 318. Next Year in Havana: Stories of the Jewish and Latinx Diaspora in the U.S..

This course considers literature authored by Jewish and Latinx-identifying authors writing from the United States and explores Jewishness as imagined by Latinx authors. Students examine the construction of intersecting Jewish and Latinx identities and experiences. Particular attention is paid to how Latinx ethnicities are constructed differentially throughout the Americas and how narratives of ethno-national identities (racial democracy in Brazil, Calibanism in Cuba, and the cosmic race in Mexico), particularly their spiritual implications, come into contact with both Jewishness as an ethnicity and Judaism as a religion. Taught in English. Recommended background: SPAN 211 or a literature course in ethnic studies. Open to juniors and seniors. New course beginning winter 2020. Enrollment limited to 15. (English: Race, Ethnicity, or Diasporic Literature.) Normally offered every other year. S. Pridgeon.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

INDC 321. Afroambiente: Escritura negra y medio ambiente.

This course studies the response of black writers and intellectuals of the Spanish-speaking world to issues related to the natural environment. In several countries, including Colombia, Ecuador, Puerto Rico, and Equatorial Guinea, from colonial times to the present, modernity has brought serious challenges to notions of economic progress, human rights, and national sovereignty as well as individual and communal identity. Course materials include written texts from local newspapers and magazines as well as other sources of information such as websites that present issues related to the environment and the arts. All readings are in English. Taught in Spanish. Cross-listed in Africana, environmental studies, Latin American studies, and Spanish. Prerequisite(s): one 200-level Spanish course above 211. Only open to juniors and seniors. Enrollment limited to 15. (Africana: Diaspora.) B. Fra-Molinero.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

GS/SP 327. Gendered Experiences in the Américas Borderlands.

Students become acquainted with film, comics, music, fiction and nonfiction narratives that engage border tensions and issues of immigration in English and Spanish. Concepts such as sense of place, mobility, and permanence; histories of place; place of enunciation; transnational historical memory of migration; and transnational historical networks are utilized as critical lenses to analyze gendered experiences of migration. Taught in Spanish. Recommended background: SPAN 230. Prerequisite(s): one 200-level Spanish course above SPAN 211. Only open to juniors and seniors. Not open to students who have received credit for GS/SP 323 or SP/WS 323. Enrollment limited to 15. C. Aburto Guzmán.
Concentrations

SPAN 335. Translating Place and War.

This course considers the parameters involved in translation processes, specifically in the translation of cultural texts that refer to war, experiences of war, and acts of war. Particular attention is paid to gendered and geographically nuanced texts that stand on opposite sides of the question of whether war is justified. Students contextualize cultural texts according to the time and place of both writer and translator before choosing a "theoretical stance" from which to critique an existing translation, and developing a theoretical approach for the practicum component. The practicum consists of translating chosen texts (graphic novel, poetry, and recorded memory) from Spanish into English and from English into Spanish. Prerequisite(s): two 200-level Spanish courses beyond SPAN 210. Only open to juniors and seniors. Enrollment limited to 15. C. Aburto Guzmán.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 337. Las voces del pueblo: Poetry and Music as Social Resistance in Latin America.

This course considers poetry and music as a form of social and political contestation in twentieth-century Latin America. Students become familiar with movements of poetry as well as songwriting and their relationship to discourses of political resistance and social movements. They explore the way in which verse is crafted in order to articulate resistance against forms of hegemonic power including empire (formal and informal), social and economic inequality, and racial and sexual oppression. The course takes into account the present-day legacy of these poets and songwriters through street art, recent film, and younger generations of Latin American poets and songwriters. Prerequisite(s): one Spanish course beyond SPAN 211. Recommended background: SPAN 230. Only open to juniors and seniors. Enrollment limited to 15. S. Pridgeon.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

AS/SP 338. Asia in the Hispanic and Lusophone Worlds.

Between 1571 and 1815, the galleon route between Acapulco and Manila linked Asia to the Portuguese and Spanish-speaking worlds and gave rise to a global exchange of culture, people, and commerce that still continues today. Through literature, film, and visual art, this course examines the variety of contacts and encounters that have shaped this particular East-West relationship, generated by processes of exploration, colonization, migration, and travel. Course materials include primary and secondary works from Asia (Japan, Korea, China, Malaysia, and the Philippines), Europe (Spain and Portugal), and Latin America (Mexico, Cuba, Peru, Argentina, and Brazil). Taught in English. Recommended background: AS/HI 110, 171; AS/JA 125; SPAN 230, 231. Enrollment limited to 15. D. George.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

LS/SP 341. Lectura americana de Cervantes.

A present-day reading in America of Don Quijote de La Mancha and other key texts of the Spanish and Spanish American Renaissance. This course examines themes of Islamophobia, white supremacy, conquest and empire, the slave trade, the quest for utopias, and the construction of historical narratives that shape the politics of the day. Students analyze myths and legends of the marvelous real such as the fountain of youth in Florida, the island of California, the return to the Golden Age, fabulous cities and unbelievable real ones (Mexico-Tenochtitlan, Cuzco) that are admired and destroyed, and a fake island in Louisiana called Barataria. Students consider issues that obsessed people in Cervantes' time: the expulsion of Muslims, hatred of Jews, war, gender roles and women's freedom, mental and physical disability, and changes to the environment in the form of windmills. Taught in Spanish. Prerequisite(s): one 200-level Spanish course above SPAN 211. Recommended background: SPAN 231. Only open to juniors and seniors. Enrollment limited to 15. B. Fra-Molinero.
Concentrations

SPAN 342. Texturing Latin America.

