Primary Sources

(All primary sources accessed at Edmund S. Muskie Archives and Special Collections Library, Bates College, Lewiston, Maine, unless otherwise noted)

Archival Sources

  • Bates Reminiscences
  • Miscellaneous Charles Sumner Materials
  • Miscellaneous Manuscripts
  • Papers of Thomas Angell
  • Papers of George C. Chase
  • Papers of Oren B. Cheney


  • Bates Student
  • Bowdoin Orient (Bowdoin College Special Collections)
  • Lewiston Evening Journal
  • Morning Star
  • New York Times
  • Seminary Advocate

Other Sources

  • Bulletin of Bates College. Lewiston, ME: Bates College, 1904-1919.
  • Catalogue of officers and students of the Bates College. Lewiston, ME: Maine State Seminary, 1863-1883.
  • Catalogue of officers and students of the Maine State Seminary. Lewiston, ME: Maine State Seminary, 1857-1869.
  • Cheney, Emeline Burlingame. The Story of the Life and Work of Oren B. Cheney. Boston: Morning Star Publishing, 1907.
  • “Compendium of the Tenth Census.” Tenth Census of the United States, 1880. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1884.
  • Melcher, Holman. With a flash of his sword: the writings of Major Holman S. Melcher 20th Maine Infantry. Kearny, NJ: Belle Grove Publishing, 1994.
  • Moulton, A.K. A peep at the “peculiar institution.” Dover, NH: William Burr, 1848.
  • Report of the President. Lewiston, ME: Bates College, 1876-1890.
  • Tufts, Samuel. A Sermon: Slavery and the Death of John Brown. Lewiston, ME: Lewiston Journal, 1859.
  • United States Census Bureau. Eighth Census of the United States 1860. New York: Norman Ross Publishing, 1990.

Secondary Sources

  • Anthony, Alfred Williams. Bates College and Its Background. Philadelphia: Judson Press, 1936.
  • Aptheker, Herbert. Anti-Racism in U.S.History: The First Two Hundred Years. Westport, CT: Praeger: 1993.
  • Altschuler, Glenn. Race, Ethnicity and Class in American Social Thought:1864-1919. Arlington Height, IL: Harlan Davidson, 1982.
  • Bates College. “About Bates.”
  • Bates College Catalog 2004-2006. Lewiston, ME: Bates College, 2004.
  • Barnard, John. From Evangelicalism to Progressivism at Oberlin College, 1866- 1917. Colombus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 1969.
  • Bertram, Peggy Brooks. “Research Query: John William Dungy.”
  • Afrolumens Project.
  • Bertram, Peggy Brooks. “Druscilla Dunjee Houston.” University of Buffalo.
  • Burgess, G.A. and J.T. Ward. Free Baptist Cyclopedia. Chicago: Free Baptist Cylcopedia Co., 1889.
  • Calhoun, Charles. A SmallCollegein Maine. Brunswick, ME: Bowdoin College, 1993.
  • Chase, George. George C. Chase: A Biography. Boston: Houghton Milton, 1924.
  • Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. “Dungee.” 1880 US Census.
  • Dublin, Thomas. Lowell: The Story of an IndustrialCity. Washington DC: National Park Service, 1992.
  • Eaton, Mabel. General Catalogue of Bates College and Cobb Divinity School: 1864-1930. Lewiston, ME: Bates College, 1931.
  • Filler, Louis. Wendell Phillips on Civil Rights and Freedom. New York: Hill and Wang, 1965.
  • Guelzo, Allen. Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004.
  • Hamm, Thomas. “Hicksite Quakers and Antebellum Non-resistance Movement.” Church History 4 (1994): 557-569.
  • Hansen, Susan. “The Racial History of the U.S. Military Academies.”Journal of Blacks in Higher Education Winter (1999): 111-116.
  • Herbst, Jergen. History of Universities Volume VII. Oxford: Oxford Press, 1988.
  • Krug, Mark. “The Republican Party and the Emancipation Proclamation.” The Journal of Negro History 4 (1963): 98.
  • McKivigan, John and Snay, Mitchell. Religion and the Antebellum Debate over Slavery. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1998.
  • McPherson, James. The Abolitionist Legacy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1975.
  • Newman, Louise Michele. White Women’s Rights: The Racial Origins of Feminism in the United States. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
  • Riley, Glenda. Inventing the American Woman: A Perspective on Women’s History 1607-1877. Arlington Heights, IL: Harland Davidson, 1986.
  • Scott, Anne Firor. American Woman. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1971.
  • Simmons, William. Men of Mark: Emminent Progressive and Rising. Cleveland, OH: Geo. M. Rewell & Co., 1887.
  • Taylor, Clare. Women of the Anti-Slavery Movement. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1995.
  • The American Heritage College Dictionary. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1997.
  • The Underground Railroad in New England. Washington DC: American Revolution Bicentennial Administration, 1976.
  • Thelin, John. A History of American Higher Education. Baltimore: John Hopkins Press, 2004.
  • Trefousse, Hans. The Radical Republicans: Lincoln’s Vanguard for Racial Justice. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1969.
  • United States Census Bureau. “Hispanic.” United States Census Bureau,
  • University of Virginia. “The University in the 1960s.” University of Virginia,
  • Willey, Bell. “Southern Reaction to Federal Invasion.” The Journal of Southern History 4 (1950): 491-510.
  • Williams, Jonathan. “Looking Back at Brown v. Board.” Daily Princetonian. February 24, 2004.
  • Woloch, Nancy. Women and the American Experience. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994.