The vast region of Latin America has lent itself to continuous debates that range from reinterpretation of historical processes to contemporary resistance movements against shifting centers of power. This course examines the role that the concepts of peace, solidarity, dignity, and human rights have played and continue to play in our understanding of visual representations that engage people’s experience and interaction with place, environment, and structures of power. Close readings of studies from politics, philosophy, and art history and criticism that discuss these concepts are utilized to analyze the works of photographers such as Sebastião Salgado and Paz Errázuriz, as well as the art of Diego Rivera and Vik Muniz, to name a few. Questions and experiences of gender, race, class and political ideology as they pertain to particular place are woven into the discussion. Prerequisite(s): SPAN 230 and one upper-level 200 Spanish course. Enrollment limited to 15. C. Aburto Guzmán.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

GS/SP 344. Gendering Social Awareness in Contemporary Spain.

In this course, students use gender as the main category of analysis, paying particular attention to its interconnectedness with power. Carefully examining texts written by women in contemporary Spain, students explore the deliberate use of gender as a lens through which to understand different forms of domination—economic, political, and social. Taught in Spanish. Prerequisite(s): one 200-level Spanish course above SPAN 211. Recommended background: SPAN 231. Only open to juniors and seniors. Not open to students who have received credit for SP/WS 344. Enrollment limited to 15. Instructor permission is required. F. López.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 360. Independent Study.

Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes background research, a reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study per semester. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 362. Culture in Franco Spain.

Through the analysis of literary texts and popular culture, this course focuses on the impact of ideology on cultural production in Spain from the 1930s to the 1970s. Students pay particular attention to representations of the nation in terms of time (history) and space (national isolation/international connections), and examine how censorship and dissent shaped the form and content of cultural products in Franco's Spain. Prerequisite(s): one 200-level Spanish literature course. Recommended background: SPAN 231. Only open to juniors and seniors. [AC] [HS] F. López.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

EU/SP 366. Iberian Nightmares: Fantasy and Horror in Spanish and Portuguese Cinemas.

This course explores the genres of fantasy and horror in Spanish and Portuguese cinemas from the silent era to the present. It considers how such films represent the supernatural, the diabolical, evil violence, fear, paranoia, and magic; create, perpetuate, and subvert categories of gender, class, race, and sexuality; and adapt and participate in key European literary and cinematic genres such as the Gothic, parody, adventure, family drama, magical realism, and science fiction. Special attention is given to how these particular forms of popular cinema reinterpret Iberian traditions and how they reflect the anxieties of contemporary Spanish and Portuguese societies vis-à-vis processes of modernization, democratization, integration in Europe, and globalization. Taught in English. Recommended background: RFSS 120, 240, or SPAN 228 or other introductory film studies course. Only open to juniors and seniors. Enrollment limited to 15. D. George.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 368. Realismo.

This course studies the emergence and evolution of the Realist novel in late-nineteenth-century Spain as an aesthetic response to the vast social, political and cultural changes wrought by the uneven processes of modernity. Special attention is given to how Spanish writers debated, embraced, and rejected the techniques of Realism and Naturalism cultivated elsewhere in Europe, and also how they sought to revive the Spanish Realist tradition by looking to works by Cervantes, Velázquez, and Goya. Readings include novels and essays by authors such as Emilia Pardo Bazán, Juan Valera, Vicente Blasco Ibáñez, Benito Pérez Galdós, and Caterina Albert, which are engaged in light of issues such as gender, class, nationalism, and religion. Recommended background: SPAN 231. Prerequisite(s): one 200-level Spanish course above SPAN 211. Only open to juniors and seniors. Enrollment limited to 15. D. George.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

INDC 390. Afro-Latinoamérica.

The 500-year presence of Africans and their descendants in the Spanish-speaking world has produced a significant body of literature by Blacks and about Blacks. Spanish America was the main destination of the African diaspora. Writers of African descent attest to the struggle for freedom and the abolition of slavery as well as anti-colonialism. Their literature shows how the participation of Blacks in the wars of Latin American independence was a struggle for their emancipation. Afro-Hispanic writers in Spain, the Americas, and Africa use their art and ideas to address the postnational migrations of the twenty-first century, a diaspora that has not ceased. Cross-listed in Africana, Latin American studies, and Spanish. Recommended background: AFR 100. Only open to juniors and seniors. Not open to students who have received credit for INDS 290. Enrollment limited to 15. (Africana: Diaspora.) (Africana: Historical Perspective.) B. Fra-Molinero.
ConcentrationsInterdisciplinary Programs

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

This course counts toward the following Interdisciplinary Program(s)

SPAN 457. Senior Thesis.

A capstone project, which may take the form of a written research paper, literary or cultural analysis, translation project, creative project, or digital portfolio, designed in consultation with the faculty advisor. Students register for SPAN 457 in the fall semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both SPAN 457 and 458. A detailed outline and bibliography must be approved by the department. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

SPAN 458. Senior Thesis.

A continuation of SPAN 457. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both SPAN 457 and 458. [W3] Normally offered every year. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations

Short Term Courses

SPAN s50. Independent Study.

Students, in consultation with a faculty advisor, individually design and plan a course of study or research not offered in the curriculum. Course work includes a background research reflective component, evaluation, and completion of an agreed-upon product. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the department, a course prospectus, and permission of the chair are required. Students may register for no more than one independent study during a Short Term. Staff.
Concentrations

This course is referenced by the following General Education Concentrations